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ADVICES,. &c. 



First published by Dr. Birch, in one Volume Octavo, in 1763. 

THE dedication to Mr. Yorke, Page v 

The Preface, xi 

To Mr. Robert Cecil, 1 

To the earl of Essex, 1 

To Sir John Puckering, lord keeper, ibid. 

To alderman John Spencer, 3 

To Mr, Bacon from the earl of Essex, 4 

To Mr. Bacon from lord treasurer Burghley, 5 

To Mr. Bacon from Sir Robert Cecil, ibid. 

To the Queen, 6 

To Robert Kemp, of Gray's- Inn, esq. 7 

To the earl of Essex, 8 

To Mr. Bacon from the earl of Essex, 9 

To Mr. Bacon from the earl of Essex, 10 

To the earl of Essex, 1 1 

To Sir Robert Cecil, 12 

Sir Robert CeciVs answer, 13 

Earl of Essex to Mr. Bacon, ibid. 

The same to the same, 14 

vol. vi. a 


Foulke Grevill, esq. to Mr. Bacon, 15 

To the Queen, l6 

To Mr. Bacons brother Antony, 1 7 

Earl of Essex to Mr. Bacon, ibid. 

To Mr. Bacons brother Antony, 18 

To Sir Robert Cecil, sent with the preceding to Mr. An- 
tony Bacon, 20 
The speeches drawn up by Mr. Bacon for the earl of 
Essex in a device exhibited by his lordship before queen 
Elizabeth, on the anniversary of her accession to the 
throne, November 17, 1595, 22 
The squire's speech, ibid. 
The hermit's speech in the presence, 23 
The soldiers speech, 25 
The statesman's speech, iQ 
The reply of the squire, 2p 
To Sir Thomas Egerton, lord keeper of the great seal, 

To the earl of Essex, on his lordship's going on the expe- 
dition against Cadiz, 38 
The earl of Essex to Mr, Bacon, 39 
To Mr, Bacons brother Antony, 40 
To Sir Thomas Egerton, lord keeper of the great seal, 

To Sir Robert Cecil, secretary of state, 43 

The substance of a letter Mr Bacon wished the earl of 
Essex should write to her majesty, ibid. 

To Mr. Secretary Cecil, 46 

A true remembrance of the abuse Mr. Bacon received of 
Mr Attorney General publicly in the exchequer the 
first day of term, ibid. 

To Robert, lord Cecil, 47 

To the same, 49 

To Sir John Davis, his majesty s attorney general in Ire- 
land, 50 
To Isaac Casaubon, 51 
The beginning of a letter immediately after my lord trea- 
surer s decease, 52 
To the King, immediately after the lord treasurer's 
death, ibid. 
To the King, 54 


To the King, 55 

To the King, 56 

In Henricum principem Wallice. elogium Franc isci Ba- 
coni, 58 

A translation of the eulogy on Henry prince of Wales, 

To the King, 63 

The charge against Mr. IVhitelocke, 65 

Robert earl of Somerset to Sir Thomas Overbury, 6q 
To the King, 70 

Reasons why it should be exceeding much for his majesty's 
service to remove the lord Coke from being attorney 
general to be chief justice of England, 7 1 

To the King, 73 

To John Murray of the bed-chamber to the king, 76 

To Mr. Murray, 77 

To Mr. Murray, ibid. 

To the King, 78 

Supplement of two passages in Mr, Bacons speech in the 
king's bench against Owen, 80 

To Mr Murray, 81 

To lord Norris, 82 

To the King, 83 

To Sir George Villiers, 88 

To Sir George Villiers about the examination of Sir 
Robert Cotton, 89 

Mr Tobie Matthew to Sir Francis Bacon, Qi 

To the judges, 04 

Questions legal for the judges, in the case of the earl and 
countess of Somerset, ibid. 

Questions of convenience, whereupon his majesty may con- 
fer with his council, 05 
A particular remembrance for his majesty, q6 
The heads of the charge against Robert earl of Somer- 
set, 97 
To Sir George Villiers, 101 
The charge of the attorney general, Sir Francis Bacon, 
against Frances, countess of Somerset, intended to have 
been spoken at her arraignment, on May 24, l6l6, in 
case she had pleaded not guilty, 104 


To the King, 1 1 1 
Mr, Tobie Mattheiv to Sir Francis Bacon, 112 
Mr. Tobie Matthew to Sir Francis Bacon, 1 15 
Mr. Tobie Matthew to Sir Francis Bacon, 117 
To the King, 119 
Richard Martin to Sir Francis Bacon, 1 20 
To the King, 121 
The lord viscount Filliers to Sir Francis Bacon, IIS 
To the King, 124 
Remembrances of his majesty s declaration, touching the 
lord Coke, 127 
To Sir Francis Bacon, from lord viscount Villiers, 129 
Sir Edmund Bacon to Sir Francis Bacon, 1 30 
To the King, 131 
To the King, 132 
Remembrances for the King before his going into Scot- 
land, 134 
Sir Edward Coke to the' King, 136 
To the King, 137 
Additional instructions to Sir John Digby, 138 
Account of council business, 139 
To the lord keeper, 142 
To the reverend University of Oxford, ibid. 
To the lord keeper, 143 
To the lord keeper, 144 
To the lord keeper, 145 
Lord keeper Bacon to Mr. Maxey, fellow of Trinity- 
College, Cambridge, 146 
The lord keeper to his niece, about her marriage, 147 
To the lord keeper, J 48 
To the lord keeper, ibid. 
To the earl of Buckingham, 149 
To the lord keeper, 150 
To the lord viscount Fenton, 151 
To the lord keeper, written from Scotland, l6l8, ibid. 
To the earl of Buckingham, 155 
To the lord keeper, 1 56 
To the King, \57 
The King to the lord keeper, in answer to his lordship's 
letter from Gorhambury, 1617 l6l 



To the lord keeper Bacon, 


To the lord keeper, 

Sir Henry Yelverton, attorney 

To the lord keeper, 



to the lord 



jidvice to the King, for reviving the commission of 



The earl of Buckingham to 
Francis Bacon, 

the lord 

keeper, Sir 

To the earl of Buckingham, 
To the earl of Buckingham, 


To the lord keeper, 
To the lord keeper, 


Sir Francis Englefyld to the lord keeper, 
To the lord keeper, 
To the lord keeper, 
To the lord keeper, 





To the lord keeper, 
To the lord keeper, 



To the earl of Buckingham, 
To the lord keeper, 


To the lord keeper, 

To the earl of Buckingham, 

To the lord keeper, 

To the lord keeper, 





To the earl of Buckingham, 
To the earl of Buckingham, 


To Sir James Fullerton, 


To the lord chancellor, 


To the lord chancellor, 


To the lord chancellor, 


To Sir Henry Yelverton, attorney 



To the marquis of Buckingham, 
To the lord chancellor, 


To the lord chancellor, 


To the lord chancellor, 


To the lord chancellor, 
To the lord chancellor, 


To the marquis of Buckingham, 
To the lord chancellor, 


To the lord chancellor, 


To the lord chancellor, 



To the lord chancellor of Ireland, 1 96 
To the lord chief justice of Ireland, ib : d. 
To the lord chancellor. 197 
To the lord chancellor, 1 9^ 
To the lord chancellor, ibid. 
To the lord chancellor. 199 
To the lord chancellor, 200 
To the lord chancellor. ibid. 
To the lord chancellor. 201 
To Mr. Isaac Wake, his majesty's agent at the court 
of Savoy. 203 
To the lord chancellor. ibid. 
To the lord chancellor. 204 
To the King, concerning the form and manner of pro- 
ceeding against Sir Walter Ralegh, ibid. 
To the lord chancellor. 206 
To the marquis bf Buckingham, 207 
To the lord chancellor. 208 
To the lord chancellor, ibid. 
To the lord chancellor, 20g 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 210 
To the lord chancellor, 211 
To the lord chancellor, ibid. 
To the marquis of Buckingham. Ill 
To the lord chancellor ; 2 1 3 
To the marquis of Buckingham, ibid. 
To the lord chancellor y 214 
To the lady Clifford, 21 6 
To the lord chancellor. ibid. 
To the lord chancellor, 217 
To the lord chancellor, ibid. 
To the lord chancellor. 218 
To the lord chancellor, and Sir Lionel Tanfield, lord 
chief baron of the exchequer, 2 1 9 
To the marquis of Buckingham, ibid. 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 220 
Minute of a letter to the count Palatine of the Rhine, 


To the lord chancellor, 111 

To the marquis of Buckingham, ibid. 

To the marquis of Buckingham, 223 

To the marquis of Buckingham, 224 


To the lord chancellor, lib 
To the lord chancellor, ibid. 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 1l6 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 117 
To the marquis of Buckingham, ibid. 
To the lord chancellor, 228 
To- the lord chancellor, 11Q 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 230 
To the marquis of Buckingham, ibid. 
To the lord chancellor, 23 1 
To the lord chancellor, 232 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 233 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 134 
To the lord chancellor, 235 
To the lord chancellor, 236 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 237 
To the lord chancellor, 238 
To Mr. Secretary Calvert, 239 
To the King, 240 
To the lord chancellor, 241 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 244 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 245 
To the lord chancellor, 246 
To the lord chancellor, ibid. 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 247 
To the lord chancellor, 248 
To the lord chancellor, ibid. 
To the King, 14Q 
To the lord chancellor, 15 1 
To the King, 252 
To the lord chancellor, 154 
To the lord chancellor, ibid. 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 255 
To the King, thanking his majesty for his gracious 
acceptance of his book, 256 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 257 
Notes of a speech of the lord chancellor, in the star- 
chamber, in the cause of Sir Henry Yelverton, at- 
torney general, 258 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 15Q 
Lord chancellor Bacon to the marquis of Buckingham, 



To the King, 2<5o 

To the lord chancellor, 26 1 

To the marquis of Buckingham, lQ"l 

To the King, 1§± 

The lord chancellor and two chief justices to the mar- 
quis of Buckingham; 265 
To the lord chancellor, and the lord Mandeville, lord 
treasurer of England, 268 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 269 
To the lord chancellor, 270 
To the lord chancellor, ibid. 
To the lord chancellor, 27 1 
To the King ibid. 
To the lord chancellor, 1J3 
Speech of the lord viscount St. Alban, lord chancellor, 
to the parliament, 1620, ibid. 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 275 
To the King, 276 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 277 
To the chancellor of the duchy, Sir Humphrey May, 


Memoranda of what the lord chancellor intended to 

deliver to the King, 1 62 1 , upon his first access to 

his majesty after his troubles, 280 

Draught of another paper to the same purpose, 282 

Notes upon Michael de la Pole's case, 284 

Notes upon Thorpe's case, ibid. 

Notes upon Sir John Lee's case, 285 

Notes upon lord Latimer's case, 286 

John lord Neville's case, ibid. 

To the count Gondomar, ambassador from the court 

of Spain, 287 

To count Gondomar, ibid. 

To the marquis of Buckingham, 288 

To the marquis of Buckingham, 28Q 

To the prince, ibid. 

To the King, 200 

To the King, 29 1 

Grant of pardon to the viscount St. Alban under the 

privy seal, 2Q2 

Dr. Williams, bishop of London elect, and lord keeper 

of the great seal, to the viscount St. Alban, 2Q3 


To the lord keeper, 294 

Petition of the lord viscount St. Allan, intended for the 
house of lords, ibid. 

To John lord Digly, 296 

To the lord viscount St. Allan, ibid. 

To the marquis of Buckingham, 2Q7 

A memorial of conference when the lord viscount St. Allan 
expected the marquis of Buckingham, 298 

Thomas Meautys, esq. to the lord viscount St. Allan, 

To the lord viscount St. Allan, 302 

To the lord viscount St. Allan, 304 

Lodowic Stewart, duke of Lenox, to the lord viscount St. 
Allan, 305 

Answer of the lord viscount St. Allan, 306 

To the marquis of Buckingham, ibid. 

To the marquis of Buckingham, 307 

John Selden, esq. to lord viscount St. Allan, 308 

To Mr. Tolie Matthew, 314 

To the marquis of Buckingham, 3 1 2 

Fragments of several kinds, 313 

To the lord viscount St. Allan, 3 14 

To the lord viscount St. Allan, 315 

To Henry Carey, lord viscount Falkland, 3 1 6 

To the lord treasurer, 317 

To the lord treasurer, 318 

Thomas Meautys, esq. to the lord viscount St. Allan, 

To Thomas Meautys, esq. 320 

To Mr Tolie Matthew, 321 

To the queen of Bohemia, 322 

Sir Edward Sackville to the lord viscount St. Allan, 

To the lord keeper, Dr. Williams, lishop of Lincoln, 

To the marquis of Buckingham, 326 

To the lord viscount St. Allan, 327 

To the countess of Buckingham, mother to the marquis 
of Buckingham, 328 

To the marquis of Buckingham, 329 

Memorial of access, ibid. 

To the lord viscount St. Allan, 333 


To the marquis of Buckingham, 334 

Remembrances of the lord viscount St. Alban, upon his 
going to the lord treasurer, 335 

Lady Buckingham, mother of the duke, 336 

To the marquis of Buckingham, 337 

To the lord viscount St. Alban, ibid. 

To the marquis of Buckingham, 338 

To the marquis of Buckingham, ibid. 

To Sir Francis Cottington, secretary to the prince, 

To the King 340 

To Mr Secretary Conway, 341 

Secretary Conway to the lord viscount St. Alban, 342 
To count Gondomar, then in Spain, 343 

To the marquis of Buckingham, in Spain, 344 

To Mr Secretary Conway, 345 

To count Gondomar, 347 

To the earl of Bristol, ambassador in Spain, 348 

To Sir Francis Cottington, secretary to the prince, 

To Mr. Tobie Matthew, ibid. 

To the duke of Buckingham, 34Q 

Duke of Buckingham to the lord viscount St. Alban, 

To the duke of Buckingham, in Spain, ibid. 

To Mr. Tobie Matthew, 352 

To Mr. Tobie Matthew, ibid. 

To Mr. Tobie Matthew, 354 

To the duke of Buckingham, ibid. 

To the duke of Buckingham, 355 

To Mr. Tobie Matthew, ibid. 

Minutes of a letter to the duke of Buckingham, 356 

To the King 357 

To theprince, ibid. 

Conference with Buckingham, 358 

Conference with Buckingham, December 17, 1623, 

Conference with Buckingham, January 2, l623, 360 
Conference with Buckingham, at the same time, 361 

To the duke of Buckingham, 364 

To the duke of Buckingham, 368 

To the earl of Oxford, ibid. 


To Sir Francis Barn ham, 36g 

To the duke of Buckingham, 370 

To the duke of Buckingham, 371 

To Sir Richard Weston, chancellor of the exchequer, 

To the duke of Buckingham, ibid. 

To the duke of Buckingham, 373 

To the chancellor of the duchy, Sir Humphrey May, 

Consultations in parliament, in 1625, 375 

To Sir Robert Pye, 37 Q 

To the earl of Dorset, 380 

Sir Thomas Coventry, attorney general, to the lord vis- 
count St. Alban, 381 
To Mr. Roger Palmer, 382 
To the duke of Buckingham, ibid. 
To Sir Humphrey May, chancellor of the duchy of Lan- 
caster, 383 
To the marquis d'Effiat, the French ambassador, 3 84 
To the lord treasurer, 385 
To Sir Francis Vere, ibid. 
To Mr. Cawfeilde, 380 
To lord Montjoye, 387 
To King James I. ibid. 
To the King, 388 
To the King, the humble petition of the lord Verulam, 
viscount St. Alban, 389 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 39 1 
To the marquis of Buckingham, ibid. 
Draught of a letter to the marquis of Buckingham., not 
sent, 392 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 3Q3 
To the marquis of Buckingham, 3Q4 
To Mr, Tobie Matthew, ibid. 
To Mr. Tobie Matthew, 3g5 
To the lord viscount St. Alban, ibid. 
To the lord archbishop of York, ^ 396 
Papers, containing lord chancellor Ellesmere's exceptions 
to Sir Edward Coke's reports, and Sir Edward's an- 
swers, 397 
Questions demanded of the chief justice of the kings bench 
by his majesty's commandment, 3Qg 


The answer to the questions about the isle of Ely, 400 
The answer to the questions upon DArcys case 402 
The answer to the question upon Godfrey's case, 404 
The answer to the question upon Dr. Bonharns case, 405 
The answer to the question upon Bagg's case, 407 

A letter from Sir Edward Coke to the duke of Buck- 
ingham, 409 
The letter to the judges, ibid. 
The last will of Sir Francis Bacon, viscount St. Allan, 















The gratitude, which I owe you for the honour 
and other important advantages of your friend- 
ship, hath often made me wish for an oppor- 
tunity of making you some return equal, in 
any degree, to your merit, and my own obliga- 
tions. It was, therefore, a very agreeable in- 
cident to me, when, by means of your noble 
brother, the Lord Viscount Royston, always 
attentive to enlarge the fund of history, as well 
as to encourage and reward every attempt in fa- 
vour of literature in general, there was put into 
my hands a volume of original papers of the 

b 2 


great Lord Bacon. This volume was, at his 
lordship's request, readily intrusted with me 
by his grace the Lord Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, whose zeal for the advancement of useful 
learning of all kinds, bears a just proportion to 
that which he has shewn in every station of the 
Church filled by him, for the support of religion, 
and for what is the most perfect system of its 
principles, laws, and sanctions — Christianity. 

From the long acquaintance with which I 
have been favoured by you, and the frequent 
conversations which we have had upon sub- 
jects foreign to the profession which you so 
much adorn, I well knew vour high venera- 
tion for the writings of Bacon, and your tho- 
rough knowledge of the most abstruse of them. 
Having, therefore, with an application little 
less than that of deciphering, transcribed from 
the first draughts, and digested into order a 
collection of his letters, little inferior in num- 
ber, and much superior in contents, to what 
the world hath hitherto seen, intermixed with 
other papers of his of an important nature, I 
could not doubt, but that the publishing of them 


would be no less acceptable to you, than, I per- 
suade myself, they will be to the public. For it 
is scarce to be imagined, but that the bringing to 
light, from obscurity and oblivion, the remains 
of so eminent a person, will be thought an ac- 
quisition not inferior to the discovery (if the 
ruins of Herculaneum should afford such a trea- 
sure) of a new set of the Epistles of Cicero, 
whom our immortal countryman most remark- 
ably resembled as an orator, a philosopher, a 
writer, a lawyer, and a statesman. The com- 
munication of them to the public appearing to 
me a duty to it and the memory of the author, 
to whom could I, separately from the conside- 
ration of all personal connexions and induce- 
ments, so justly present them, as to him, whom 
every circumstance of propriety, and confor- 
mity of character, in the most valuable part of 
it, pointed out to me for that purpose? Simi- 
larity of genius ; the same extent of knowledge 
in the laws of our own and other countries, en- 
riched and adorned with all the stores of an- 
cient and modern learning; the same eloquence 
at the bar and in the senate ; an equal force of 
writing, shewn in a single work indeed, and 


composed at a very early age, but decisive of 
a grand question of law and sanction of govern- 
ment, the grounds of which had never before 
been stated with due precision ; and the most 
successful discharge of the same offices of 
King's Council and Solicitor and Attorney-Ge- 

These reasons, Sir, give your name an un- 
questionable right to be prefixed to these post- 
humous pieces. And I hope, while I am 
performing this act of justice, I may be ex- 
cused the ambition of preserving my own 
name, by uniting it with those of Bacon and 

Your delicacy here restrains me from in- 
dulging myself farther in the language which 
truth and esteem would dictate. But I must 
be allowed to add a wish, in which every good 
man and lover of his country will join with 
me, that as there now remains but one step for 
you to complete that course of public service 
and glory, in which you have so closely fol- 
lowed your illustrious father, he, happy in the 


most important circumstances of human life, 
the characters and fortunes of his children, 

longo ordine Nati, 

Clari omnes patria Virtute suaque, 

may live to see you possessed of that high sta- 
tion, which himself filled for almost twenty 
years, with a reputation superior to all the ef- 
forts of envy or party. Nor is it less to his 
honour (and may be it yours at a very distant 
period), that, though he thought proper to re- 
tire from that station in the full vigour of his 
abilities, he still continues to exert them in a 
more private situation, for the general benefit 
of his country ; enjoying in it the noblest re- 
ward of his services, an unequalled authority, 
founded on the acknowledged concurrence of 
the greatest capacity, experience, and inte- 

I am, Sir, 
Your most obliged and 

most devoted humble servant, 


London, June 1, 1762. 


As the reader will undoubtedly have some curiosity 
about the history of the transmission of these pa- 
pers, now presented to him at the distance of a 
hundred and forty years from the date of most of 
them, though the hand of the incomparable writer 
is too conspicuous in them to admit of any suspicion 
of their genuineness ; it will be proper here to give 
him some information upon that subject. Dr. Tho- 
mas Tenison is known to have been the editor of the 
Baconiana, published at London, 1679, though he 
added only the initial letters of his name to the account 
of all the Lord Bacon's works, (a ) subjoined to that col- 
lection. He had been an intimate friend of, and fel- 
low of the same college (b) with Mr. William Rawley, 
only son of Dr. William Rawley, chaplain to the Lord 
Chancellor Bacon, and employed by his lordship, as 
publisher of most of his works. Dr. Rawley dying in 
the 79th year of his age, June the 18th, 1667, near a 
year after his son, (c) his executor, Mr. John Raw- 
ley, put into the hands of his friend Dr. Tenison these 
papers of Lord Bacon, which composed the Baconi- 
ana; and probably, at the same time, presented to 
him all the rest of his lordship's manuscripts, which 
Dr. Rawley had been possessed of, but did not think 

(a) This account \s dated Nov. the 30th, 1678. 

(b) Benet, in the university of Cambridge. 

(c) Who was buried the 3rd of Jul}', 1666. 


proper to make public. The reasons of his reserve 

appear, from Dr. Tenison's account (d) cited above, to 

have been, " that he judged some papers touching 

" matters of state to tread too. near to the heels of 

" truth, and to the times of the persons concerned : 

" and that he thought his lordship's letters concerning 

" his fall might be injurious to his honour, and cause 

" the old wounds of it to bleed anew " But this is a 

delicacy, which, though suitable to the age in which 

Dr. Rawley lived, and to the relation under which 

he had stood to his noble patron, ought to have no 

force in other times and circumstances, nor ever to 

be too much indulged to the prejudice of the rights 

of historical truth. 

Dr. Tenison being, soon after the publication of 
the Baconiana, removed from the more private station 
of a country living to the vicarage of St. Martin's in 
the Fields, Westminster, and, after the revolution, ad- 
vanced to the bishopric of Lincoln, and at last to the 
archbishopric of Canterbury, had scarce leisure, if he 
had been inclined, to select more of the papers of his 
admired Bacon. These, therefore, with the rest of his 
manuscripts, not already deposited in the library at 
Lambeth, were left by him in his last will, dated the 
11th of April, 1715, to his chaplain, Dr. Edmund Gib- 
son, then rector of Lambeth, and afterward succes- 
sively bishop of Lincoln and London, and to Mr. (af- 
terward Dr.) Benjamin Ibbot, who had succeeded 
Dr. Gibson as library-keeper to his grace. Dr. Ibbot 
dying (e) many years before Bishop Gibson, the whole 

(«0 Page 81. (e) The 11th of April, 1725. 


collection of Archbishop Tenison's papers came under 
the disposition of that bishop, who directed his two 
executors, the late Dr. Bettesworth, dean of the 
Arches, and his eldest son, George Gibson, esq. to 
deposit them, with the addition of many others of 
his own collecting, in the manuscript library at Lam- 
beth; and accordingly, after his lordship's death, 
which happened on the 6th of Sept. 1748, all these 
manuscripts were delivered by his said executors to 
Archbishop Herring, on the 21st of October of that 
year, and placed in the library on the 23rd of Febru- 
ary following. But as they lay undigested in bundles, 
and in that condition were neither convenient for use, 
nor secure from damage, his grace, the present arch- 
bishop directed them to be methodized, and bound up 
in volumes with proper indexes, which was done by 
his learned librarian, Andrew Col tee Ducarel, LL.D. 
Fellow of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies, to 
whose knowledge, industry, and love of history and 
antiquities, the valuable library of manuscripts of the 
archiepiscopal see of Canterbury is highly indebted 
for the order in which it is now arranged ; and by 
whose obliging and communicative temper, it is ren- 
dered generally useful. Bishop Gibson's collection, 
including, what is the chief part of it, that of Arch- 
bishop Tenison, fills fourteen large volumes in folio. 
The eighth of these consists merely of Lord Bacon's 

Of them principally, the work, which I now offer 
the public, is formed ; nor has any paper been admit- 
ted into it that had been published before, except two 


of Lord Bacon's letters, which having been disguised 
and mutilated in all former impressions, were thought 
proper to be reprinted here, together with two other 
letters of his lordship ; one on the remarkable case of 
Peacham, the other accompanying his present to King 
James I. of his Novum Organum. These letters I was 
unwilling to omit, because the collection in which they 
have lately appeared, intitled by the very learned and 
ingenius editor, Sir David Dalrymple, Bart. Memo- 
rials and Letters relating to the History of Britain in 
the reign of James the First, published from the Origi- 
nals, at Glasgow, 1762, in 8vo. is likely to be much 
less known in England, from the smallness of the 
number of printed copies, than it deserves. 

The general rule, which I have prescribed myself, 
of publishing only what is new, restrained me from 
adding those letters written in the earlier part of Mr. 
Francis Bacon's life, which I had before published 
from the originals, found among the papers of his 
brother Anthony, in the Memoirs of the Reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, from the year 1581 to her Death. 

The example of the greatest men, in preserving in 
their editions of the classics the smallest remains of 
their writings, will be a full justification of my indus- 
try in collecting and inserting even the fragments of 
a writer equal to the most valuable of the ancients. 
Nor will the candid and intelligent object to the least 
considerable of the Duke of Buckingham's letters, 
since they acquire an importance from the rank and 
character of the writer, as well as from their carrying 


on the series of his correspondence, acquainting us 
with new facts, or ascertaining old ones with addi- 
tional evidence and circumstances, and shewing the 
extent of that authority and influence which his situ- 
ation, as a favourite, gave him in all parts of the go- 
vernment, even as high as the seat of justice itself. 



Since the former edition, there came into my 
hands, among the collections in print and manu- 
script, relating to Lord Bacon and his works, made 
by the late John Locker, esq. two letters of Dr. 
Tenison, afterward archbishop of Canterbury, which 
will enable me to give the public full satisfaction, 
in what manner that learned divine became possessed 
of the Letters, fyc. of the noble author published by 


One of these Letters, the original, written to Mr. 
Richard Chiswell, the bookseller, for whom the Ba- 
coniana had been printed, is as follows : 

" SIR, ' Decemb. 16. 1682. 

"I have now looked over all the books and papers 
" in the box. In the books there are copies of 
" Essays, Maxims of Law, &c. all printed already : 


" but they contain some things fit to be printed ; 
" and they and the letters will make a handsome 
" folio ; which I doubt not but will turn to account. 
" For the Letters, there are divers of Sir Thomas 
" Meautys, &c. worth nothing : but there are more 
" than forty letters to the Duke of Buckingham, and 
" some of the Duke of Buckingham to him. 

" There are eight or ten to King James. There 
" are three or four to Gondomar, and Gondomar's 
" answer to one of them. 

" There are two or three letters to Bishop Wil- 
" liams, and two from him. 

" There is Lord Bacon's letter to Casaubon in 
" Latin. 

" There is one essay never printed. 
" All which will be well accepted. 

" After the holy days I will methodize all, and put 
" all letters of the same date together (for as yet 
" they are in confusion) and then we will take 
" farther resolutions about them. I will get an after- 
" noon (if God permit) to see the remaining papers 
" in Bartholomew-Close. The Greek MS. will not 
" prove much worth. The latter and greater part 
" is only a piece of Tzetzes. 

" It is necessary that you procure for me Tobie 
" Mathew's printed letters, for here are also ten 
" of his to Lord Bacon ; and I know not which they 
" are yet printed. Also I shall want a copy of the 
" Essays printed in 12mo. 1663, printed for Thomas 


" Palmer, at the Crown in Westminster- Hall, with 
" a preface by one Griffith. I have the book ; and 
" the preface is mentioned in the title page, but is 
" wanting. 

" / am your assured friend, 


" If more sheets of Dr. Spencers are done, pray 
" send them." 

For Mr. Chiswell, at the Rose and Crown, 
jn St. Paul's Church-Yard, London. 

The other letter of which I have a copy taken by 
the late Richard Rawlinson, LL.D. from Bishop 
Tanner's manuscripts, in Christ- Church, Oxford, 
Vol. XXXV p. 152. was addressed to Archbishop 
Sancroft in these terms : 

" May it "please your Grace, 

" I have received your grace's letter touching my 
" course of preaching in Lent, which I shall be 
" ready, God assisting me, to do my duty at that 
" time according to my poor talent. 

" I did forget on Tuesday to acquaint your grace, 
" that I had, by a strange providence, lately found 
" out in this town a great many original papers of 
" the Lord Bacon. When I have looked over them 
" and sorted them, I will be bold to present your 
" grace with a catalogue of them. They came to 
" me from the executor of the executor of Sir Thomas 
" Meautys, who was his lordship's executor. Amongst 
" his lordship's papers are letters from King James, 
(l the Queen of Bohemia, Count Gondomar, and 


" others. Amongst his lordship's own letters, there 
" is one in Latin to Isaac Casaubon. 

Fi"h ne elri <f ^ ne J ust now come ^ rom m y l° r( * Chancellor's,* 
of Notting- « assure( j me he was not indeed dead, but iust 

nam, who J 

died on the « dying. 

day of the J ° 

date of this " I am your Grace's most obliged servant, 

letter, aged ° 

61 years. Decemb. 18, 1682. " T TENISON." 

The reason of the rule which I prescribed to my- 
self in the former edition, of publishing only what 
was new, not subsisting in the present, which forms 
a part of a complete collection of the author's writ- 
ings, I have inserted in it such letters from and to 
him, as I had published in 1754, in the Memoirs of 
the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

London, January 1, 1765. 




draught in 
SIR, the library 

of Queen's 

I am very glad, that the good affection and friendship, College, 
which conversation and familiarity did knit between Arch.D.z. 
us, is not by absence and intermission of society This letter 

l ■ • i seems to 

discontinued; which assureth me, it had a farther be of a very 
root than ordinary acquaintance. The signification ^ y to d ^ T ' e 
whereof, as it is very welcome to me, so it maketh been writ- 
me wish, that, if you have accomplished yourself, ^"J ^, 
as well in the points of virtue and experience, while he 
which you sought by your travel, as you have won ^tra veu. 
the perfection of the Italian tongue, I might have 
the contentment to see you again in England, that 
we may renew the fruit of our mutual good will ; 
which, I may truly affirm, is, on my part, much in- 
creased towards you, both by your own demonstra- 
tion of kind remembrance, and because I discern 
the like affection in your honourable and nearest 

Our news are all but in seed ; for our navy is set 
forth with happy winds, in token of happy adven- 
tures, so as we do but expect and pray, as the hus 
bandman when his corn is in the ground. 

Thus commending me to your love, I commend 
you to God's preservation. 

vol. vi. a 

Letters, §c. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


the papers 
of Antony 

Bacon, Esq. My Lord, I did almost conjecture by your silence and coun- 
b h e e th L H m " tenance a distaste in the course I imparted to your 
brai> lordship touching mine own fortune; the care whereof 
in your lordship as it is no news to me, so neverthe- 
less the main effects and demonstrations past are so 
far from dulling in me the sense of any new, as con- 
trariwise every new refresheth the memory of many 
past. And for the free and loving advice your lord- 
ship hath given me, I cannot correspond to the same 
with greater duty, than by assuring your lordship, 
that I will not dispose of myself without your allow- 
ance, not only because it is the best wisdom in any 
man in his own matters, to rest in the wisdom of 
a friend (for who can by often looking in the glass 
discern and judge so well of his own favour, as 
another with whom he, converseth ?) but also be- 
cause my affection to your lordship hath made mine 
own contentment inseparable from your satisfaction. 
But, notwithstanding, I know it will be pleasing to 
your good lordship, that I use my liberty of replying; 
and I do almost assure myself, that your lordship 
will rest persuaded by the answer of those reasons, 
which your lordship vouchsafed to open. They were 
two, the one, that I should include* * * 
1593, April. 

The rest of the letter is wanting. 


My Lord, 

It is a great grief unto me, joined with marvel, 
that her majesty should retain an hard conceit of my 

{a) Harl.MSS. Vol. 286. No. 129. fol. 232. 

Letter's, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 3 

speeches in parliament.(a) It might please her 
sacred majesty to think what my end should be in 
those speeches, if it were not duty, and duty alone. 
I am not so simple, but I know the common beaten 
way to please. And whereas popularity hath been 
objected, I muse what care I should take to please 
many, that take a course of life to deal with few. 
On the other side, her majesty's grace and particular 
favour towards me hath been such, as I esteem no 
worldly thing above the comfort to enjoy it, except 
it be the conscience to deserve it. But. if the not 
seconding of some particular person's opinion shall 
be presumption, and to differ upon the manner shall 
be to impeach the end ; it shall teach my devotion 
not to exceed wishes, and those in silence. Yet, not- 
withstanding, to speak vainly as in grief, it may be 
her majesty hath discouraged as good a heart, as ever 
looked toward her service, and as void of self-love. 
And so in more grief than I can well express, and 
much more than 1 can well dissemble, I leave your 
lordship, being as ever, 

Your Lordship's intirely devoted, 8$c. 


SPENCER.* «Among 

the papers 
■n/r a 7 ? * ci /i\ °f Antony 

Mr. Alderman spencer, (b) Bacon, Esq. 

Though I be ready to yield to any thing for my foi.'i86,in 
brother's sake, so yet he will not, I know, expect, no, *® h L , a ™* 
nor permit me, that I should do myself wrong. For brary. 

(a) On Wednesday the 7th of March, 1 59, upon the three sub- 
sidies demanded of the house of commons ; to which he assented, but 
not to the payment of them under six years, urging the necessities 
of the people, the danger of raising public discontentment, and the 
setting of an evil precedent against themselves and their posterity. 
SeeSirSimonds D'Ewes's Journals, p. 493. He satin that parlia- 
ment, which met November 19, 1592, and was dissolved 10 April, 
1593, as one of the knights of the shire for Middlesex. 

(b) Sir John Spencer, lord mayor of London in 1594. His vast 
fortune came to his only daughter, Elizabeth, married to William, 
lord Compton, created earl of Northampton, in August, 1618. 

B 2 

4 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

me, that touch no money, to have a statute hurrying 
upon my estate of that greatness, were a thing utterly 
unreasonable, and not to be moved, specially since 
your assurance is as good without. There is much 
land bought and sold in England, and more intailed 
than fee-simple. But for a remainder man to join 
in seal, I think was never put in practice. For a 
time, till your assurance pass, so it pass with con- 
venient speed, because of the uncertainty of life, I 
am content to enter into one ; looking, nevertheless, 
for some present of gratification for my very joining 
in conveyance, and much more having yielded to 
this. For any warranty or charter, I had had neither 
law nor wit, if I should have meant it ; and the re- 
forming of the covenant, and the deed of feoffment, 
doth sufficiently witness my intention. Thus bid I 
heartily farewell. 

Your very loving friend, 

Twickenham Park, 
this 26th of August, 1593. FR. BACON. 


* Among 

ofAmon" Mr. Bacon, 

foi?iii Esq " Your letter met me here yesterday . When I came, 
the lT' '" * f° un d the queen so wayward, as I thought it no fit 
beth ii- time to deal with her in any sort, especially since her 
brary. choler grew towards myself, which I have well satis- 
fied this day, and will take the first opportunity I 
can to move your suit. And if you come hither, 
I pray you let me know still where you are. And so 
being full of business, I must end, wishing you what 
you wish to yourself. 

Your assured friend, 


Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 5 


BACON* «Among 

the papers 
NepheW, of Antony 

Bacon, Esq. 

I have no leisure to write much; but for answer I ^'"^ in 
have attempted to place you : but her majesty hath the" Lam'- 1 " 
required the lord keeperf to give to her the names £ ethli - 
of divers lawyers to be preferred, wherewith he made t Pucker- 
me acquainted, and I did name you as a meet man, in s- 
whom his lordship allowed in way of friendship, for 
your father's sake : but he made scruple to equal you 
with certain, whom he named, as Brograve (a) and 
Branthwayt, whom he specially commendeth. But 
I will continue the remembrance of you to her ma- 
jesty, and implore my lord of Essex's help. 

Your loving uncle, 


27 Sept. 1593. 


the papers 

CoUSin, of Antony 

Bacon, Esq. 

Assure yourself, that the solicitor's § coming gave vol. in. 
no cause of speech ; for it was concerning a book to verso, in the 
be drawn concerning the bargain of wines. If there ^ r beth 
had been, you should have known, or when there § Mr?Ed- 
shall. To satisfy your request of making my lord ward Coke - 
know, how recommended your desires are to me, I 
have spoken with his lordship, who answereth, he 
hath done and will do his best. I think your absence 
longer than for my good aunt's comfort will do you 
no good : for, as I ever told you, it is not likely to find 
the queen apt to give an office, when the scruple is 

(a) John Brograve, attorney of the duchy of Lancaster, and af- 
terwards knighted. He is mentioned by Mr. Francis Bacon, in his 
letter to the lord treasurer, of 7th June, 1595, from Gray's-Inn, as 
having discharged his post of attorney of the duchy with great suffi- 
ciency. There is extant of his, in print, a reading upon the statute of 
27 Henry VIII. concerning Jointures. 

6 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

not removed of her forbearance to speak with you. 
This being not yet perfected may stop good, when the 
hour comes of conclusion, though it be but a trifle, 
and questionless would be straight dispatched, if it 
were luckily handled. But herein do I, out of my 
desire to satisfy you, use this my opinion, leaving you 
to your own better knowledge what hath been done 
for you, or in what terms that matter standeth. And 
thus, desirous to be recommended to my good aunt, 
to whom my wife heartily commends her, I leave you 
to the protection of Almighty God. From the court 
at Windsor, this 27th of September, 1593. 

Your loving cousin and friend, 


I have heard in these causes, Fades hominis est tan- 
quam leonis. 


* Among 

the papers Madam, 

of Antony 

Bacon.Esq. Remembering, that your majesty had been gracious 
foi. 3i5,in to me both in countenancing me, and conferring upon 
the Lam- me the reversion of a good place, and perceiving, that 
brary! your majesty had taken some displeasure towards 
me, both these were arguments to move me to offer 
unto your majesty my service, to the end to have 
means to deserve your favour, and to repair my er- 
ror. Upon this ground, I affected myself to no great 
matter, but only a place of my profession, such as I do 
see divers younger in proceeding to myself, and men 
of no great note, do without blame aspire unto. But 
if any of my friends do press this matter, I do assure 
your majesty my spirit is not with them. 

It sufficeth me, that I have let your majesty know, 
that I am ready to do that for the service, which I 
never would do for mine own again. And if your ma- 
jesty like others better, I shall, with the Lacedemo- 
nian, be glad, that there is such choice of abler men 
than myself. Your majesty's favour, indeed, and ac- 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 7 

cess to your royal person, I did ever, encouraged by 
your own speeches, seek and desire ; and I would be 
very glad to be reintegrate in that. But I will not 
wrong mine own good mind so much, as to stand 
upon that now, when your majesty may conceive, I 
do it but to make my profit of it. But my mind 
turneth upon other wheels than those of profit. The 
conclusion shall be, that I wish your majesty served 
answerable to yourself. Principis est virtus maxima 
nosse suos. Thus I most humbly crave pardon of my 
boldness and plainness. God preserve your majesty 


GRAY'S-INN, ESQ.* 1593. 

Nov. 4. 

Good Robin, 2™H rs 

There is no news you can write to me, which I Bacon?S q 
take more pleasure to hear, than of your health, and vo1 - ni - . 
of your loving remembrance of me ; the former [he ifm-'" 
whereof, though you mention not in your letter, yet beth li_ 
I straight presumed well of it, because your mention ™ y ' 
was so fresh to make such a flourish. And it was 
afterward accordingly confirmed by your man Roger, 
who made me a particular relation of the former ne- 
gociation between your ague and you. Of the latter, 
though you profess largely, yet I make more doubt, 
because your coming is turned into a sending ; which, 
when I thought would have been repaired by some 
promise or intention of yourself, your man Roger en- 
tered into a very subtle distinction to this purpose, 
that you could not come, except you heard I was at- 
torney ; but I ascribe that to your man's invention, 
who had his reward in laughing ; for I hope you are 
not so stately, but that I shall be one to you stylo ve- 
tere or stylo novo. For my fortune (to speak court) it 
is very slow, if any thing can be slow to him that is 
secure of the event. In short, nothing is done in it ; 
but I propose to remain here at Twickenham till 
Michaelmas term, then to St. Alban's, and after the 
term to court. Advise you, whether you will play the 

8 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

honest man or no. In the mean time I think long to 
see you, and pray to be remembered to your father 

and mother. 

Your's in loving affection, 
From Twickenham-park, 
this 4th of Nov. 1593. FR - BACON 


Nov. 10. 

• Among My Lord, 

the papers . . . 

of Antony I thought it not amiss to inform your lordship of 
Srn Esq ' that, which I gather partly by conjecture, and partly 
foi.283, in by advertisement, of the late recovered man, that is 
belhn" 1 so much at your devotion, of whom I have some 
brary. cause to think that he (a) worketh for the Huddler (b) 
underhand. And though it may seem strange, con- 
sidering how much it importeth him to join straight 
with your lordship, in regard both of his enemies 
and of his ends ; yet I do the less rest secure upon 
the conceit, because he is a man likely to trust so 
much to his art and finesse (as he, that is an excel- 
lent wherryman, who, you know, looketh towards 
the bridge, when he pulleth towards Westminster), 
that he will hope to serve his turn, and yet to pre- 
serve your lordship's good opinion. This I write to 
the end, that if your lordship do see nothing to the 
contrary, you may assure him more, or trust him 
less ; and chiefly, that your lordship be pleased to 
sound again, whether they have not, amongst them, 
drawn out the nail, which your lordship had driven 
in for the negative of the Huddler; which if they have, 
it will be necessary for your lordship to iterate more 
forcibly your former reasons, whereof there is such 
copia, as I think you may use all the places of logic 
against his placing. 

Thus, with my humble thanks for your lordship's 
honourable usage of Mr. Standen, I wish you all 

Your Lordship's in most faithful duty \ 

(a) Probably Lord Keeper Puckering. (b) Mr. Edward Coke. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 9 

I pray, Sir, let not my jargon privilege my letter 
from burning : because it is not such, but the light 
sheweth through. 


the paper» 
SIR, of Antony 


I have received your letter, and, since, I have had vo1 - Iv -. 
opportunity to deal freely with the queen. I have the Lam- 
dealt confidently with her as a matter, wherein I did £ eth u - 
more labour to overcome her delays, than that I did rary " 
fear her denial. I told her how much you were 
thrown down with the correction she had already 
given you ; that she might in that point hold herself al- 
ready satisfied. And because I found, thatTanfield ( a) 
had been most propounded to her, I did most dis- 
able him. I find the queen very reserved, staying her- 
self upon giving any kind of hope, yet not passionate 
against you, till I grew passionate for you. Then she 
said, that none thought you fit for the place but my 
lord treasurer and myself. Marry, the others must 
some of them say before us for fear or for flattery I 
told her, the most and wisest of her council had de- 
livered their opinions, and preferred you before all 
men for that place. And if it would please her ma- 
jesty to think, that whatsoever they said contrary to 
their own words when they spake without witness, 
might be as factiously spoken, as the other way flat- 
teringly, she would not be deceived. Yet if they had 
been never for you, but contrarily against you, I 
thought my credit, joined with the approbation and 
mediation of her greatest counsellors, might prevail 
in a greater matter than this ; and urged her, that 
though she could not signify her mind to others, I 
might have a secret promise, wherein I should receive 
great comfort, as in the contrary great unkindness. 
She said she was neither persuaded, nor would hear 
of it till Easter, when she might advise with her 

(a) Probably Laurence Tanfield, made lord chief baron of the 
Exchequer in June, 1607 

10 Letters, etc, of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

council, who were now all absent ; and therefore in 
passion bid me go to bed, if I would talk of nothing 
else. Wherefore in passion I went away, saying, 
while I was with her I could not but solicit for the 
cause and the man I so much affected ; and therefore 
I would retire myself till I might be more graciously 
heard ; and so we parted. To-morrow I will go hence 
of purpose, and on Thursday I will write an expos- 
tulating letter to her. That night or upon Friday 
morning I will be here again, and follow on the same 
course, stirring a discontentment in her, etc. And so 
wish you all happiness, and rest 

Your most assured friend, 

Indorsed, March 28, 1594. 


the papers 

of Antony dltx, 

tol iv. Esq " I have now spoken with the queen, and I see no stay f rom obtaining a full resolution of that we desire. 
beAn™ But the passion she is in by reason of the tales that 
brarj. have been told her against Nicholas Clifford, with 
whom she is in such rage, for a matter, which I 
think you have heard of, doth put her infinitely out 
of quiet; and her passionate humour is nourished 
by some foolish women. Else I find nothing to 
distaste us, for she doth not contradict confidently; 
which they, that know the minds of women, say is 
a sign of yielding. I will to-morrow take more time 
to deal with her, and will sweeten her with all the 
art I have to make benevolum auditorem. I have already 
tsirTho- spoken with Mr. Vice-chamberlain ;| and will to- 
™ a P sHeue " morrow speak with the rest. Of Mr. Vice- chamber- 
lain you may assure yourself; for so much he hath 
faithfully promised me. The exceptions against the 
competitors I will use to-morrow; for then I do re- 
solve to have a full and large discourse, having pre- 
pared the queen to-night to assign me a time, under 
colour of some such business, as I have pretended. In 


Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 1 1 

the mean time I must tell you, that I do not respect 
either my absence, or my shewing a discontentment 
in going away, for I was received at my return, and 
I think I shall not be the worse. And for that I am 
oppressed with multitude of letters that are come, of 
which I must give the queen some account to-morrow 
morning ; I therefore desire to be excused for writing 
no more to-night : to-morrow you shall hear from me 
again. I wish you what you wish yourself in this 
and all things else, and rest 

Your most affectionate friend, 

This Friday at night. ESS EX. 

Indorsed, March 29, 1594. 


the papers 
of Antony 

My Lord, ?£tll* 

I thank your lordship very much for your kind and ^mlfeth 
comfortable letter, which I hope will be followed at library. 
hand with another of more assurance. And I must 
confess this very delay hath gone so near me, as it hath 
almost overthrown my health ; for when I revolved 
the good memory of my father, the near degree of al- 
liance I stand in to my lord treasurer, your lordship's 
so signalled and declared favour, the honourable testi- 
mony of so many counsellors, the commendations un- 
laboured, and in sort offered by my lords the judges 
and the master of the rolls elect ;f that I was voiced tsirTho- 
with great expectation, and, though I say it myself, ZZ ger 
with the wishes of most men, to the higher place; £ t That of 
that I am a man, that the queen hath already done at e t ° e r r n a Y 
for; and that princes, especially her majesty, love to 
make an end where they begin ; and then add here- 
unto the obscureness and many exceptions to my 
competitors : when, I say, I revolve all this, I cannot 
but conclude with myself, that no man ever read 
a more exquisite disgrace ; and therefore truly, my 
lord, I was determined, if her majesty reject me, this 
to do. My nature can take no evil ply ; but I will, 
by God's assistance, with this disgrace of my fortune, 

12 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

and yet with that comfort of the good opinion of so 
manv honourable and worthy persons, retire myself 
withacoupleof mentoCambridge, and there spend my 
life in my studies and contemplations, without looking 
back. I humbly pray your lordship to pardon me for 
troubling you with my melancholy For the matter 
itself, I commend it to your love ; only I pray you 
communicate afresh this day with my lord treasurer 
and Sir Robert Cecil ; and if you esteem my fortune, 
remember the point of precedency- The objections 
to my competitors your lordship knoweth partly. I 
pray spare them not, not over the queen, but to the 
great ones, to shew your confidence, and to work 
their distrust. Thus longing exceedingly to exchange 
troubling your lordship with serving you, I rest 

Your Lordship's, 

ifi most intire and faithful service, 


I humbly pray your lordship I may hear from you 
some time this day. 

30th of March, 1594. 


the papers 

of Antony My m0 st honourable good Cousin, 

Bacon, Esq. T7 . , . • l i 1 n i 

vol. iv. I o l r honour in your wisdom doth well perceive, that 
the ilm- in m y access at this time is grown desperate in regard 
beth libra- of the hard terms, that as well the earl of Essex as 
r - v ' Mr. Vice-chamberlain, who were to have been the 

means thereof, stand in with her majesty, according 
to their occasions. And therefore I am only to stay 
upon that point of delaying and preserving the mat- 
ter intire till a better constellation; which, as it 
is not hard, as I conceive, considering the French 
business and the instant progress, &c. so I commend 
in special to you the care, who in sort assured me 
thereof, and upon whom now, in my lord of Essex's 
absence, I have only to rely; and, if it be needful, I 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 13 

humbly pray you to move my lord your father to lay 
his hand to the same delay And so I wish you all 
increase of honour. 

Your Honour's poor kinsman 

in faithful service and duty, 

From Gray's-Inn, this 1st of May, 1594. 


the papers 

Cousin, ^ n S q . 

I do think nothing cut the throat more of your pre- J°}'™ 2 ' in 
sent access than the earl's being somewhat troubled the Lam- 
at this time. For the delaying I think it not hard, Jy| h libra " 
neither shall there want my best endeavour to make 
it easy, of which I hope you shall not need to doubt 
by the judgment, which I gather of divers circum- 
stances confirming my opinion. I protest I suffer 
with you in mind, that you are thus gravelled; but 
time will founder all your competitors, and set you 
on your feet, or else I have little understanding. 




I wrote not to you till I had had a second con- 
ference with the queen, because the first was spent 
only in compliments : she in the beginning ex- 
cepted all business : this day she hath seen me again. 
After I had followed her humour in talking of those 
things, which she would entertain me with, I told her, 
in my absence I had written to Sir Robert Cecil, to 
solicit her to call you to that place, to which all the 
world had named you ; and being now here, I must 
follow it myself; for I know what service I should 
do her in procuring you the place; and she knew not 
how great a comfort I should take in it. Her an- 
swer in playing just was, that she came not to me for 

14 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

that, I should talk of those things when I came to 
her, not when she came to me ; the term was com- 
ing, and she would advise. I would have replied, 
but she stopped my mouth. To-morrow or the next 
day I will go to her, and then this excuse will be 
taken away. When I know more, you shall hear 
more; and so I end full of pain in my head, which 
makes me write thus confusedly 

Your most affectionate friend. 


the papers 
of Antony 
Bacon, Esq 


vol. iv. J WENT yesterday to the queen through the galleries 

fol. 123, in . ,. J . J ~ n j^-i^TUJ 

the Lam- in the morning, afternoon, and. at night. I had. 

betb libra- j on g S p eecn w ith her of you, wherein I urged both 
the point of your extraordinary sufficiency proved to 
me not only by your last argument, but by the opinion 
of all men I spake withal, and the point of mine own 
satisfaction, which, I protested, should be exceeding- 
great, if, for all her unkindness and discomforts past, 
she should do this one thing for my sake. To the first 
she answered, that the greatness of your friends, as 
of my lord treasurer and myself, did make men give 
a more favourable testimony than else they would do, 
thinking thereby they pleased us. And that she did 
acknowledge you had a great wit, and an excellent 
gift of speech, and much other good learning. But 
in law she rather thought you could make show to the 
uttermost of your knowledge, than that you were 
deep. To the second she said, she shewed her mislike 
to the suit, as well as I had done my affection in it ; 
and that if there were a yielding, it was fitter to be of 
my side. I then added, "that this was an answer, with 
which she might deny me all things, if she did not 
grant them at the first, which was not her manner to 
do. But her majesty had made me suffer and give 
way in many things else ; which all I should bear, 
not only with patience, but with great contentment, 
if she would but grant my humble suit in this one. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 15 

And for the pretence of the approbation given you 
upon partiality, that all the world, lawyers, judges, 
and all, could not be partial to you ; for somewhat 
you were crossed for their own interest, and some for 
their friends ; but yet all did yield to your merit. She 
did in this as she useth in all, went from a denial 
to a delay, and said, when the council were all here, 
she would think of it ; and there was no haste in de- 
termining of the place. To which I answered, that 
my sad heart had need of hasty comfort ; and there- 
fore her majesty must pardon me, if I were hasty and 
importunate in it. When they come we shall see 
what will be done ; and I wish you all happiness, 
and rest 

Your most affectionate friend, 

Indorsed, 18th of May, 1594. 


BACON * * Among 

the papers 

Mr. Francis Bacon, Bat^EL. 

Saturday was my first coming to the court, from ^''llli ^n 

whence I departed again as soon as I had kissed thejLam 
her majesty's hands, because I had no lodging nearer ^ 
than my uncle's, which is four miles off. This day 
I came thither to dinner, and waiting for to speak 
with the queen, took occasion to tell how I met you, 
as I passed through London ; and among other 
speeches, how you lamented your misfortune to me, 
that remained as a withered branch of her roots, 
which she had cherished and made to flourish in her 
service. I added what I thought of your worth, and 
the expectation for all this, that the world had of her 
princely goodness towards you : which it pleased her 
majesty to confess, that indeed you began to frame 
very well, insomuch as she saw an amends in those 
little supposed errors, avowing the respect she carried 
to the dead, with very exceeding gracious inclination 
towards you. Some comparisons there fell out be- 
sides, which I leave till we meet, which I hope 

16 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

shall be this week. It pleased her withal to tell of 
the jewel you offered her by Mr. Vice-chamberlain, 
which she had refused, yet with exceeding praise. I 
marvel, that as a prince she should refuse those hav- 
ings of her poor subjects, because it did include a 
small sentence of despair ; but either I deceive my- 
self, or she was resolved to take it ; and the conclu- 
sion waggery kind and gracious. Sure as I will 100/. 
to 50/. that you shall be her solicitor, and my friend : 
in which mind and for which mind I commend you 
to God. From the court this Monday in haste, 

Your true friend to be commanded by you, 


We cannot tell whether she come to 

or stay here. I am much absent for want of lodging; 
wherein my own man hath only been to blame. 

Indorsed, 17 of June, 1594. 


the papers 

of Antony Most gracious and admirable Sovereign, 

Bacon.Esq. ° "- 

foi'.'iiiand A s I do acknowledge a providence of God towards 
156, in the nie, that findeth it expedient for me tolerare jugum 
Hbwy. th injuventute mea ; so this present arrest of mine by 
his divine Majesty from your majesty's service is 
not the least affliction, that I have proved; and I 
hope your majesty doth conceive, that nothing under 
mere impossibility could have detained me from earn- 
ing so gracious a vail, as it pleased your majesty to 
give me. But your majesty's service, by the grace of 
God, shall take no lack thereby ; and, thanks to God, 
it hath lighted upon him, that may be best spared. 
Only the discomfort is mine, who nevertheless have 
the private comfort, that in the time I have been made 
acquainted with this service, it hath been my hap to 
stumble upon somewhat unseen, which may import 
the same, as I made my lord keeper acquainted before 
my going. So leaving it to God to make a good end 
of a hard beginning, and most humbly craving your 

Letter's, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 17 

majesty's pardon for presuming to trouble you, I re- 
commend your sacred majesty to God's tenderest pre- 

Your sacred majesty 's, 

in most humble obedience and devotion, 

From Huntingdon, this 
20th of July, 1594. FR. BACON 


ANTONY * «Among 

the papers 

My good Brother, t-^T^l 

One day draweth on another; and I am well pleased }f{^ in 
in my being here ; for methinks solitariness collecteth the Lani- 
the mind, as shutting the eyes doth the sight. I pray j^ y> 11 " 
you therefore advertise me what you find, by my lord 
of Essex (who, I am sure, hath been with you), was 
done last Sunday ; and what he conceiveth of the 
matter. I hold in one secret, and therefore you may 
trust your servant. I would be glad to receive my 
parsonage rent as soon as it cometh. So leave I you 
to Gods good preservation. 

Your ever loving brother, 

From Twickenham-park, 
this Tuesday morning, 1594. FR. BACON 

Indorsed, 16 Oct. 1594. 



I will be to-morrow night at London. I purpose 
to hear your argument the next day I pray you 
send me word by this bearer of the hour, and place, 
where it is. Of your own cause I shall give better 
account when I see you, than I can do now ; for that 
<which will be done, will be this afternoon or to- 

I am fast unto you, as you can be to yourself , 

Indorsed, 23 Oct. 1594. 

18 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon, 

• Among ANTONY * 

of Antony Good Brother, 

voTTv. sq " Since I saw you this hath passed. Tuesday, though 
Sl'iln" sent for, I saw not the queen. Her majesty alleged 
beth n- s he was then to resolve with the council upon her 
brary ' places of law. But this resolution was ut supra ; 
and note the rest of the counsellors were persuaded 
she came rather forwards than otherwise ; for against 
me she is never peremptory but to my lord of Essex. 
I missed a line of my lord keeper's ; but thus much I 
hear otherwise. The queen seemeth to apprehend 
my travel. Whereupon I was sent for by Sir Robert 
Cecil in sort as from her majesty ; himself having of 
purpose immediately gone to London to speak with 
me ; and not finding me there, he wrote to me. 
Whereupon I came to the court, and upon his rela- 
tion to me of her majesty's speeches, I desired leave to 
answer it in writing; not, I said, that I mistrusted his 
report, but mine own wit ; the copy of which answer 
I send. We parted in kindness secundum exterius. 
This copy you must needs return; for I have no other; 
and I wrote this by memory after the original was sent 
away. The queen's speech is after this sort. Why ? 
I have made no solicitor. Hath any body carried a so- 
licitor with him in his pocket ? But he must have it in his 
own time (as if it were but yesterday's nomination), or 
else I must be thought to cast him away. Then her ma- 
jesty sweareth thus : " If I continue this manner, she 
" will seek all England for a solicitor rather than take 
•' me. Yea, she will send for Heuston and Coven- 
" try (a) to-morrow next," as if she would swear 
them both. Again she entereth into it, that " she 
" never deals so with any as with me (in hoc erratum 
" non est); she hath pulled me over the bar (note the 
" words, for they cannot be her own), she hath used 
" me in her greatest causes. But this is Essex ; and 
" she is more angry with him than with me." And 

(a)Themas Coventry, afterwards one of the justices of the com- 
mon pleas, and father of the lord keeper- Coventry. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 19 

such like speeches, so strange, as I should lose myself 
in it, but that I have cast off the care of it. My con- 
ceit is, that I am the least part of mine own matter. 
But het majesty would have a delay, and yet would 
not bear it herself. Therefore she giveth no way to 
me, and she perceiveth her council giveth no way to 
others ; and so it sticketh as she would have it. But 
what the secret of it is oculus aquilce non penetravit. 
My lord* continueth on kindly and wisely a course, * Essex. 
worthy to obtain a better effect than a delay, which 
to me is the most unwelcome condition. 

Now to return to you the part of a brother, and to 
render you the like kindness, advise you, whether it 
were not a good time to set in strongly with the 
queen to draw her to honour your travels. For in 
the course I am like to take, it will be a great and 
necessary stay to me, besides the natural comfort I 
shall receive. And if you will have me deal with my 
lord of Essex, or otherwise break it by mean to the 
queen, as that, which shall give me full contentment/ 
I will do it as effectually, and with as much good dis- 
cretion, as I Can. Wherein if you aid me with your 
direction, I shall observe it. This as I did ever ac- 
count it sure and certain to be accomplished, in case 
myself had been placed, and therefore deferred it till 
then, as to the proper opportunity; so now that I see 
such delay in mine own placing, I wish ex animo it 
should not expect. 

I pray you let me know what mine uncle Killigrew 
will do ; (a) for I must be more careful of my credit 
than ever, since I receive so little thence where I de- 
served best. And, to be plain with you, I mean even 
to make the best of those small things I have, with as 
much expedition, as may be without loss ; and so sing 
a mass of requiem, I hope, abroad. For I know her 
majesty's nature, that she neither careth though the 
whole surname of Bacons travelled, nor of the Cecils 

(a) Mr. Antony Bacon had written to Sir Henry Killigrew on the 
14th of January, 159|, to desire the loan of two hundred pound» 
for six months. Vol. IV. fol. 4. 

C 2 

20 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

I have here an idle pen or two, specially one, that 
was cozened, thinking to have got some money this 
term. I pray send me somewhat else for them to 
write out besides your Irish collection, which is al- 
most done. There is a collection of king James, of 
foreign states, largeliest of Flanders ; which, though 
it be no great matter, yet I would be glad to have it. 
Thus I commend you to God's good protection. 

Your intire loving brother, 

From my lodging at Twickenham- FR> BACON, 

park, this 25th of January, 1594. 

Letter of Mr Francis Bacon to Sir Robert 
•Among Cecil,* a copy of which was sent with the 
IfAmony preceding to Mr Antony Bacon. 

Bacon, Esq. 

vol. IV. 

fol. 31. SIR, 

Your honour may remember, that upon relation of 
her majesty's speech concerning my travel, I asked 
leave to make answer in writing ; not but I knew 
then what was true, but because I was careful to ex- 
press it without doing myself wrong. And it is true, 
I had then opinion to have written to her majesty : 
but since weighing with myself, that her majesty gave 
no ear to the motion made by yourself, that I might 
answer by mine own attendance, I began to doubt 
the second degree, whether it might not be taken for 
presumption in me to write to her majesty ; and so 
resolved, that it was best for me to follow her majes- 
ty's own way in committing it to your report. 

It may please your honour to deliver to her majes- 
ty, first, that it is an exceeding grief to me, that any 
not motion (for it was not a motion) but mention, 
that should come from me, should offend her majesty, 
whom for these one-and-twenty years (for so long it 
is, that I kissed her majesty's hands upon my journey 
into France) I have used the best of my wits to 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 21 

Next, mine answer standing upon two points, the 
one, that this mention of travel to my lord of Essex 
was no present motion, suit, or request ; but casting 
the worst of my fortune with an honourable friend, 
that had long used me privately, I told his lordship 
of this purpose of mine to travel, accompanying it 
with these very words, that upon her majesty's re- 
jecting me with such circumstance, though my heart 
might be good, yet mine eyes would be sore, that I 
should take no pleasure to look upon my friends ; 
for that I was not an impudent man, that could face 
out a disgrace ; and that I hoped her majesty would 
not be offended, that, not able to endure the sun, I 
fled into the shade. The other, that it was more 
than this ; for I did expressly and particularly (for 
so much wit God then lent me) by way of caveat re- 
strain my lord's good affection, that he should in no 
wise utter or mention this matter till her majesty 
had made a solicitor : wherewith (now since my 
looking upon your letter) I did in a dutiful manner 
challenge my lord, who very honourably acknow- 
ledged it, seeing he did it for the best : and therefore 
I leave his lordship to answer for himself. All this 
my lord of Essex can testify to be true ; and I report 
me to yourself, whether at the first, when I desired 
deliberation to answer, yet nevertheless said, I would 
to you privately declare what had passed, I said not 
in effect so much. The conclusion shall be, that 
wheresoever God and her majesty shall appoint me 
to live, I shall truly pray for her majesty's preserva- 
tion and felicity And so I humbly commend me to 

Your poor kinsman to do you service, 

Fli. BACON. 
Indorsed, January, 1594. 

%% Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

(a) The Speeches drawn up by Mr Francis 
Bacon for the Earl of Essex in a device {b} 
exhibited by his lordship before Queen Eli- 
zabeth, on the anniversary of her accession 
to the throne, November 17, 1595. 


Most excellent and most glorious queen, give me 
leave, I beseech your majesty, to offer my master's 
complaint and petition ; complaint, that coming hi- 

(a) Bishop Gibson's papers, vol. V No. 118. 

(b) An account of this device, which was much applauded, is 
given by Mr. Rowland Whyte to Sir Robert Sydney, in a letter 
dated at London , Saturday the 22d of November, 1 595, and printed 
in the Letters ami Memorials of State of the Sydney family, vol. I, 
p. 362. According to this letter, the earl of Essex, some consider- 
able time before he came himself into the tilt-yard, sent his page 
with some speech to the queen, who returned with her majesty's 
glove ; and when his lordship came himself, he was met by an old 
hermit, a secretary of state, a brave soldier, and an esquire. The first 
presented him with a book of meditations ; the second with political 
discourses ; the third with orations of bravely fought battles ; the 
fourth was his own follower, to whom the other three imparted much 
of theirpurpose before the earl came in. "Another," adds Mr. Whyte, 
" devised with him, persuading him to this and that course of life, 
'* according to their inclinations. Comes into the tilt-yard, un- 
" thought upon, the ordinary post-boy of London, a ragged villain, 
" all bemired, upon a poor lean jade, galloping and blowing for life, 
" and delivered the secretary a packet of letters, which he pre- 
" sently offered my lord of Essex. And with this dumb shew our 
*' eyes were fed for that time. In the after-supper, before the 
" queen, they first delivered a well-penned speech to move this 
" worthy knight to leave his following of love, and to betake him to 
" heavenly meditation ; the secretary's all tending to have him fol- 
" low matters of state ; the soldier's persuading him to the war : but 
" the squire answered them all, and concluded with an excellent, 
" but too plain, English, that this knight would never forsake his 
" mistress's love; whose virtue made all his thoughts divine ; whose 
" wisdom taught him all true policy; whose beauty and worth were 
" at all times able to make him fit to command armies. He shewed 
" all the defects and imperfections of all their times ; and therefore 
" thought his course of life to be best in serving his mistress." Mr. 
Whyte then mentions, that the part of the old hermit was performed 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 23 

ther to your majesty's most happy day, he is tormented 
with the importunity of a melancholy dreaming her- 
mit, a mutinous brain-sick soldier, and a busy, tedious 
secretary His petition is, that he may be as free as 
the rest ; and, at least, whilst he is here, troubled with 
nothing but with care how to please and honour 


Though our ends be diverse, and therefore may be 
one more just than another ; yet the complaint of this 
Squire is general, and therefore alike unjust against us 
all. Albeit he is angry, that we offer ourselves to his 
master uncalled, and forgets we come not of ourselves, 
but as the messengers of self-love, from whom, all that 
comes should be well taken. He saith, when we come, 
we are importunate. If he mean, that we err in form, 
we have that of his master, who being a lover, useth 
no other form of soliciting. If he will charge us to 
err in matter, I for my part will presently prove, that 
I persuade him to nothing but for his own good. For 
I wish him to leave turning over the book of fortune, 
which is but a play for children ; when there be so 
many books of truth and knowledge, better worthy 
the revolving ; and not fix his view only upon a pic- 
ture in a little table, when there be so many tables of 
histories, yea to life, excellent to behold and admire. 
Whether he believe me or no, there is no prison to the 
prisonof the thoughts, whichare free underthegreatest 
tyrants. Shall any man make his conceit, as an an- 
chorite, mured up with the compass of one beauty or 

by him, who at Cambridge played that ofGiraldi ; that Morley acted 
the secretary, and that the soldier was represented by him who 
acted the pedant, and that Mr. Tobie Matthew was the squire. 
" The world," says Mr. Whyte, " makes many untrue constructions 
" of these speeches, comparing the hermit and the secretary to 
" two of the lords ; and the soldier to Sir Roger Williams. But 
" the queen said, that if she had thought there had been so much 
" said of her, she would not have been there that night ; and so went 
" to bed." 

24 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

person, that may have the liberty of all contemplation? 
Shall heexchangethe sweet travelling through the uni- 
versal variety, for one wearisome and endless round or 
labyrinth ? Let thy master, Squire, offer his service 
to the muses. It is long since they received any into 
their court. They give alms continually at their gate, 
that many come to live upon ; but few they have ever 
admitted into their palace. There shall he find secrets 
not dangerous to know ; sides and parties not factious 
to hold ; precepts and commandments not penal to 
disobey The gardens of loye, wherein he now 
placeth himself, are fresh to-day, and fading to-mor- 
row, as the» sun comforts them, or is turned from 
them. But the gardens of the muses keep the pri- 
vilege of the golden age ; they ever flourish, and 
are in league with time. The monuments of wit 
survive the monuments of power. The verses of a 
poet endure without a syllable lost, while states and 
empires pass many periods. Let him not think he 
shall descend ; for he is now upon a hill, as a ship is 
mounted upon the ridge of a wave : but that hill of 
the muses is above tempests, always clear and calm ; 
a hill of the goodliest discovery, that man can have, 
being a prospect upon all the errors and wanderings 
of the present and former times. Yea, in some cliff it 
leadeth the eye beyond the horizon of time, and giv- 
eth no obscure divinations of times to come. So that if 
he will indeed lead vitam vitalem, a life that unites 
safety and dignity, pleasure and merit ; if he will win 
admiration without envy ; if he will be in the feast, 
and not in the throng ; in the light, and not in the 
heat ; let him embrace the life of study and contem- 
plation. And if he will accept of no other reason, 
yet because the gift of the muses will enworthy him 
in love, and where he now looks on his mistress's 
outside with the eyes of sense, which are dazzled and 
amazed, he shall then behold her high perfections and 
heavenly mind with the eyes of judgment, which grow 
stronger by more nearly and more directly viewing 
such an object. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 25 


Squire, the good old man hath said well to you ; but 
I dare say, thou wouldst be sorry to leave to carry 
thy master's shield, and to carry his books : and 1 am 
sure thy master had rather be a falcon, a bird of prey, 
than a singing-bird in a cage. The muses are to serve 
martial men, to sing their famous actions ; and not 
to be served by them. Then hearken to me. 

It is the war that giveth all spirits of valour, not 
only honour, but contentment. For mark, whether 
ever you did see a man grown to any honourable 
commandment in the wars, but whensoever he gave 
it over, he was ready to die with melancholy 1 Such 
a sweet felicity is in that noble exercise, that he, that 
hath tasted it thoroughly, is distasted for all other. 
And no marvel ; for if the hunter takes such solace 
in his chace ; if the matches and wagers of sport pass 
away with such satisfaction and delight ; if the looker- 
on be affected with pleasure in the representation of a 
feigned tragedy ; think what contentment a man re- 
ceiveth, when they, that are equal to him in nature, 
from the height of insolency and fury are brought to 
the condition of a chaced prey ; when a victory is 
obtained, whereof the victories of games are but 
counterfeits and shadows ; and when, in a lively tra- 
gedy, a man s enemies are sacrificed before his eyes 
to his fortune. 

Then for the dignity of military profession, is it not 
the truest and perfectest practice of all virtues ? of 
wisdom, in disposing those things which are most 
subject to confusion and accident : of justice, in con- 
tinual distributing rewards : of temperance, in exer- 
cising of the straitest discipline : of fortitude, in tole- 
ration of all labours, and abstinence from effeminate 
delights : of constancy, in bearing and digesting the 
greatest variety of fortune. So that when all other 
places and professions require but their several vir- 
tues, a brave leader in the wars must be accomplished 
with all. It is the wars that are the tribunal seat. 

26 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

where the highest rights and possessions are decided ; 
the occupation of kings, the root of nobility, the 
protection of all estates. And lastly, lovers never 
thought their profession sufficiently graced, till they 
have compared it to a warfare. All, that in any other 
profession can be wished for, is but to live happily : 
but to be a brave commander in the field, death itself 
doth crown the head with glory Therefore, Squire, 
let thy master go with me ; and though he be resolved 
in the pursuit of his love, let him aspire to it by the 
noblest means. For ladies count it no honour to sub- 
due them with their fairest eyes, which will be daunted 
with the fierce encounter of an enemy And they 
will quickly discern a champion fit to wear their 
glove, from a page not worthy to carry their pantofle. 
Therefore I say again, let him seek his fortune in the 
field, where he may either lose his love, or find new 
argument to advance it. 


Squire, my advice to thy master shall be as a token 
wrapped up in words ; but then will it shew itself fair, 
when it is unfolded in his actions. To wish him to 
change from one humour to another, were but as if, 
for the cure of a man in pain, one should advise him 
to lie upon the other side, but not enable him to 
stand on his feet. If from a sanguine delightful hu- 
mour of love, he turn to a melancholy retired hu- 
mour of contemplation, or a turbulent boiling humour 
of the wars ; what doth he but change tyrants ? Con- 
templation is a dream ; love, a trance ; and the hu- 
mour of war is raving. These be shifts of humour, 
but no reclaiming to reason. I debar him not studies 
nor books, to give him stay and variety of conceit, re- 
fresh his mind, to cover sloth and indisposition, and to 
draw to him. from those that are studious, respect and 
commendation. But let him beware, lest they possess 
not too much of his time ; that they abstract not his 
judgment from present experience, nor make him 
presume upon knowing much, to apply the less. For 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 27 

the wars, I deny him no enterprise, that shall be wor- 
thy in greatness, likely in success, or necessary in 
duty ; not mixed with any circumstance of jealousy, 
but duly laid upon him. But I would not have him 
take the alarm from his own humour, but from the 
occasion ; and I would again he should know an em- 
ployment from a discourting. And for his love, let 
it not disarm his heart within, as to make him too cre- 
dulous to favours, nor too tender to unkindnesses, nor 
too apt to depend upon the heart he knows not. 
Nay, in his demonstration of love, let him not go too 
far ; for these seely lovers, when they profess such in- 
finite affection and obligation, they tax themselves at 
»o high a rate, that they are ever under arrest. It 
makes their service seem nothing, and every cavil 
or imputation very great. But what, Squire, is thy 
master's end ? If to make the prince happy he serves, 
let the instructions to employ men, the relations of 
ambassadors, the treaties between princes, and actions 
of the present time, be the books he reads : let the 
orations of wise princes, or experimented counsellors, 
in council or parliament, and the final sentences of 
grave and learned judges in weighty and doubtful 
causes, be the lecturers he frequents. Let the holding 
of affection with confederates without charge, the 
frustrating of the attempts of enemies without battles, 
the intitling of the crown to new possessions without 
shew of wrong, the filling of the prince's coffers with- 
out violence, the keeping of men in appetite without 
impatience, be the inventions he seeks out. Let po- 
licy and matters of state be the chief, and almost the 
only thing he intends. But if he will believe Philau- 
tia, and seek most his own happiness, he must not of 
them embrace all kinds, but make choice, and avoid, 
all matter of peril, displeasure, and charge, and turn 
them over to some novices, that know not manacles 
from bracelets, nor burdens from robes. For himself, 
let him set for matters of commodity and strength, 
though they be joined with envy Let him not 
trouble himself too laboriously to sound into any mat- 
ter deeply, or to execute any thing exactly ; but let 

28 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

himself make himself cunning rather in the humours 
and drifts of persons, than in the nature of business 
and affairs. Of that it sufficeth to know only so 
much, as may make him able to make use of other 
men's wits, and to make again a smooth and pleasing 
report. Let him entertain the proposition of others, 
and ever rather let him have an eye to the circum- 
stances, than to the matter itself; for then shall he 
ever seem to add somewhat to his own : and besides, 
when a man doth not forget so much as a circum- 
stance, men do think his wit doth superabound for the 
substance. In his counsels let him not be confident ; 
for that will rather make him obnoxious to the suc- 
cess ; but let him follow the wisdom of oracles, 
which uttered that which might ever be applied to the 
event. And ever rather let him take the side which 
is likeliest to be followed, than that which is soundest 
and best, that every thing may seem to be carried by 
his direction. To conclude, let him be true to him- 
self, and avoid all tedious reaches of state, that are not 
merely pertinent to his particular. And if he will 
needs pursue his affection, and go on his course, 
what can so much advance him in his own way ? 
The merit of war is too outwardly glorious to be in- 
wardly grateful : and it is the exile of his eyes, which, 
looking with such affection upon the picture, cannot 
but with infinite contentment behold the life. But 
when his mistress shall perceive, that his endeavours 
are become a true support of her, a discharge of her 
care, a watchman of her person, a scholar of her 
wisdom, an instrument of her operation, and a con- 
duit of her virtue ; this, with his diligences, accesses, 
humility, and patience, may move her to give him 
further degrees and approaches to her favour. So 
that I conclude, I have traced him the way to that, 
which hath been granted to some few, amare et sapere, 
to love and to be wise. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 29 


Wandering Hermit, storming Soldier, and hollow 
Statesman, the inchanting orators of Philautia, which 
have attempted by your high charms to turn resolved 
Erophilus into a statue deprived of action, or into a 
vulture attending about dead bodies, or into a monster 
with a double heart; with infinite assurance, but with 
just indignation, and forced patience, I have suffered 
you to bring in play your whole forces. For I would 
not vouchsafe to combat you one by one, as if I trusted 
to the goodness of my breath, and not the goodness 
of my strength, which little needeth the advantage 
of your severing, and much less of your disagreeing. 
Therefore, first, I would know of you all what assur- 
ance you have of fruit whereto you aspire? 

You, Father, that pretend to truth and knowledge, 
how are you assured that you adore not vain chimae- 
ras and imaginations? that, in your high prospect, 
when you think men wander up and down, that 
they stand not indeed still in their place ? and it is 
some smoke or cloud between you and them, which 
moveth, or else the dazzling of your own eyes? Have 
not many, which take themselves to be inward coun- 
sellors with nature, proved but idle believers, which 
told us tales, which were no such matter? And, Sol- 
dier, what security have you for these victories and 
garlands which you promise to yourself? Know you 
not of many, which have made provision of laurel for 
the victory, and have been fain to exchange it with 
cypress for the funeral? of many which have bespo- 
ken fame to sound their triumphs, and have been glad 
to pray her to say nothing of them, and not to disco- 
ver them in their flights? 

Corrupt Statesman, you that think by your engines 
and motions to govern the wheel of fortune ; do you 
not mark, that clocks cannot be long in temper? that 
jugglers are no longer in request, when their tricks 
and slights are once perceived? Nay, do you not see, 
that never any man made his own cunning and prac- 

30 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

tice, without religion and moral honesty, his founda- 
tion, but he overbuilt himself, and in the end made his 
house a windfall ? But give ear now to the compari- 
son of my master's condition, and acknowledge such 
a difference, as is betwixt the melting hail-stone and 
the solid pearl. Indeed it seemeth to depend, as the 
globe of the earth seemeth to hang, in the air ;• but 
yet it is firm and stable in itself. It is like a cube, or 
a die-form, which, toss it or throw it any way, it 
ever lighted upon a square. Is he denied the hopes of 
favours to come? he can resort to the remembrance 
of contentments past. Destiny cannot repeal that 
which is past. Doth he find the acknowledgement of 
his affection small? he may find the merit of his af- 
fection the greater. Fortune cannot have power over 
that which is within. Nay, his falls are like the falls 
of Antaeus ; they renew his strength. His clouds 
are like the clouds of harvest, which make the sun 
break forth with greater force. His wanes are 
changes like the moon's, whose globe is all light to- 
wards the sun, when it is all dark towards the world ; 
such is the excellency of her nature, and of his estate. 
Attend, you beadsman of the muses, you take your 
pleasure in a wilderness of variety; but it is but of 
shadows. You are as a man rich in pictures, medals, 
and crystals. Your mind is of the water, which 
taketh all forms and impressions, but is weak of sub- 
stance. Will you compare shadows with bodies, pic- 
ture with life, variety of many beauties with the peer- 
less excellency of one? the element of water with the 1 
element of fire ? And such is the comparison between 
knowledge and love. 

Come out, man of war; you must be ever in noise. 
You will give laws, and advance force, and trouble 
nations, and remove land- marks of kingdoms, and 
hunt men, and pen tragedies in blood : and that, 
which is worst of all, make all the virtues accessary 
to bloodshed. Hath the practice of force so de- 
prived you of the use of reason, as that you will com- 
pare the interruption of society with the perfection of 
society? the conquest of bodies with the conquest of 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 3 i 

spirits ? the terrestrial fire, which destroyeth and dis- 
solveth, with the celestial fire, which quickeneth and 
givethlife? And such is the comparison between the 
soldier and the lover. 

And as for you, untrue Politique, but truest bonds- 
man to Philautia, you, that presume to bind occasion, 
and to overwork fortune, 1 would ask you but one 
question. Did ever any lady, hard to please, or disposed 
to exercise her lover, injoin him so good tasks and 
commandments, as Philautia exacteth of you? While 
your life is nothing but a continual acting upon a 
stage; and that your mind must serve your humour, 
and yet your outward person must serve your end; 
so as you carry in one person two several servitudes 
to contrary masters. But I will leave you to the 
scorn of that mistress, whom you undertake to govern ; 
that is, to fortune, to whom Philautia hath bound 
you. And yet, you commissioner of Philautia, I will 
proceed one degree farther : if I allowed both of your 
assurance, and of your values, as you have set them, 
may not my master enjoy his own felicity; and have 
all yours for advantage? I do not mean that he 
should divide himself in both pursuits, as in your 
feigning tales towards the conclusion you did yield 
him; but because all these are in the hands of his 
mistress more fully to bestow, than they can be at- 
tained by your addresses, knowledge, fame, fortune. 
For the Muses, they are tributary to her majesty for* 
the great liberties they have enjoyed in her kingdom, 
during her most flourishing reign; in thankfulness 
whereof they have adorned and accomplished her" 
majesty with the gifts of all the sisters. What library 
can present such a story of great actions, as her 
majesty carrieth in her royal breast by the often re* 
turn of this happy day ? What worthy author or 
favourite of the muses, is not familiar with her? Or 
what language, wherein the muses have used to 
speak, is unknown to her ? Therefore, the hearing of 
her, the observing of her, the receiving instructions 
from her, may be to Erophilus a lecture exceeding; all 
dead monuments of the muses. For Fame, can all 

32 Letterss, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

the exploits of the war win him such a title, as to 
have the name of favoured and selected servant of 
such a queen? For Fortune, can any insolent po- 
litique promise to himself such a fortune, by making 
his own way, as the excellency of her nature cannot 
deny to a careful, obsequious, and dutiful servant? 
And if he could, were it equal honour to obtain it by 
a shop of cunning, as by the gift of such a hand ? 

Therefore Erophiluss resolution is fixed : he re- 
nounceth Philautia, and all her inchantments. For 
her recreation, he will confer with his muse : for her 
defence and honour, he will sacrifice his life in the 
wars, hoping to be embalmed in the sweet odours of 
her remembrance. To her service will he consecrate 
all his watchful endeavours, and will ever bear in his 
heart the picture of her beauty ; in his actions, of her 
will; and in his fortune, of her grace and favour. 


May it please your honourable good Lordship, 

Of your lordship's honourable disposition, both ge- 
nerally and to me, I have that belief, as what I think, 
I am not afraid to speak : and what I would speak, 
I am not afraid to write. And therefore I have 
thought to commit to letter some matter, whereunto 
[which] I have been [conceived] led [into the same] 
by two motives : the one, the consideration of my 
own estate ; the other, the appetite, which I have to 
give your lordship some evidence of, the thoughtful 
and voluntary desire which is in me, to merit well of 
your most honourable lordship : which desire in me 

(a) From the original draught in the library of Queen's College, 
Oxford, Arch. D. 2. the copy of which was communicated to me 
by Thomas Tyrwhytt, Esq. clerk of the honourable House of Com- 
mons. Sir William Dugdale, in his Baronage of England, vol. II. 
p. 438, has given two short passages of this letter transcribed by 
him from the unpublished original. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 33 

hath been bred chiefly by the consent I have to your 
great virtue come in good time to do this state plea- 
sure ; and next by your loving courses held towards 
me, especially in your nomination and inablement of 
me long since to the solicitor's place, as your lord- 
ship best knows. Which your two honourable friend- 
ships I esteem so much [in so great sort] as your 
countenance and favour in my practice, which are 
somewhat to my poverty ; yet I count them not the 
best [greatest] part of the obligation, wherein I stand 
bound to you. 

And now, my lord, I pray you right humbly, that 
you will vouchsafe your honourable licence and pa- 
tience, that I may express to you, what in a doubtful 
liberty I have thought fit, partly by way of praying 
your help, and partly by way of offering my good 
will ; partly again by way of pre-occupating your 
conceit, lest you may in some things mistake. 

My estate, to confess a truth to your lordship, is 
weak and indebted, and needeth comfort ; for both 
my father, though I think I had greatest part in his 
love to all his children, yet in his wisdom served me 
in as a last comer; and myself, in mine own indus- 
try, have rather referred and aspired to virtue than 
to gain : whereof I am not yet wise enough to re- 
pent me. But the while, whereas Solomon speaketh 
that want cometh first like a wayfaring man, and after 
like an armed man, I must acknowledge to your lord- 
ship myself to [be] in primo gradu ; for it stealeth 
upon me. But for the second, that it should not be 
able to be resisted, I hope in God I am not in that 
case ; for the preventing whereof, as I do depend 
upon God's providence all in all, so in the same his 
providence I see opened unto me three not unlikely 
expectations of help : the one my practice ; the other 
some proceeding in the queen's service ; the third 
[the] place I have in reversion; which, as it standeth 
now unto me, is but like another man's ground reach- 
ing upon my house, which may mend my prospect, 
but it doth not fill my barn. 


34 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

For my practice, it presupposeth my health, which, 
if I should judge of as a man that judgeth of a fair 
morrow by a fair evening, I might have reason to 
value well. But myself having this error of mind, 
that I am apter to conclude in every thing of change 
from the present tense than of a continuance, do 
make no such appointment. Besides, I am not so 
far deceived in myself, but that I know very well, 
and I think your lordship is major corde, and in your 
wisdom you note it more deeply than I can in my- 
self, that in practising the law, I play not all my best 
game, which maketh me accept it with a nisi quod 
potius, as the best of my fortune, and a thing agree- 
able to better gifts than mine, but not to mine. 

For my placing, your lordship best knows, that 
when I was much dejected with her majesty's strange 
dealing towards me, it pleased you of your singular 
favour so far to comfort and encourage me, as to hold 
me worthy to be excited to think of succeeding your 
lordship in your second place (a) ; signifying in your 
plainness, that no man should better content your- 
self: which your exceeding favour you have not 
since varied from, both in pleading the like significa- 
tion into the hands of some of my best friends, and 
also in an honourable and answerable nomination 
and commendation of me to her majesty. Wherein I 
hope your lordship, if it please you to call to mind, 
did find me neither overweening in presuming too 
much upon it, nor much deceived in my opinion of 
the event for the continuing it still in yourself, nor 
sleepy in doing some good offices to the same pur- 

Now upon this matter I am to make your lordship 
three humble requests, which had need be very rea- 
sonable, coming so many together. First, that your 
lordship will hold and make good your wishes to- 
wards me in your own time ; for no other I mean it ; 
and in thankfulness thereof, I will present your lord- 
fa) The mastership of the rolls ; which office the lord keeper 
held till the lord Bruce was advanced to it, May 18, 1603. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 35 

ship with the fairest flower of my estate ; though it 
yet bear no fruit; and that is the poor reversion, 
which of her majesty's gift I hold, in the which I 
shall be no less willing Mr. John Egerton (£), if it 
seem good to you, should succeed me in that, than 
I would be willing to succeed your lordship in the 
other place. 

My next humble request is, that your lordship 
would believe a protestation, which is, that if there 
be now against the next term, or hereafter, for a little 
bought knowledge of the court teacheth me to fore- 
see these things, any heaving or palting at that place, 
upon mine honesty and troth, my spirit is not in, nor 
with it ; I, for my part, being resolutely resolved not 
to proceed one pace or degree in this matter but with 
your lordship's foreknowledge and approbation. The 
truth of which protestation will best appear, if by 
any accident, which I look not for, I shall receive 
any farther strength. For, as I now am, your lord- 
ship may impute it only to policy alone in me, that 
being without present hope myself, I would be con- 
tent the matter sleep. 

My third humble petition to your lordship is, that 
you would believe an intelligence, and not take it for 
a fiction in court ; of which manner I like Cicero's 
speech well, who, writing to Appius Claudius, saith ; 
Sin autem quce tibi ipsi in mentem veniant, ea aliis tri- 
buere soles, inducis genus sermonis in amicitiam minime 
liberale. But I do assure your lordship, it is both 
true and fresh, and from a person of that sort, as 
having some glimpse of it before, I now rest fully 
confirmed in it : and it is this, that there should be 
a plot laid of some strength between Mr. Attorney 

(b) Second son of the lord keeper, whose eldest son Sir Thomas, 
knighted at Cadiz upon the taking it in 1596 by the earl of Essex, 
died in Ireland, whither he attended that earl in 1599, as Mr. John 
Egerton likewise did, and was knighted by his lordship, and at the 
coronation of king James was made knight of the Bath. He suc- 
ceeded his father in the titles of baron of Ellesmere and viscount 
Brackley, and on the 17th of May was created earl of Bridge- 

D 2 

36 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

General (c), and Mr. Attorney of the Wards (d), for 
the one's remove to the rolls, and the other to be 
drawn to his place. Which, to be plain with your 
lordship, I do apprehend much. For first, I know 
Mr. Attorney General, whatsoever he pretendeth or 
protesteth to your lordship, or any other, doth seek 
it ; and I perceive well by his dealing towards his 
best friends, to whom he oweth most, how perfectly 
he hath conned the adage of proximus egomet mihi : 
and then I see no man ripened for the place of the 
rolls in competition with Mr. Attorney General. And 
lastly, Mr. Attorney of the Wards being noted for a 
pregnant and stirring man, the objection of any hurt 
her majesty's business may receive in her causes by 
the drawing up of Mr. Attorney General, will wax 
cold. And yet, nevertheless, if it may please your 
lordship to pardon me so to say, of the second of 
those placings I think with some scorn ; only I com- 
mend the knowledge hereof to your lordship's wis- 
dom, as a matter not to be neglected. 

And now lastly, my honourable good lord, for my 
third poor help, I account [it] will do me small good, 
except there be a heave; and that is this place of the 
Star-Chamber. I do confess ingenuously to your 
lordship out of my love to the public, besides my 
particular, that I am of opinion, that rules without 
examples will do little good, at least not to conti- 
nue; but that there is such a concordance between 
the time to come and the time passed, as there will be 
no reforming the one without informing of the other. 
And I will not, as the proverb is, spit against the 
wind, but yield so far to a general opinion, as there 
was never a more * * or particular example. But I 
submit it wholly to your honourable grave considera- 
tion ; only I humbly pray you to conceive, that it is 
not any money, that I have borrowed of Mr. Mills, 
nor any gratification 1 receive for my aid, that makes 

(c) Coke. 

(d) Probably Sir Thomas Heskett, who died 15th October, 1605, 
and has a monument erected to his memory in Westminster- Abbey. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 37 

me shew myself any ways in it, but simply a desire 
to preserve the rights of the office, as far as it is meet 
and incorrupt ; and secondly his importunity, who 
nevertheless, as far as I see, taketh a course to bring 
this matter in question to his farther disadvantage, 
and to be principal in his own harm. But if it be 
true, that I have heard of more than one or two, that 
besides this fore-running in taking of fees, there are 
other deep corruptions, which in an ordinary course 
are intended to be proved against him ; surely, for 
my part, I am not superstitious, as I will not take 
any shadow of it, nor labour to stop it, since it is a 
thing medicinable for the office of the realm. And 
then if the place by such an occasion or otherwise 
should come in possession, the better to testify my 
affection to your lordship, I should be glad, as I 
offered it to your lordship by way of [surrender] so in 
this case to offer it by way of joint-patentcy, in nature 
of a reversion, which, as it is now, there wanteth no 
good will in me to offer, but that both, in that con- 
dition it is not worth the offering ; and besides, I 
know not whether my necessity may enforce me to 
sell it away ; which, if it were locked in by any re- 
version or joint-patentcy, I were disabled to do for my 

Thus your lordship may perceive how assured a 
persuasion I have of your love towards me, and care 
of me ; which hath made me so freely to communicate 
of my poor state with your lordship, as I could have 
done to my honourable father, if he had lived : which 
I most humbly pray your lordship may be private to 
yourself, to whom I commit it to be used to such 
purpose, as in your wisdom and honourable love and 
favour should seem good. And so humbly craving 
pardon, I commend your lordship to the divine pre- 

At your Lordships honourable commandment 

humbly and particularly . 

38 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

IhtpaJL Mr > Francis Bacon to the Earl of Essex,* on 
of Antony his Lordship's ffoing on the expedition against 

Bacon.Esq. ^ j- r B 

vol. xi. Cadiz. 

fol. 69, in 

the Lam. j^ singular good Lord, 

brar y- I have no other argument to write on to your 
good lordship, but upon demonstration of my deep- 
est and most bounden duty, in fulness whereof I 
mourn for your lordship's absence, though I mitigate 
it as much as I can with the hope of your happy suc- 
cess, the greatest part whereof, be it never so great, 
will be the safety of your most honourable person ; 
for the which in the first place, and then for the pros- 
perity of your enterprise, I frequently pray And 
as in so great discomfort it hath pleased God some 
ways to regard my desolateness, by raising me so 
great and so worthy a friend in your absence, as the 
new-placed lord keeper (a), in whose placing as it 
hath pleased God to establish mightily one of the chief 
pillars of this estate, that is, the justice of the land, 
which began to shake and sink, and for that purpose 
no doubt gave her majesty strength of heart of herself 
to do that in six days, which the deepest judgment 
thought would be the work of many months ; so for 
my particular, I do find in an extraordinary manner, 
that his lordship doth succeed my father almost in his 
fatherly care of me, and love towards me, as much as 
he professeth to follow him in his honourable and 
sound courses of justice and estate ; of which so spe- 
cial favour the open and apparent reason I can ascribe 
to nothing more than the impression, which, upon 
many conferences of long time used between his lord- 
ship and me, he may have received both of your lord- 
ship's high love and good opinion towards his lord- 
ship, verified in many and singular offices, whereof 
now the realm, rather than himself, is like to reap the 
fruit ; and also of your singular affection towards me, 
as a man chosen by you to set forth the excellency of 

(a) Egerton. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 39 

your nature and mind, though with some error of 
your judgment. Hereof if it may please your lord- 
ship to take knowledge to my lord, according to the 
style of your wonted kindness, your lordship shall do 
me great contentment. My lord told me he had 
written to your lordship, and wished with great affec- 
tion he had been so lucky, as to have had two hours 
talk with you upon those occasions, which have since 
fallen out. So wishing that God may conduct you 
by the hand pace by pace, I commend you and your 
actions to his divine providence. 

Your Lordship's ever deepliest bounden, 

10 Ma y> 1596 - 


the papers 

SIR, ° f Ant0 "* 

' Bacon.Esq. 

I have thought the contemplation of the art mill- ' ol - XI - . 

fol 139 in 

tary harder than the execution. But now I see where the Lam- 
the number is great, compounded of sea and land j> eth li_ 
forces, the most tyrones, and almost all voluntaries, rary " 
the officers equal almost in age, quality, and stand- 
ing in the wars, it is hard for any man to approve 
himself a good commander. So great is my zeal to 
omit nothing, and so short my sufficiency to perform 
all, as, besides my charge, myself doth afflict myself. 
For I cannot follow the precedents of our dissolute 
armies, and my helpers are a little amazed with me, 
when they are come from governing a little troop to 

a great ; and from to all the great spirits 

of our state. And sometimes I am as much troubled 
with them, as with all the troops. But though these 
be warrants for my seldom writing, yet they shall be 
no excuses for my fainting industry I have written 
to my lord keeper and some other friends to have care 
of you in my absence. And so commending you to 
God's happy and heavenly protection, I rest 

Your true friend, 

Plymouth, this 17th of May, 1596. ESSEX. 

40 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

the papers 

Batt^. Good Brother, 

yoi. xl Yesternight Sir John Fortescu {a) told me, he 
the' LamT had not many hours before imparted to the queen 
beth li- your advertisements, and the gazette likewise ; which 
rdry ' the queen caused Mr. John Stanhope (6) to read all 
over unto her ; and her majesty conceiveth they be 
not vulgar. The advertisements her majesty made 
estimation of as concurring with other advertisements, 
and alike concurring also with her opinion of the 
affairs. So he willed me to return you the queen's 
thanks. Other particular of any speech from her ma- 
jesty of yourself he did not relate to me. For my 
lord of Essex's and your letters, he said, he was 
ready and desirous to do his best. But I seemed to 
make it but a love-wish, and passed presently from 
it, the rather, because it was late in the night, and I 
mean to deal with him at some better leisure after 
another manner, as j'ou shall hereafter understand 
from me. I do find in the speech of some ladies and 
the very face of the court some addition of reputation, 
as methinks, to us both ; and I doubt not but God 
hath an operation in it, that will not suffer good en- 
deavours to perish. 

The queen saluted me to day, as she went to cha- 
pel. I had long speech with Sir Robert Cecil this 
morning, who seemed apt to discourse with me ; yet 
of yourself, ne verbum quidem, not so much as a quo- 
modo valet ? 

This I write to you in haste, aliud ex alio, I pray 
set in a course o,f acquainting my lord keeper what 
passeth, at first by me, and after from yourself. I 
am more and more bound to him. 

Thus wishing you good health, I recommend you 
to God's happy preservation. 

Your intire loving Brother, 
From the court, this 30th of May, [1596.] er. BACON. 

(a) Chancellor of the exchequer. 

(6) Made treasurer of the chamber in July, 159-6, and in May, 
1605, created lord Stanhope of Harrington, in Northamptonshire. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 41 


Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, (a) 

It may please your Lordship, 

I am to make humble complaint to your lordship of 
some hard dealing offered me by one Sympson, a 
goldsmith, a man noted much, as I have heard, for 
extremities and stoutness upon his purse : but yet I 
could scarcely have imagined, he would have dealt 
either so dishonestly towards myself, or so contemp- 
tuously towards her majesty's service. For this Lom- 
bard, pardon me, I most humbly pray your lordship, 
if being admonished by the street he dwells in, I give 
him that name, having me in bond for 3001. principal, 
and I having the last term confessed the action, and 
by his full anddirect consent respited the satisfaction 
till the beginning of this term to come, without ever 
giving me warning, either by letter or message, 
served an execution upon me, having trained me at 
such time, as I came from the Tower, where, Mr. 
Waad can witness, we attend a service of no mean 
importance, (b) Neither would he so much as vouch- 

(a) From the original in the Hatfield collection of state papers 
communicated to me by the Rev. William Murdin, B. D. and in- 
tended by him for the public in a third volume of the collection of 
those papers, if his death had not prevented him from executing 
his design. 

(b) It is not easy to determine what this service was; but it 
seems to relate to the examination of some prisoner ; perhaps Ed- 
ward Squire, executed in November, 1598, for poisoning the queen's 
saddle ; or Valentine Thomas, who accused the king of Scots of 
practices against queen Elizabeth [Historical View, p. 178], or one 
Stanley ; concerning whom I shall insert here passages from two 
MS. letters of John Chamberlain, Esq. ; to his friend, Dudley 
Carleton, Esq. ; afterward ambassador to Venice, the United Pro- 
vinces, and France; these letters being part of a very large collec- 
tion, from 1598 to 1625, which I transcribed from the originals. 
" One Stanley, says Mr. Chamberlain, in his letter dated at London, 
" 3 October, 1598, that came in sixteen days over land with letters 
" out of Spain, is lately committed to the Tower. He was very 
" earnest to have private conference with her majesty, pretending 
" matter of great importance, which he would by no means utter to 
" any body else." In another letter dated 20 November, 1598, Mr. 

42 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

safe to come and speak with me to take any o-der in 
it, though I sent for him divers times, and his house 
was just by ; handling it as upon a despite, being a 
man I never provoked with a cross word, no nor 
with many delays. He would have urged it to have 
had me in prison ; which he had done, had not she- 
riff More, to whom I sent, gently recommended me to 
an handsome house in Coleman-street, where I am. 
Now because he will not treat with me, I am en- 
forced humbly to desire your lordship to send for him 
according to your place, to bring him to some reason ; 
and this forthwith, because I continue here to my far- 
ther discredit and inconvenience, and the trouble of 
the gentleman with whom I am. I have an hundred 
pounds lying by me, which he may have, and the rest 
upon some reasonable time and security ; or, if need 
be, the whole ; but with my more trouble. As for the 
contempt he hath offered, in regard her majesty's 
service, to my understanding, carrieth a privilege 
eimdo et redeundo in meaner causes, much more in 
matters of this nature, especially in persons known to 
be qualified with that place and employment, which, 
though unworthy, I am vouchsafed, [ enforce nothing, 
thinking I have done my part, when I have made it 
known ; and so leave it to your lordship's honour 
able consideration. And so with signification of my 
humble duty, &c. 

Chamberlain observes, that on " the day, that they looked for Stan- 
" ley's arraignment, he came not himself, but sent his forerunner, 
" one Squire, that had been an under-purveyor of the stable, who 
" being in Spain was dealt withal by one Walpole, a Jesuit, to 
" poison the queen and the earl of Essex ; and accordingly came 
" prepared into England, and went with the earl in his own ship the 
" last journey, and poisoned the arms or handles of the chair he 
" used to sit in, with a confection he had received of the Jesuit ; as 
" likewise he had done the pommel of the queen's saddle not past 
" five days before his going to sea. But because nothing succeeded 
" of it, the priest thinking he had either changed his purpose, or be- 
" trayed it, gave Stanley instructions to accuse him ; thereby to get 
" him more credit, and to be revenged of Squire for breaking pro- 
" mise. The fellow confessed the whole practice, and, as it seemed, 
" died very penitent." 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 43 

STATE, (a) 

It may please your Honour, 

I humbly pray you to understand how badly I have 
been used by the enclosed, being a copy of a letter 
of complaint thereof which I have written to the lord 
keeper. How sensitive you are of wrongs offered to 
your blood in my particular, I have had not long 
since experience. But herein I think your honour 
will be doubly sensitive, in tenderness also of the 
indignity to her majesty's service. For as for me, 
Mr. Sympson might have had me every day in Lon- 
don ; and therefore to belay me, while he knew I 
came from the Tower about her majesty's special 
service, was to my understanding very bold. And 
two days before he brags he forbore me, because 1 
dined with sheriff More. So as with Mr. Sympson, 
examinations at the Tower are not so great a privi- 
lege, eundo et redeundo, as sheriff More's dinner. But 
this complaint I make in duty ; and to that end have 
also informed my lord of Essex thereof: for otherwise 
his punishment will do me no good. 

So with signification of my humble duty, I com- 
mend your honour to the divine preservation. 

At your honourable command particularly, 

From Coleman-street, FR. BACON, 

this 24th of September, [1598.] 

The Substance of a Letter I (b) now wish your Lord- 
ship (c) should write to her Majesty. 

That you desire her majesty to believe id, quod res 
ipsa loquitur, that it is not conscience to yourself of 
any advantage her majesty hath towards you, other- 

(«) From the Hatfield collection. 

(6) Francis Bacon. 

(c) Robert, earl of Essex. 

44 Letter*, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

wise than the general and infinite advantage of a 
queen and a mistress ; nor any drift or device to win 
her majesty to any point or particular, that moveth 
you to send her these lines of your own mind. But 
first, and principally, gratitude ; next a natural desire 
of, you will not say, the tedious remembrance, for 
you can hold nothing tedious, that hath been de- 
rived from her majesty ; but the troubled and pensive 
remembrance of that which is past, of enjoying better 
times with her majesty, such as others have had, and 
that you have wanted. You cannot impute the dif- 
ference to the continuance of time, which addcth 
nothing to her majesty but increase of virtue ; but 
rather to your own misfortune or errors. Wherein 
nevertheless, if it were only question of your own 
endurances, though any strength never so good may 
be oppressed, yet you think you should have suffo- 
cated them, as' you had often done, to the impairing 
of your health, and weighing down of your mind. 
But that, which indeed toucheth the quick, is that, 
whereas you accounted it the choice fruit of yourself 
to be a contentment and entertainment to her ma- 
jesty's mind, you found many times to the contrary, 
that you were rather a disquiet to her, and a distaste. 
Again, whereas in the course of her service, though 
you confess the weakness of your own judgment, yet 
true zeal, not misled with any mercenary nor glorious 
respect, made you light sometimes upon the best and 
soundest counsels ; you had reason to fear, that the 
distaste particular against yourself made her majesty 
farther off from accepting any of them from such 
a hand. So as you seemed, to your deep discomfort, 
to trouble her majesty's mind, and to foil her busi- 
ness ; inconveniencies, which if you be minded as 
you ought, thankfulness should teach you to redeem 
with stepping down, nay throwing yourself down, 
from your own fortune. In which intricate case, 
finding no end of this former course, and therefore de- 
sirous to find the beginning of a new, you have not 
whither to resort, but unto the oracle of her majesty's 
direction. For though the true introduction ad tern- 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 45 

pora mellora be by an amnesliu of that which is past, 
except it be in the sense, that the verse speaketh, 
Olhn luce meminisse juvabit, when tempests past are 
remembered in the calm ; and that you do not doubt 
of her majesty's goodness in pardoning and oblite- 
rating any of your errors and mistakings heretofore ; 
refreshing the memory and contemplations of your 
poor services, or any thing that hath been grateful to 
her majesty from you ; yea, and somewhat of your 
sufferings, so though that be, yet you may be to seek 
for the time to come. For as you have determined 
your hope in a good hour, not willingly to offend 
her majesty, either in matter of court or state, but to 
depend absolutely upon her will and pleasure ; so you 
do more doubt and mistrust your wit and insight in 
finding her majesty's mind, than your conformities 
and submission in obeying it ; the rather, because 
you cannot but nourish a doubt in your breast, that 
her majesty, as princes hearts are inscrutable, hath 
many times towards you aliud in ore, et aliud in corde. 
So that you, that take her secundum lite ram, go many 
times farther out of your way 

Therefore your most humble suit to her majesty 
is, that she will vouchsafe you that approach to her 
heart and bosom et ad scrinittm pectoris, plainly, for 
as much as concerneth yourself, to open and expound 
her mind towards you, suffering you to see clear what 
may have bred any dislike in her majesty ; and in 
what points she would have you reform yourself; and 
how she would be served by you. Which done, you 
do assure her majesty, she shall be both at the be 
ginning and the ending of all, that you do, of that 
regard, as you may presume to impart to her majesty 

And so that hoping, that this may be an occasion 
of some farther serenityfrom her majesty towards you, 
you refer the rest to your actions, which may verify 
what you have written ; as that you have written 
may interpret your actions, and the course you shall 
hereafter take. 

Indorsed by Mr. Francis Bacon, 
A letter framed for my lord of Essex to the queen. 

46 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


It may please your Honour, 

Because we live in an age, where every man's im- 
perfections is but another's fable ; and that there 
fell out an accident in the exchequer, which I know 
not how, nor how soon may be traduced, though I 
dare trust rumour in it, except it be malicious, or 
extreme partial ; I am bold now to possess your ho- 
nour, as one, that ever I found careful of my ad- 
vancement, and yet more jealous of my wrongs, with 
the truth of that, which passed ; deferring my farther 
request, until I may attend your honour: and so I 

Your Honour's very humble 

and particularly boanden, 
Gray's Inn, this 24th of April, 1601. fr. BACON 

A true remembrance of the abuse I received of 
Mr Attorney General (b) publicly in the 
exchequer the first day of term ; for the truth 
whereof I refer myself to all that were 

I moved to have a reseizure of the lands of George 
More, a relapsed recusant, a fugitive, and a prac- 
tising traitor; and shewed better matter for the queen 
against the discharge by plea, which is ever with a 
salvo jure. And this I did in as gentle and reason- 
able terms as might be. 

Mr. Attorney kindled at it, and said, " Mr. Bacon, 
" if you have any tooth against me, pluck it out ; 
" for it will do you more hurt than all the teeth in 

(a) From the Hatfield collection. 

(6) Edward Coke, knighted by king James at Greenwich in 
1603 ; and made lord chief justice of the common pleas, 30 June, 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 47 

" your head will do you good." I answered coldly 
in these very words ; " Mr. Attorney, I respect you: 
" I fear you not : and the less you speak of your own 
" greatness, the more I will think of it." 

He replied, " I think scorn to stand upon terms 
" of greatness towards you, who are less than little; 
" less than the least ;" and other such strange light 
terms he gave me, with that insulting, which cannot 
be expressed. 

Herewith stirred, yet I said no more but this : 
" Mr. Attorney, do not depress me so far ; for I have 
" been your better, and may be again, when it please 
" the queen." 

With this he spake, neither I nor himself could 
tell what, as if he had been born attorney general ; 
and in the end bade me not meddle with the queen's 
business, but with mine own ; and that I was un- 
sworn, &c. I told him, sworn or unsworn was all 
one to an honest man ; and that I ever set my ser- 
vice first, and myself second; and wished to God, 
that he would do the like. 

Then he said, it were good to clap a cap. utlegatum 
upon my back! To which I only said he could not ; 
and that he was at a fault ; for he hunted upon an old 

He gave me a number of disgraceful words be- 
sides ; which I answered with silence, and shewing, 
that I was not moved with them. 


It may please your good Lordship, 

They say late thanks are ever best. But the reason 
was, I thought to have seen your lordship ere this. 
Howsoever I shall never forget this your last favour 
amongst others ; and it grieveth me not a little, that 
I find myself of no use to such an honourable and 
kind friend. 

(a) From the Hatfield collection. 

48 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

For that matter, I think I shall desire your assist 
ance for the punishment of the contempt; not that I 
would use the privilege in future time, but because 
I would not have the dignity of the king's service pre- 
judiced in my instance. But herein I will be ruled 
by your lordship. 

It is fit likewise, though much against my mind, 
that I let your lordship know, that I shall not be able 
to pay the money within the time by your lordship 
undertaken, which was a fortnight. Nay, money I 
find so hard to come by at this time, as I thought to 
have become an humble suitor to your honour to have 
sustained me with your credit for the present from 
urgent debts with taking up 3001. till I can put away 
some land. But I am so forward with some sales, as 
this request, I hope, I may forbear. 

For my estate, because your honour hath care of it, 
it is thus : I shall be able with selling the skirts of 
my living in Hertfordshire, (b) to. preserve the body ; 
and to leave myself, being clearly out of debt, and 
having some money in my pocket, 3001. land per an- 
num, with a fair house, and the ground well timbered. 
This is now my labour. 

For my purpose or course, I desire to meddle as 
little as I can in the king's causes, his majesty now 
abounding in council; and to follow my private thrift 
and practice, and to marry with some convenient ad- 
vancement. For as for any ambition, I do assure 
your honour, mine is quenched. In the queen's, my 
excellent mistress's, time, the quorum was small : her 
service was a kind of freehold, and it was a more so- 
lemn time. All those points agreed with my nature 
and judgment. My ambition now I shall only put 
upon my pen, whereby I shall be able to maintain 
memory and merit of the times succeeding. 

Lastly, for this divulged and almost prostituted 
title of knighthood, I could without charge, by your 
honour's mean, be content to have it, both because 
of this late disgrace, and because I have three new 

(b) Garhambury. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 49 

knights in my mess in Gray's-Tnn commons ; and 
because I have found out an alderman s ■ > • S ■■(■■»,(■-■ ) 
a handsome maiden, to my liking. o ^ > ■■■■■ it- 
honour will find the time, I will come 10 ihe cou^t 
from Gorhambury, upon any warning. 

How my sales go forward, your lordship shall in a 
few days hear. Mean while, if you will not be pleased 
to take farther day with this lewd fellow, I hope 
your lordship will not suffer him to take any part of 
the penalty, but principal, interest, and costs. 

So I remain your Lordship's most bounden, 

3 July, 1603. 


It may please your good Lordship, 

In answer of your last letter, your money shall be 
ready before your day, principal, interest, and costs 
of suit. So the sheriff promised, when I released er- 
rors ; and a Jew takes no more. The rest cannot be 
forgotten ; for I cannot forget your lordship's dum me- 
ntor ipsemei: and if there have been aliquid nimis, it 
shall be amended. And, to be plain with your lord- 
ship, that will quicken me now which slackened me 
before. Then 1 thought you might have had more 
use of me than now, i suppose, you are like to have. 
Not but I think the impediment will be rather in my 
mind than in the matter or times. But to do you 
service, I will come out of my religion at any time. 

For my knighthood, (a) I wish the manner might 
be such as might grace me, since the matter will not : 
I mean, that I might not be merely gregarious in a 

(c) Probably the lady whom he afterwards married, Alice, one of 
the daughters and coheirs of Benedict Barnham, Esq. alderman of 
London. She survived her husband above twenty years. Life of 
Lord Bacon, by Dr. William Raivley. 

(a) He was knighted at Whitehall, 23 July, 1603. 

50 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

troop. The coronation (b) is at hand. It may please 
your lordship to let me hear from you speedily So 
I continue 

Your Lordship's ever much bounden, 

From Gorhambury, this 

16th of July, 1603. *R. BACON. 



MS. collec- 
tions of 

stfphe-, Mr ' Attorney, 

«wed? I thank you for your letter, and the discourse you 
sent of this new accident, as things then appeared. 
I see manifestly the beginning of better or worse : 
but me thinketh it is first a tender of the better, and 
worse followeth but upon refusal or default. I would 
have been glad to see you here ; but I hope occasion 
reserveth our meeting for a vacation, when we may 
have more fruit of conference. To requite your 
proclamation, which, in my judgment, is wisely and 
seriously penned, I send you another with us, which 
happened to be in my hands when yours came. I 
would be glad to hear often from you, and to be ad- 
vertised how things pass, whereby to have some oc- 
casion to think some good thoughts ; though I can do 
little. At the least it will be a continuance in exer- 
cise of our friendship, which on my part remaineth 
increased by that I hear of your service, and the 
good respects I find towards myself. And so in Tor- 
mour's haste, I continue 

Your very loving friend, 

From Gray's-Inn, this 23dofOctob. 1607. 

(b) It was solemnized, 24 July, 1603. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 5i 


Cum ex Uteris, quas ad dominura Carew misisti, cog- 
noscam scripta mea a te probari, et mihi de judicio 
tuo gratulatus sum, et tibi, quam ea res mihi fuerit 
voluptati, scribendum existimavi. Atque illud etiam 
de me recte auguraris, me scientias ex latebris in 
lucem extrahere vehementer cupere. Neque enim 
multum interest ea per otium scribi, quae per otium 
legantur, sed plane vitam, et res humanas, et medias 
earum turbas, per contemplationes sanas et veras in- 
structiores esse volo. Quanta autem in hoc genere 
aggrediar, et quam parvis prsesidiis, postmodurn for- 
tasse rescisces. Etiam tu pariter gratissimum mihi 
facies, si quae in animo habes atque moliris et agitas, 
mihi nota esse velis. Nam conjunctionem animorum 
et studiorum plus facere ad amicitias judico, quam ci- 
vilis necessitatis et occasionum officia. Equidem ex- 
istimo neminem unquam magis vere potuisse dicere 
de sese, quam me ipsum, illud quod habet psalmus, 
multum incola fuit anima mea. Itaque magis videor 
cum antiquis versari, quam cum his, quibuscumvivo. 
Quid ni etiam possim cum absentibus potius Versari, 
quam cum iis, qui preesto sunt ; et magis electione in 
amicitiis uti, quam occasionibus de more submitti ? 
Verum ad institutum revertor ego ; si qua in re ami- 
citia mea tibi aut tuis usui aut ornamento esse possit, 
tibi operam meam bonam atque navam polliceor. 
Itaque salutem tibi dicit 

Amicus tuus, 8$c. 
Indorsed, To Casaubon. 

(a) This letter appears to have been written after Sir George 
Carew, mentioned in it, returned from his embassy in France, in 
October, 1609 ; and before the arrival of Casaubon in England, in 
Octob. 1610. 

E 2 

52 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

The beginning of a Letter immediately after my 
Lord Treasurer's (a) decease, (b) 

May 29, 1612-. 

It may please your Majesty, 

If I shall seem in these few lines to write major a quam 
pro fortuna, it may please your majesty to take it to 
be an effect, not of presumption, but of affection. For 
of the one I was never noted ; and for the other I 
could never shew it hitherto to the full ; being as a 
hawk tied to another's fist, that might sometimes bait 
and proffer, but could never fly And therefore if, 
as it was said to one, that spoke great words, Amice, 
verba tua desiderant civitatem, (c) so your majesty say 
to me, " Bacon, your words require a place to speak 
" them ;" I must answer, that place, or not place, 
is in your majesty to add or refrain : and though I 
never grow eager but to ***** * yet your ma- 


Immediately after the Lord Treasurer's death. 

31 May, 1612. 
It may please your excellent Majesty, 

I cannot but endeavour to merit, considering your 
preventing graces, which is the occasion of these few 

Your majesty .hath lost a great subjectand a great ser- 
vant. But if I should praise him in propriety, I should 
say, that he was a fit man to keep things from growing 
worse ; but no very fit man to reduce things to be 
much better. For he loved to have the eyes of all Israel 

(a) Robert earl of Salisbury, who died 24 May, 1612. 

(b) The draught of this imperfect letter is written chiefly in 
Greek characters. 

(c) These words of Themistocles are cited likewise by lord 
Bacon at the end of his book De Avgmentis Scientiarwm. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 53 

a little too much on himself, and to have all business 
still under the hammer; and, like clay in the hands of 
the potter, to mould it as he thought good ; so that 
he was more in operatione than in opere. And though 
he had fine passages of action, yet the real conclu- 
sions came slowly on. So that although your ma- 
jesty hath grave counsellors and worthy persons left ; 
yet you do, as it were, turn a leaf, wherein if your ma- 
jesty shall give a frame and constitution to matters, 
before you place the persons, in my simple opinion it 
were not amiss. But the great matter, and most in- 
stant for the present, is the consideration of a parlia- 
ment, for two effects : the one for the supply of your 
estate ; the other for the better knitting of the hearts 
of your subjects unto yourmajesty, according to your 
infinite merit ; for both which, parliaments have been, 
and are, the ancient and honourable remedy 

Now because I take myself to have a little skill in 
that region, as one, that ever affected, that your ma- 
jesty might, in all your causes, not only prevail, but 
prevail with satisfaction of the inner man ; and though 
no man can say but I was a perfect and peremptory 
royalist, yet every man makes me believe that I was 
never one hour out of credit with the lower house : my 
desire is to know, whether your majesty will give me 
leave to meditate and propound unto you some pre- 
parative remembrances, touching the future parlia- 

Your majesty may truly perceive, that, though I 
cannot challenge to myself either invention, or judg- 
ment, or elocution, or method, or any of those powers ; 
yet my offering is care and observance : and as my 
good old mistress was wont to call me her watch-can- 
dle, because it pleased her to say, I did continually 
burn, and yet she suffered me to waste almost to no- 
thing ; so I must much more owe the like duty to 
your majesty, by whom my fortunes have been set- 
tled and raised. And so craving pardon, I rest 

Your Majesty's most humble servant devote, 

Fi B. 

54 Letters^ etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


It may please your excellent Majesty, 
My principal end being to do your majesty service, 
I crave leave to make at this time to your majesty this 
most humble oblation of myself. I may truly say with 
the psalm, Multum incola fuit anima mea ; for my 
life hath been conversant in things, wherein I take 
little pleasure. Your majesty may have heard some- 
what, that my father was an honest man ; and some- 
what yet I may have been of myself, though not to 
make any true judgment by, because I have hitherto 
had only potestatem verborum, nor that neither. I was 
three of my young years bred with an ambassador (a) 
in France, and since I have been an old truant in the 
school-house of your council-chamber, though on the 
second form ; yet longer than any, that now sitteth, 
hath been in the head form. If your majesty find any 
aptness in me, or if you find any scarcity in others, 
whereby you may think it fit for your service to re- 
move me to business of state, although I have a fair 
way before me for profit, and, by your majesty's grace 
and favour, for honour and advancement, and in a 
course less exposed to the blast of fortune ; yet now 
that he (b) is gone, quo vivente virtutibus certissimum 
exitium, I will be ready as a chessman to be, where- 
ever your majesty's royal hand shall set me. Your 
majesty will bear me witness, I have not suddenly 
opened myself thus far. I have looked on upon 
others. I see the exceptions ; I see the distractions; 
and I fear Tacitus will be a prophet, magis alii homines, 
quam alii mores. I know mine own heart ; and I 
know not, whether God, that hath touched my heart 
with the affection, may not touch your royal heart to 
discern it. Howsoever, I shall go on honestly in 
mine ordinary course, and supply the rest in prayers 
for you, remaining, &c. 

(a) Sir Amias Poulet, who was sent ambassador to France, in Sep- 
tember, 1576. He was succeeded by Sir Edward Stafford, in De- 
cember, 1578. 

(b) Lord Treasurer Salisbury. 

Letters, etc. of lard Chancellor Bacon,, 55 


* * * Lastly, I will make two prayers unto your 
majesty, as I used to do to God Almighty, when I 
commend to him his own glory and cause ; so I will 
pray to your majesty for yourself. 

The one is, that these cogitations of want do not 
any ways trouble or vex your mind. I remember, 
Moses saith of the land of promise, that it was not like 
the land of Egypt, that was watered with a river, but 
was watered with showers from heaven ; whereby I 
gather, God preferreth sometimes uncertainties before 
certainties, because they teach a more immediate de- 
pendence upon his providence. Sure I am nil novi 
accidit vobis. It is no new thing for the greatest 
kings to be in debt : and if a man shall parvis com- 
ponere magna, I have seen an earl of Leicester, a 
chancellor Hatton, an earl of Essex, and an earl of 
Salisbury in debt ; and, yet was it no manner of di- 
minution to their power or greatness. 

My second prayer is, that your majesty, in respect 
of the hasty freeing of your state, would not descend 
to any means, or degree of means, which carrieth not 
a symmetry with your majesty and greatness. He is 
gone, from whom those courses did wholly flow. So 
have your wants and necessities in particular, as it 
were, hanged up in two tablets before the eyes of your 
lords and commons to be talked of for four months 
together : to have all your courses to help yourself 
in revenue or profit put into printed books, which 
were wont to be held arcana imperii : to have such 
worms of aldermen to lend for ten in the hundred upon 
good assurance, and with such * *, as if it should save 
the bark of your fortune : to contract still where 
might be had the readiest payment, and not the best 
bargain: to stir a number of projects for your profit, 
and then to blast them, and leave your majesty nothing 
but the scandal of them : to pretend an even carriage 

(a) The beginning of this letter is wanting. 

56 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

between your majesty's rights and the ease of the 
people, and to satisfy neither. These courses and 
others the like, I hope, are gone with the deviser of 
them ; which have turned your majesty to inestimable 

prejudice, (b) 

I hope your majesty will pardon my liberty of 
writing. I know these things are majora quam pro 
fortuna : but they are minora quam pro studio et vo- 
kintate. I assure myself, your majesty taketh not me 
for one of a busy nature ; for my state being free from 
all difficulties, and I having such a large field for con- 
templations, as I have partly, and shall much more 
make manifest to your majesty and the world, to 
occupy my thoughts, nothing could make me active, 
but love and affection. So praying my God to bless 
and favour your person and estate, &c. 


It may please your excellent Majesty, 

1 have, with all possible diligence since your ma- 
jesty's progress, attended the service committed to 
the sub-commissioners, touching the repair and im- 
provement of your majesty's means: and this I have 
done, not only in meeting, and conference, and de- 
bate with the rest; but also by my several and private 
meditation and inquiry So that, besides the joint 
account, which we shall give to the lords, I hope I 

(b) It will be but justice to the memory of the earl of Salisbury to 
remark, that this disadvantageous character of him by Sir Francis 
Bacon seems to have been heightened by the prejudices of the latter 
against that able minister, grounded upon some suspicions, that the 
earl had not served him with so much zeal, as he might have expected 
from so near a relation, either in queen Elizabeth's reign, or that, of 
her successor. Nor is it any just imputation on his lordship, that he 
began to decline in King James I.'s good opinion, when his majesty's 
ill economy occasioned demands on the lord treasurer, which all his 
skill, in the business of the finances, could not answer, but which 
drew from him advices and remonstrances still extant, which that 
king, not being very ready to profit by, conceived some resentment 
against his old servant, and even retained it against his memory. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 57 

shall be able to give your majesty somewhat ex pro- 
prio. For as no man loveth better consulere in com- 
mune than I do ; neither am I of those fine ones, that 
use to keep back any thing, wherein they think they 
may win credit apart, and so make the consultation 
almost inutile. So nevertheless, in cases, where mat- 
ters shall fall in upon the bye, perhaps of no less worth 
than that, which is the proper subject of the consul- 
tation ; or where I find things passed over too slightly, 
or in cases, where that, which I should advise, is of 
that nature, as I hold it not fit to be communicated 
to all those with whom I am joined ; these parts of 
business I put to my private account ; not because I 
would be officious (though I profess I would do works 
of supererogation, if I could), but in a true discretion 
and caution. And your majesty had some taste in 
those notes, which I gave you for the wards (which it 
pleased you to say were no tricks nor novelties, but 
true passages of business), that mine own particular 
remembrances and observations are not like to be 
unprofitable. Concerning which notes for the wards, 
though I might say, sic vos non vobis ; yet let that 

I have also considered fully of that great proposi- 
tion, which your majesty commended to my care and 
study, touching the conversion ofyour revenue of land 
into a multiplied present revenue of rent :. wherein I 
say, I have considered of the means and course to be 
taken, of the assurance, of the rates, of the exceptions, 
and of the arguments for and against it. For though 
the project itself be as old as I can remember, and 
falleth under every man's capacity ; yet the dispute 
and manage of it asketh a great deal of consideration 
and judgment ; projects being like iEsop's tongues, 
the best meat and the worst, as they are chosen and 
handled. But surely, ubi deficiunt remedia ordinaria, 
recurrendum est ad extraor dinar ia. Of this also I am 
ready to give your majesty an account. 

Generally upon this subject of the repair of your 
majesty's means, I beseech your majesty to give me 
leave to make this judgment, that your majesty's re- 

58 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

covery must be by the medicines of the Galenists and 
Arabians, and not of the Chemists or Paracelsians. 
For it will not be wrought by any one fine extract or 
strong water ; but by a skilful company of a number 
of ingredients, and those by just weight and propor- 
tion, and that of some simples, which perhaps of them- 
selves, or in over-great quantity were little better than 
poisons ; but mixed, and broken, and in just quantity, 
are full of virtue. And secondly, that as your ma- 
jesty's growing behind-hand hath been work of time ; 
so must likewise be your majesty's coming forth and 
making even. Not but I wish it were by all good 
and fit means accelerated ; but that I foresee, that if 
your majesty shall propound to yourself to do it per 
saltum, it can hardly be without accidents of prejudice 
to your honour, safety or profit. 


My letter to the King, touching his estate in ge- 
neral, September 18th, 1612. 


HENRicusprimogenitus regis Magnae Britannise prin- 
ceps Wallise, antea spe beatus, nunc memoria felix, 
diem suum obiit 6 Novemb. anno 1612. Is magno 
totius regni luctu et desiderio extinctus est, utpote 
adolescens, qui animos hominum nee offendisset 
nee satiasset. Excitaverat autem propter bonam 
indolem multiplices apud plurimos omnium ordi- 
num spes, nee ob brevitatem vitse frustraverat. Illud 
imprimis accessit, quod in causa religionis firmus 
vulgo habebatur : prudentioribus quoque hoc animo 
penitus insiderat, ad versus insidias conjurationum, 
cui malo setas nostra vix remedium reperit, patri eum 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 1893. fol. 75. It seems to me no improbable 
supposition, that this character was intended to be sent to Thuanus, 
in order to be inserted in his excellent history, if he should have 
continued it to the year 1612, whereas it reached only to 1607 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 59 

instar preesidii et scuti fuisse, adeo ut et religionis et 
regis apud populum amor in eum redundaret, et in 
aestimationem jacturae merito annumeraretur. Erat 
corpore validus et erectus, statura mediocri, decora 
membrorum compage, incessu regio, facie oblonga et 
in maciem inclinante, habitu plenior, vultu compo- 
site, oculorum motu magis sedato quam forti. Inerant 
quoque et in fronte severitatis signa, et in ore nonni- 
hil fastus. Sed tamen si quis ultra exteriora ilia pe- 
netraverat, et eum obsequio debito et sermone tem- 
pestivo deliniverat. utebatur eo benigno et facili, ut 
alius longe videretur colloquio quam aspectu, talisque 
prorsus erat, qui famam sui excitaret moribus dissi- 
milem. Laudis et gloriae fuit procul dubio appetens, 
et ad omnem speciem boni et auram decoris com- 
movebatur; quod adolescenti pro virtu tibus est. Nam 
et arma ei in honore erant ac viri militares ; quin et 
ipse quiddam bellicum spirabat ; et magnificentiae 
operum, licet pecuniae alioquin satis parcus, deditus 
erat : amator insuper antiquitatis et artium. Literis 
quoque plus honoris attribuit quam temporis. In mo- 
ribus ejus nihil laudandum magis fuit, quam quod in 
omni genere officiorum probe institutus credebatur 
et congruus : filius regi patri mire obsequens, etiam 
reginam multo cultu demerebat, erga fratrem indul- 
gens ; sororem vero unice amabat, quam etiam, quan- 
tum potuit virilis forma ad eximiam virginalem pul- 
chritudinem collata, referebat. Etiam magistri et 
educatores pueritiae ejus, quod raro fieri solet, magna 
in gratia apud eum manserant. Sermone vero obse- 
quii idem exactor et memor. Denique in quotidiano 
vitae genere, et assignatione horarum ad singula vitas 
munera, magis quam pro aetate constans atque ordina- 
tus. AfFectus ei inerant non nimium vehementes, et 
potius aequales quam magni. Etenim de rebus ama- 
toriis mirum in ilia aetate silentium, ut prorsus lubri- 
cura illud adolescentiae suae tempus in tanta fortuna, 
et valetudine satis prospera, absque aliqua insigni 
nota amorum transigeret. Nemo reperiebatur in aula 
ejus apud eum praepotens, aut in animo ejus validus : 
quin et studia ipsa, quibus capiebatur maxime, potius 

60 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

tempora patiebanturquam excessus, et magis repetita 
erant per vices, quam quod extaret aliquod unura, 
quod reliqua superaret et compesceret, sive ea mode- 
ratio fuit, sive in natura non admodum praecoci, sed 
lente maturescente, non cernebantur adhuc quae prae- 
valitura erant. Tngenio certe pollebat, eratque et 
curiosus satis et capax, sed sermone tardior et tan- 
quam impeditus : tamen si quis diligenter observave- 
rat ea, quae ab eo proferebantur, sive quaestionis vim 
obtinebant sive sentential, ad rem omnino erant, et 
captum non vulgarem arguebant ; ut in ilia loquendi 
tarditate et raritate judicium ejus magis suspensum 
videretur et anxium, quam infirmum aut hebes. In- 
terim audiendi miris modis patiens, etiam in negotiis, 
quae in longitudinem porrigebantur; idque cum atten- 
tione et sine taedio, ut raro animo peregrinaretur aut 
fessa mente aliquid ageret, sed ad ea, quae dicebantur, 
aut agebantur, animum adverteret atque applicaret ; 
quod magnam ei, si vita suppetiisset, prudentiam 
spondebat. Certe in illius principis natura plurima 
erant obscura, neque judicio cujuspiampatefacienda, 
sed tempore, quod ei praereptum est. Attamen quae 
apparebant, optima erant, quod famae satis est. Mor- 
tuus est aetatis suae anno decimo nono ex febri contu- 
maci, quae ubique a magnis et insulanis fere insolitis 
siccitatibus ac fervoribusorta per aestatem populariter 
grassabatur, sed raro funere; dein sub autumnum erat 
facta lethalior. Addidit fama atrocior, ut ille (b) ait, 
erga dominantium exitus suspicionem veneni. Sed 
cum nulla ejus rei extarent indicia, praesertim in 
ventriculo, quod praecipue a veneno pati solet, is 
sermo cito evanuit. 

(b) Tacit. Annal. 1. iv. 11. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 6 1 

The following translation is an attempt, for the 
sake of the English reader, to give the sense 
of the original, without pretending to reach 
the force and conciseness of expression pecu- 
liar to the great writer as well as to the Ro- 
man language. 

Henry Prince of Wales, eldest son of the king of 
Great Britain, happy in the hopes conceived of him, 
and now happy in his memory, died on the 6th of 
Nov. 1612, to the extreme concern and regret of 
the whole kingdom, being a youth, who had neither 
offended nor satiated the minds of men. He had by 
the excellence of his disposition excited high expec- 
tations among great numbers of all ranks ; nor had 
through the shortness of his life disappointed them. 
One capital circumstance added to these was the 
esteem, in which he was commonly held, of being 
firm to the cause of religion: and men of the best 
judgment were fully persuaded, that his life was a 
great support and security to his father from the danger 
of conspiracies ; an evil, against which our age has 
scarce found a remedy ; so that the people's love of 
religion and the king overflowed to the prince ; and 
this consideration deservedly heightened the sense 
of the loss of him. His person was strong and 
erect ; his stature of a middle size ; his limbs well 
made; his gait and deportment majestic ; his face 
long and inclining to leanness ; his habit of body full ; 
his look grave, and the motion of his eyes rather com- 
posed than spirited. In his countenance were some 
marks of severity, and in his air some appearance of 
haughtiness. But whoever looked beyond these out- 
ward circumstances, and addressed and softened him 
with a due respect and seasonable discourse, found 
the prince to be gracious and easy ; so that he seemed 
wholly different in conversation from what he was in 
appearance, and in fact raised in others an opinion of 
himself very unlike what his manner would at first 

62 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

have suggested. He was unquestionably ambitious 
of commendation and glory, and was strongly af- 
fected by every appearance of what is good and ho- 
nourable ; which in a young man is to be considered 
as virtue. Arms and military men were highly valued 
by him; and he breathed himself something warlike. 
He was much devoted to the magnificence of build- 
ings and works of all kinds, though in other respects 
rather frugal ; and was a lover both of antiquity 
and arts. He shewed his esteem of learning in ge- 
neral more by the countenance which he gave to it, 
than by the time which he spent in it. His conduct 
in respect of morals did him the utmost honour; for 
he was thought exact in the knowledge and practice 
of every duty His obedience to the king his father 
was wonderfully strict and exemplary : towards the 
queen he behaved with the highest reverence : to his 
brother he was indulgent; and had an entire affection 
for his sister, whom he resembled in person as much 
as that of a young man could the beauty of a virgin. 
The instructors of his younger years (which rarely hap- 
pens) continued high in his favour. In conversation 
he both expected a proper decorum, and practised it. 
In the daily business of life, and the allotment of 
hours for the several offices of it, he was more con- 
stant and regular than is usual at his age. His 
affections and passions were not strong, but rather 
equal than warm. With regard to that of love, there 
was a wonderful silence considering his age, so 
that he passed that dangerous time of his youth, in 
the highest fortune, and in a vigorous state of health, 
without any remarkable imputation of gallantry In 
his court no person was observed to have any as- 
cendant over him, or strong interest with him : and 
even the studies, with which he was most delighted, 
had rather proper times assigned them, than were in- 
dulged to excess, and were rather repeated in their 
turns, than that any one kind of them had the pre- 
ference of, and controlled the rest: whether this arose 
from the moderation of his temper, and that in a ge- 
nius not very forward, but ripening by slow degrees, 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 63 

it did not yet appear what would be the prevailing 
object of his inclination. He had certainly strong 
parts, and was endued with both curiosity and capa- 
city ; but in speech he was slow, and in some mea- 
sure hesitating. But whoever diligently observed 
what fell from him either by way of question or re- 
mark, saw it to be full to the purpose, and expressive 
of no common genius. So that under that slowness 
and infrequency of discourse, his judgment had more 
the appearance of suspense and solicitude to deter- 
mine rightly, than of weakness and want of appre- 
hension. In the mean time he was wonderfully pa- 
tient in hearing, even in business of the greatest 
length ; and this with unwearied attention, so that his 
mind seldom wandered from the subject, or seemed 
fatigued, but he applied himself wholly to what was 
said or done : which (if his life had been lengthened) 
promised a very superior degree of prudence. There 
were indeed in the prince some things obscure, and 
not to be discovered by the sagacity of any person, 
but by time only, which was denied him ; but what 
appeared were excellent, which is sufficient for his 

He died in the 1 9th year of his age of an obsti- 
nate fever, which during the summer, through the 
excessive heat and dryness of the season, unusual to 
islands, had been epidemical, though not fatal, but in 
autumn became more mortal. Fame, which, as Ta- 
citus says, is more tragical with respect to the deaths 
of princes, added a suspicion of poison : but as no 
signs of this appeared, especially in his stomach, 
which uses to be chiefly affected by poison, this re- 
port soon vanished. 


May it please your Majesty, 

According to your highness's pleasure signified 
by my lord chamberlain, (a) I have considered of 

(a) Thomas Howard, earl of Suffolk. 

64 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

the petition of certain baronets (b) made unto your 
majesty for confirmation and extent or explanation 
of certain points mentioned in their charter ; and am 
of opinion, that first, whereas it is desired, that the 
baronets be declared a middle degree between baron 
and knight, I hold this to be reasonable as to their 

Secondly, where it is desired, that unto the words 
degree or dignity of baron, the word honour might be 
added ; I know very well, that in the preface of the 
baronet's patent it is mentioned, that all honours are 
derived from the king. 1 find also, that in the pa- 
tent of the baronets, which are marshalled under the 
barons, except it be certain principals, the word ho- 
nour is granted. I find also, that the word dignity is 
many times in law a superior word to the word ho- 
nour, as being applied to the king himself, all capi- 
tal indictments concluding contra coronam et dignita- 
tem nostram. It is evident also, that the word honour 
and honourable are used in these times in common 
speechverypromiscuously Nevertheless, because the 
style of honour belongs chiefly to peers and counsel- 
lors, I am doubtful what opinion to give therein. 

Thirdly, whereas it is believed, that if there be any 
question of precedence touching baronets, it may be 
ordered that the same bedecidedby the commissioners 
marshal, I do not see but it may be granted them for 
avoiding disturbances. 

Fourthly, for the precedence of baronets, I find no 
alteration or difficulty, except it be in this, that the 
daughters of baronets are desired to be declared to 
have precedence before the wives of knights' eldest 
sons ; which, because it is a degree hereditary, and that 
in all examples, the daughters in general have place 
next the eldest brothers' wives, I hold convenient. 

{b) The order of baronets was created by patent of king James I. 
dated the 22d of May, 1611. The year following, a decree was 
made relating to their place and precedence, and four years after, 
namely, in 1616, another decree to the same purpose. See Selden's 
Titles of Honour, Part II. Ch. V p. 821. Ch. XI. p. 906, and 910, 
2d Edit. fol. 1631. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 65 

Lastly, whereas it is desired, that the apparent 
heirs males of the bodies of the baronets may be 
knighted during the life of their fathers ; for that I 
have received from the lord chamberlain a signifi- 
cation, that your majesty did so understand it, I hum- 
bly subscribe thereunto, with this, that the baronets' 
eldest sons being knights do not take place of an- 
cient knights, so long as their fathers live. 

All which nevertheless I humbly submit to your 
majesty's better judgment. 

Your Majesty's most humble 

and most bounden servant, 



My Lords, 

The offence, wherewith Mr. Whitelocke is charged, 
for as to Sir Robert Mansell, I take it to my part 
only to be sorry for his error, is a contempt of a 
high nature, and resting upon two parts : on the one, 

(a) He had been committed, in May 1613, to the Fleet, for speak- 
ing too boldly against the marshal's court, and for giving his opinion 
to Sir Robert Mansell, treasurer of the navy, and vice-admiral, that 
the commission to the earl of Nottingham, lord high-admiral, for 
reviewing and reforming the disorders committed by the officers of 
the navy, was not according to law ; though Mr. Whitelocke had 
given that opinion only in private to his client, and not under his hand. 
Sir Robert Mansell was also committed to the Marshalsea, for ani- 
mating the lord admiral against the commission. [Sir Ralph Wind- 
wood's Memorials of State, Vol. III. p. 460.] This Mr. Whitelocke 
was probably the same with James Whitelocke, who was born in 
London, 28 November, 1572, educated at Merchant-tailors' school 
there, and St. John s college in Oxford, and studied law in the Middle 
Temple, of which he was summer reader in 1619. In the preceding 
year, 1618, he stood for the place of recorder of the city of London, 
but was not elected to it, Robert Heath, esq. being chosen on the 
10th of November, chiefly by the recommendation of the king, the 
city having been told, that they must choose none, whom his majesty 
should refuse, as he did in particular except to Mr. Whitelocke by 
name [MS. letter of Mr. Chamberlain to Sir Dudley Carleton, 
November 14, 1618]. Mr. Whitelocke, however, was called to 
VOL. vr F 

66 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

a presumptuous and licentious censure and defying 
of his majesty's prerogative in general ; the other a 
slander and traducement .of one act of emanation 
hereof, containing a commission of survey and refor- 
mation of abuses in the office of the navy. 

This offence is fit to be opened and set before your 
lordships, as it hath been well begun, both in the 
true state and in the true weight of it. For as I de- 
sire, that the nature of the offence may appear in its 
true colours ; so, on the other side, I desire, that the 
shadow of it may not darken or involve any thing 
that is lawful, or agreeable with the just and reason- 
able liberty of the subject. 

First, we must and do agree, that the asking, and 
taking, and giving of counsel in law is an essential 
part of justice; and to deny that, is to shut the gate 
of justice, which in the Hebrews' commonwealth was 
therefore held in the gate, to shew all passage to 
justice must be open : and certainly counsel in law is 
one of the passages. But yet, for all that, this li- 
berty is not infinite and without limits. 

If a jesuited papist should come, and ask counsel 
(I put a case not altogether feigned) whether all the 
acts of parliament made in the time of queen Eliza- 
beth and king James are void or no ; because there 
are no lawful bishops sitting in the upper house, and 
a parliament must consist of lords spiritual and tem- 
poral and commons ; and a lawyer will set it under 
his hand, that they be all void, I will touch him for 
high treason upon this his counsel. 

So, if a puritan preacher will ask counsel, whether 
he may style the king Defender of the Faith, because 
he receives not the discipline and presbytery ; and the 
lawyer will tell him, it is no part of the king's style, 
it will go hard with such a lawyer. 

Or if a tribunitious popular spirit will go and ask a 

the degree of sergeant in Trinity-term 1620, knighted, made chief 
justice of Chester ; and at last, on the 18th of October, 1624, one of 
the justices of the King's Bench; in which post he died June, 1632. 
He was father of Bulstrode Whitelocke, esq. : commissioner of the 
great seal. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 67 

lawyer, whether the oath and band of allegiance be 
to the kingdom and crown only, and not to the king, 
as was Hugh Spenser's case, and he deliver his opi- 
nion as Hugh Spenser did ; he will be in Hugh Spen- 
ser's danger. 

So as the privilege of giving counsel proveth not 
all opinions ; and as some opinions given are trai- 
torous ; so are there others of a much inferior nature, 
which are contemptuous. And among these I reckon 
Mr. Whitelocke's ; for as for his loyalty and true 
heart to the king, God forbid I should doubt it. 

Therefore let no man mistake so far, as to con- 
ceive, that any lawful and due liberty of the subject 
for asking counsel in law is called in question when 
points of disloyalty or of contempt are restrained. 
Nay, we see it is the grace and favour of the king 
and his courts, that if the case be tender, and a wise 
lawyer in modesty and discretion refuseth to be of 
counsel, for you have lawyers sometimes too nice as 
well as too bold, they are then ruled and assigned 
to be of counsel. For Certainly counsel is the blind 
man's guide ; and sorry I am with all my heart, that 
in this case the blind did lead the blind. 

For the offence, for which Mr. Whitelocke is 
charged, I hold it great, and to have, as I said at 
first, two parts : the one a censure, and, as much as 
in him is, a circling, nay a clipping of the king's 
prerogative in general ; the other, a slander and de- 
pravation of the king's power and honour in this 

And for the first of these, I consider it again in 
three degrees : first, that he presumed to censure the 
king's prerogative at all. Secondly, that he runneth 
into the generality of it more than was pertinent to 
the present question. And lastly, that he hath erro- 
neously, and falsely, and dangerously given opinion 
in derogation of it. 

First, I make a great difference between the king's 
grants and ordinary commissions of justice, and the 
king's high commissions of regiment, or mixed with 
causes of state. 

F 2 

68 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

For the former, there is no doubt but they may be 
freely questioned and disputed, and any defect in 
matter or form stood upon, though the king be many 
times the adverse party : 

But for the latter sort, they are rather to be dealt 
with, if at all, by a modest, and humble intimation or 
remonstrance to his majesty and his council, than by 
bravery of dispute or peremptory opposition. 

Of this kind is that properly to be understood, 
which is said in Bracton, De chartis et factis regiis 
non debent aut possunt justitiarii out privates per- 
sons disputare, sed tutius est, nt expect etur sententia 


And the king's courts themselves have been ex- 
ceeding tender and sparing in it ; so that there is in 
all our law not three cases of it. And in that very 
case of 24 Ed. 3. ass. pi. s. which Mr. Whitelocke 
vouched, where, as it was a commission to arrest a 
man, and to carry him to prison, and to seize his 
goods without any form of justice or examination 
preceding; and that the judges saw it was obtained 
by surreption : yet the judges said they would keep 
it by them, and shew it to the king's council. 

But Mr. Whitelocke did not advise his client to 
acquaint the king's council with it, but presumptu- 
ously giveth opinion, that it is void. Nay, not so 
much as a clause or passage of modesty, as that he 
submits his opinion to censure : that it is too great 
a matter for him to deal in ; or this is my opinion, 
which is nothing, &c. But illotis manibus, he takes 
it into his hands, and pronounceth of it, as a man 
would scarcely do of a warrant of a justice of peace, 
and speaks like a dictator, that this is law, and this is 
against law, &c. (b) 


(6) Sir H. Wotton, in a letter of his to Sir Edmund Bacon, [Reliq. 
Wotton. p. 421. edit. 3d] written about the beginning of June, 1613, 
mentions, that Sir Robert Mansell and Mr. Whitelocke were, on the 
Saturday before, called to a very honourable hearing in the queen's 
presence chamber at Whitehall, before the lords of the council, with 
intervention of the lord chief justice Coke, the lord chief baron Tan- 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 69 

Robert Earl of Somerset to Sir Thomas 
Overbury (a) From a copy among Lord 
JJacon's papers in the Lambeth library 


I have considered that my answer to you, and what 
I have otherwise to say, will exceed the bounds of 
a letter ; and now having not much time to use be- 
twixt my waiting on the king, and the removes we 
do make in this our little progress, I thought fit to 
use the same man to you, whom I have heretofore 
many times employed in the same business. He has, 
besides an account and a better description of me to 
give you, to make a repetition of the former car- 
riages of all this business, that you may distinguish 
that, which he did by knowledge of mine and direc- 
tion, and betwixt that he did out of his own discre- 
tion without my warrant. With all this he has to 
renew to you a former desire of mine, which was the 
ground-work of this, and the chief errand of his 
coming to you, wherein I desire your answer by him. 
I would not employ this gentleman to you, if he were, 
as you conceit of him, your unfriend, or an ill instru- 
ment betwixt us. So owe him the testimony of one, 

field, and the master of the rolls ; the lord chief justice of the King's 
Bench, Fleming, being kept at home by some infirmity. There 
the attorney and solicitor first undertook Mr. Whitelocke, and the 
recorder [Henry Montagu], as the king's Serjeant, Sir Robert Man- 
sell, charging the one as a counsellor, the other as a questioner, in 
matters of the king's prerogative and sovereignty upon occasion of 
a commission intended for a research into the administration of the 
admiralty. " Whitelocke in his answer," adds Sir Henry Wotton, 
" spake more confusedly than was expected from a lawyer; and the 
" knight more temperately than was expected from a soldier 
" Whitelocke ended his speech with an absolute confession of his 
" own offence, and with a promise of employing himself hereafter in 

" defence of the king's prerogative In this they generally agreed, 

" both counsellors and judges, to represent the humiliation of both 
" the prisoners to the king, in lieu of innocency, and to intercede 
" for his gracious pardon : which was done, and accordingly the 
" next day they were inlarged upon a submission under writing." 

(a) He was committed to the Tower on the 21st of April, 1613, 
and died there of poison on the 15th of September following. 

70 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

that has spoken as honestly, and given more praises 
of you, than any man, that has spoken to me. 

My haste at this time makes me to end sooner 
than I expected: but the subject of my next send- 
ing shall be to answer that part you give me in your 
love, with a return of the same from 

Your assured loving friend, 


Lord Somerset's first letter 


It may please your most excellent Majesty, 

Having understood of the death of the lord chief 
justice (a) I do ground in all humbleness an assured 
hope, that your majesty will not think of any other 
but your poor servants, your attorney, (b) and your 
solicitor, (c) one of them, for that place. Else we 
shall be like Noah's dove, not knowing where to 
rest our feet. For the places of rest, after the ex- 
treme painful places, wherein we serve, have used to 
be either the lord chancellor's place, or the master- 
ship of the rolls, or the places of the chief justices : 
whereof, for the first, I could be almost loth to live 
to see this worthy counsellor fail. The mastership 
of the rolls is blocked with a reversion, (d) My lord 
Coke is like to outlive us both. So as, if this turn 
fail, I for my part know not whither to look. I have 
served your majesty above a prenticehood, full seven 
years and more, as your solicitor, which is, I think 

(a) Sir Thomas Fleming, who died about August, 1613. 

(b) Sir Henry H'obart, "who was made lord chief justice of the 
Common Pleas, November 26, 1613, in the room of Sir Edward 
Coke, removed to the post of lord chief justice of the King's Bench, 
October 25. 

(c) Sir Francis Bacon himself, who was appointed attorney-gene- 
ral, October 27, 1613. 

(d) To Sir Julius Csesar. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 7 1 

one of the painfulest places in your kingdom, specially 
as my employments have been ; and God hath 
brought mine own years to fifty-two, which I think 
is older than ever any solicitor continued unpreferred. 
My suit is principally, that you would remove Mr. 
Attorney to the place. If he refuse, then I hope 
your majesty will seek no farther than myself, that I 
may at last, out of your majesty's grace and favour, 
step forward to a place either of more comfort or 
more ease. Besides, how necessary it is for your ma- 
jesty to strengthen your service amongst the judges 
by a chief justice, which is sure to your prerogative, 
your majesty knoweth. Therefore I cease farther to 
trouble your majesty, humbly craving pardon, and 
relying wholly upon your goodness and remembrance, 
and resting in all true humbleness, 

Your Majesty's most devoted, 

and faithful subject and servant, 


Reasons why it should be exceeding much for 
his majesty's service to remove the Lord Coke 
from the place he now holdeth (a) to be 
Chief Justice of England, (b) and the Attor- 
ney (c) to succeed him, and the Solicitor (d) 
the Attorney 

First, it will strengthen the king's causes greatly 
amongst the judges : for both my lord Coke will 
think himself near a privy counsellor's place, and 
thereupon turn obsequious ; and the attorney-general, 

(a) Of chief justice of the Common Pleas, having been appointed 
to that office June 30, 1606. 

(b) He was advanced to that office October 25, 1613. 

(c) Sir Henry Hobart, who had been appointed attorney- general 
July 4, 1606. 

(d) Sir Francis Bacon, who had been sworn solicitor-general 
June 25, 1607. 

72 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

a new man, and a grave person, in a judge's place, 
will come in well to the other, and hold him hard to 
it, not without emulation between them, who shall 
please the king best. 

Secondly, the attorney-general sorteth not so well 
with his present place, being a man timid and scrupu- 
lous both in parliament and other business, and one, 
that in a word was made fit for the late lord Trea- 
surer's bent, which was to do little with much for- 
mality and protestation : whereas the now solicitor 
going more roundly to work, and being of a quicker 
and more earnest temper, and more effectual in that 
he dealeth in, is like to recover that strength to the 
king's prerogative, which it hath had in times past, 
and which is due unto it. And for that purpose there 
must be brought in to be solicitor some man of cou- 
rage and speech, and a grounded lawyer; which 
done, his majesty will speedily find a marvellous 
change in his business. For it is not to purpose for 
the judges to stand well-disposed, except the king's 
council, which is the active and moving part, put the 
judges well to it; for in a weapon, what is a back 
without an edge ? 

Thirdly, the king shall continue and add reputation 
to the attorney's and solicitor's place, by this orderly 
advancement of them ; which two places are the 
champion's places for his rights and prerogative ; and 
being stripped of their expectations and successions to 
great place, will wax vile ; and then his majesty's pre- 
rogative goeth down the wind. Besides, the remove 
of my lord Coke to a place of less profit, though it be 
with his will, yet will be thought abroad a kind of 
discipline to him for opposing himself in the king's 
causes ; the example whereof will contain others in 
more awe. 

Lastly, whereas now it is voiced abroad touching 
the supply of places, as if it were a matter of labour, 
and canvass, and money ; and other persons are 
chiefly spoken of to be the men, and the great 
suitors ; this will appear to be the king's own act, and 
is a course so natural and regular, as it is without all 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 73 

suspicion of these by-courses, to the king's infinite 
honour. For men say now, the king can make good 
second judges, as he hath done lately ; (e) but that 
is no mastery, because men sue to be kept from 
these places. But now is the trial in those great 
places, how his majesty can hold good, where there is 
great suit and means. 


It may please your most excellent Majesty, 

We have, with all possible care and diligence, con- 
sidered Cotton's (a) cause, the former and the latter, 

(e) Sir John Dodderidge was made judge of the King's Bench, 
November 25, 1612, and Sir Augustin Nichols of the Common 
Pleas the day following. 

(a) The case of this gentleman will render the detail of it neces- 
sary for the illustration of this letter; and the circumstances of it, 
not known in our history, may be thought to deserve the reader's 
attention. He was a native of the West of England, and a recu- 
sant, against whom a proclamation was issued in June 1613, charg- 
ing him with high treason against the king and state for having 
published a very scandalous and railing book against his majesty, 
under the title of Balaam's Ass, which was dropped in the gallery at 
Whitehall. Just at the time of publishing this proclamation, he 
happened to cross the Thames, and inquiring of the waterman 
what news ? they, not knowing him, told him of the proclamation. 
At landing, he muffled himself up in his cloke, to avoid being known; 
but had not gone many paces, when one Mr. Maine, a friend of his, 
meeting and discovering him, warned him of his danger; and 
being asked what he would advise him to do, recommended it to 
him to surrender himself; which he did to the earl of Southampton. 
He denied himself to be the author of the libel : but his study being 
searched, among his papers were found many parts of the book, 
together with relics of those persons, who had been executed for 
the gunpowder treason, as one of Sir Everard Digby's fingers, 
a toe of Thomas Percy, some other part of Catesby or Rooke- 
wood, and a piece of one of Peter Lambert's ribs. He was kept 
prisoner in the Tower till March 1618, when the true author of 
the libel was discovered to be John Williams, esq ; a barrister 
of the Middle Temple, who had been expelled the house of com- 
mons on account of his being a papist. The discovering was owing 
to this accident : a pursuivant in want of money, and desirous to 
get some by his employment, waited at the Spanish ambassador's 

74 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

touching the book and the letter in the gilt apple, and 
have advisedly perused and weighed all the examina- 
tions and collections which were formerly taken ; 

door, to see if he could light upon any prey. At last came out 
Mr. Williams, unknown to the pursuivant ; but carrying, in his 
conceit, the countenance of a priest. The pursuivant, therefore, 
followed him to his inn, where Williams having mounted his horse, 
the pursuivant came to him, and told him, that he must speak 
a word or two with him. " Marry, with all my heart, said Williams ; 
what is your pleasure ?" You must light, answered the pursuivant ; 
for you are a priest. " A priest ? replied Williams ; I have a good 
warrant to the contrary, for I have a wifs and children." Being, 
however, obliged to dismount, the pursuivant searched him ; and in 
his pocket was found a bundle of papers sealed up ; which the 
pursuivant going to open, Williams made some resistance, pretend- 
ing they were evidences of a gentleman whose law-businesses he 
transacted. The pursuivant insisting upon opening the papers, 
among them was found Balaam's Ass, with new annotations; of 
which, upon examination, Williams confessed himself to be the 
author. He was brought to trial on the 3d of May, 1619, for 
writing that and another book intitled Speculum Regale ; in both 
of which he had presumed to prophesy, that the king would die 
in 1621, grounding this prediction on the prophecy of Daniel, 
where the prophet speaks of time and times, and half a time. He 
farther affirmed, that Antichrist will be revealed when sin shall be 
at the highest ; and then the end is nigh : that such is our time ; 
sin is now at the highest ; ergo that the land is the abomination 
of desolation mentioned by Daniel, and the habitation of devils, 
and the antimark of Christ's Church. Williams's defence was, 
1. That what he had written was not with any malice or dis- 
loyalty of heart towards the king, but purely from affection, and 
by way of caution and admonition, that his majesty might avoid 
the mischiefs likely to befall him ; having added in his book, when 
he delivered the threats of judgment and destruction, which God 
avert, or such words. 2. That the matter rested only in opinion 
and thought, and contained no overt act ; no rebellion, treason, or 
other mischief following it. 3. That he had inclosed his book in 
a box sealed up, and secretly conveyed it to the king, without ever 
publishing it. But the court was unanimously of opinion, that he 
was guilty of high treason ; and that the words contained in the 
libel, as cited above, imported the end and destruction of the king 
and his realm ; and that antichristianism and false religion were 
maintained in the said realm ; which was a motive to the people 
to commit treasons, to raise rebellions, &c. and that the writing 
of the book was a publication. Reports of Henry Rolle, serjeant at 
law, part II. p. 88. . In consequence of this judgment he had a 
sentence of death passed upon him, which was executed over- 
against Charing-Cross two days after. MS. letters of Mr. Thomas 

Letters, etc, of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 75 

wherein we might attribute a good deal of worthy in- 
dustry and watchful inquiry to my lord of Canter- 
bury. We thought fit also to take some new exa- 
minations ; which was the cause we certified no 
sooner. Upon the whole matter, we find the cause of 
his imprisonment just, and the suspicions and presump- 
tions many and great ; which we little need to mention, 
because your majesty did relate and inforced them to 
us in better perfection, than we can express them. 
But nevertheless, the proofs seem to us to amount 
to this, that it was possible he should be the man ; 
and that it was probable likewise, he was the man : 
but no convicting proofs, that may satisfy a jury of 
life and death, or that may make us take it upon our 
conscience, or to think it agreeable to your majesty's 
honour, which next our conscience to God, is the 
dearest thing to us on earth, to bring it upon the 
stage; which notwithstanding we, in all humble- 
ness, submit to your majesty's better judgment. For 
his liberty, and the manner of his delivery, he having 

Lorkin to Sir Thomas Puckering, bart. dated at London, June the 
24th and 30th, 1613, and March the 16th, 161f,and May the 4th 
and 5th 1619, among the Harleian MSS. Vol. 7002. At his death 
he adhered to his profession of the Roman Catholic religion, and 
died with great resolution. He prayed for the king and prince ; 
and said, that he was sorry for having written so saucily and irre- 
verently ; but pretended that he had an inward warrant and parti- 
cular illumination to understand certain hard passages of Daniel and 
the Revelation, which made him adventure so far. MS. letter of 
John Chamberlain, esq. to Sir Dudley Carleton, dated at London, 
May 8, 1619. 

This case was urged against the seven bishops at their trial in king 
James II's reign by Sir William Williams, then solicitor-general, 
who observed, Trial, p. 76, that it had been made use of by Mr. 
solicitor-general Finch on the trial of Col. Sidney, and was the great 
" case relied upon, and that guided and governed that case ;" though 
there is nothing of this, that appears in the printed trial of Sidney. 

It is but justice to the memory of our great antiquary, Sir Robert 
Cotton, bart. to remark here a mistake of Dr. Thomas Smith in his 
life of Sir Robert, p. 26. prefixed to his catalogue of the Cottonian 
library, where he has confounded the Cotton, mentioned in the be- 
ginning of this note, with Sir Robert Cotton, and erroneously sup- 
posed, that the suspicion of having written the libel had fallen upon 
the latter. 

76 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

so many notes of a dangerous man, we leave it to 
your princely wisdom. And so commending your 
majesty to God's precious custody, we rest 

Your Majesty's most humble and bounden servants, 

22 Jan. 1613. FR. BACON. 



Mr Murray, 

I keep the same measure in a proportion with my 
master and with my friend ; which is, that I will 
never deceive them in any thing, which is in my 
power; and When my power faileth my will, I am 

Monday is the day appointed for performing his 
majesty's commandment. Till then I cannot tell 
what to advise you farther, except it should be this, 
that in case the judges should refuse to take order in 
it themselves, then you must think of some warrant 
to Mr. Secretary, who is your friend, and constant in 
the businesses, that he see forthwith his majesty's com- 
mandment executed, touching the double lock ; and, 
if need be, repair to the place, and see by view the 
manner of keeping the seal; and take order, that 
there be no stay for working of the seal of justice, nor 
no prejudice to Killegrew's farm, nor to the duty of 
money paid to the chief justice. Whether this may 
require your presence, as you write, that yourself can 
best judge. But of this more, when we have re- 
ceived the judges answer. It is my duty, as much 

(a) He was created viscount of Annan in Scotland, in August, 
1622. Negotiations of Sir Thomas Roe, in his embassy to the Ottoman 
Porte, p. 93. In April, 1624, the lord Annan was created earl of 
Annandale in Scotland. Ibid. p. 250. 

(b) This, and the three following letters, are printed from Harl. 
MSS. Vol. 6986. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 77 

as in me is, to procure my master to be obeyed. I 
ever rest 

Your friend and assured, 
January 21, 1614. 


I pray deliver the inclosed letter to his majesty. 

To his very good friend Mr John Murray, of his ma- 
jesty's bed-chamber. 


Mr Murray, 

My lord chancellor yesterday in my presence, 
had before him the judges of the Common Pleas, and 
hath performed his majesty's royal command in a very 
worthy fashion, such as was fit for our master's great- 
ness ; and because the king may know it, I send you 
the inclosed. This seemeth to have wrought the effect 
desired; for presently I sent for Sir Richard Cox, (a) 
and willed him to present himself to my lord Hobart, 
and signify his readiness to attend. He came back to 
me, and told me, all things went on. I know not 
what afterward may be ; but I think this long chace 
is at an end. I ever rest 

Yours assured, 

January 25, 1614. 



Mr. Murray, 

I pray deliver the inclosed to his majesty, and 
have care of the letter afterward. I have written 

(a) He was one of the masters of the green cloth, and had had a 
quarrel at court during the Christmas holy-days of the year 1614, 
with Sir Thomas Erskine ; which quarrel was made up by the lords 
of the marshal's court, Sir Richard being obliged to put up with very 
foul words. MS. letter of Mr. Chamberlain to Sir Dudley Carleton, 
January 12, 161$. 

78 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

also to his majesty about your reference to this pur- 
pose, that if you can get power over the whole title, 
it may be safe for his majesty to assent, that you may 
try the right upon the deed. This is the farthest I 

can go. I ever rest 

Yours assured, 

February 28, 1614. 



May it please your most excellent Majesty, 

I send your majesty inclosed, a copy of our last 
examination ofPeacham, (a) taken the 10th of this 

(a) Edmund Peacham, a minister in Somersetshire [MS. letter of 
Mr. Chamberlain, dated January 5, 1611.] I find one of both his 
names, who was'instituted into the vicarage of Ridge in Hertford- 
shire, July 22, 1581, and resigned it in 1587 [Newcourt, Repertor. 
Vol. I. p. 864.] Mr. Peacham was committed to the Tower for 
inserting several treasonable passages in a sermon never preached, 
nor, as Mr. Justice Coke remarks in his Reports during the reign of 
king Charles I., p. 125, ever intended to be preached. Mr. Chamber- 
lain, in a letter of the 9th of February, 161f, to Sir Dudley Carle- 
ton, mentions Mr. Peacham's having been " stretched already: 
" though he be an old man, and, they say, much above threescore : 
" but they could wring nothing out of him more than they had at 
" first in his papers. Yet the king is extremely incensed against 
" him, and will have him prosecuted to the uttermost." In another 
letter, dated February 23, we are informed, that the king, since 
his coming to London on the 15th, had had " the opinion of the 
" judges severally in Peacham's case; and it is said, that most of 
" them concur to find it treason : yet my lord chief justice [Coke] 
" is for the contrary; and if the lord Hobart, that rides the western 
" circuit, can be drawn to jump with his colleague, the chief baron 
" [Tanfield] it is thought he shall be sent down to be tried, and 
" trussed up in Somersetshire." In a letter of the 2d of March, 
16 If, Mr. Chamberlain writes, " Peacham's trial at the western 
" assizes is put off, and his journey stayed, though Sir Randall Crew, 
" the king's serjeant, and Sir Henry Yelverton, the solicitor, were 
" ready to go to horse to have waited on him there." " Peacham, 
" the minister, adds he in a letter of the 13th of July, 1615, that 
" hath been this twelvemonth in theTower, is sent down to be tried 
" for treason in Somersetshire before the lord chief baron and 
Sir Henry Montagu the recorder. The lord Hobart gave over 
that circuit the last assizes. Sir Randall Crew and Sir Henry 
" Yelverton, the king's serjeant and solicitor, are sent down to 


Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 79 

present ; whereby your majesty may perceive, that 
this miscreant wretch goeth back from all, and de- 
nieth his hand and all. No doubt, being fully of be- 
lief, that he should go presently down to his trial, he 
meant now to repeat his part, which he purposed to 
play in the country, which was to deny all. But your 
majesty in your wisdom perceiveth, that this denial 
of his hand, being not possible to be counterfeited, 
and to be sworn by Adams, and so oft by himself for- 
merly confessed and admitted, could not mend his 
case before any jury in the world, but rather aggra- 
vated it by his notorious impudency and falsehood, 
and will make him more odious. He never deceived 
me; for when others had hopes of discovery, and 
thought time well spent that way, I told your majesty 
pereuntibus mille jigara ; and that he now did but 
turn himself into divers shapes, to save or delay his 
punishment. And therefore submitting myself to 
your majesty's high wisdom, I think myself bound in 
conscience to put your majesty in remembrance, 
whether Sir John Sydenham (b) shall be detained 
upon this man's impeaching, in whom there is no 
truth. Notwithstanding, that farther inquiry be made 
of this other Peacham, and that information and 
light be taken from Mr. Poulet (c) and his servants, 

" prosecute the trial." The event of this trial, which was on the 
7th of August, appears from Mr. Chamberlain's letter of the 14th of 
that month, wherein, it is said, that " seven knights were taken 
" from the bench, and appointed to be of the jury. He defended 
" himself very simply, but obstinately and doggedly enough. But 
" his offence was so foul and scandalous, that he was condemned of 
" high treason ; yet not hitherto executed, nor perhaps shall be, if 
" he have the grace to submit himself, and shew some remorse." 
He died, as appears from another letter of the 27th of March, 1616, 
in the jail at Taunton, where he was said to have " left behind a 
" most wicked and desperate writing, worse than that he was con- 
" victed for." 

(b) He had been confronted about the end of February, or begin- 
ning of March, 161|, with Mr. Peacham, about certain speeches, 
which had formerly passed between them. MS. letter of Mr. Cham- 
berlain to Sir Dudley Carleton, from London, March 2, 161f . 

(c) John Poulet, esq. ; knight of the shire for the county of So- 
merset in the parliament, which met April 5, 1614. He was created 
lord Poulet of Henton St. George, June 23, 1627- 

80 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

I hold it, as things are, necessary. God preserve 
your majesty. 

Your Majesty's most humble 
March 12, 1614. and devoted subject and servant, 


Supplement of two passages omitted in the edi- 
tion of Sir Francis Bacon's speech in the 
King's Bench, against Owen, (a) as printed 
in his works. After the words [it is bottomless] 
in the paragraph beginning [For the treason 
itself, which is the second point, $c] add 

[I said in the beginning, that this treason in the 
nature of it was old. It is not of the treasons, whereof 
it may be said from the beginning it was not so. You 
are indicted, Owen, not upon any statute made 
against the Pope's supremacy, or other matters, that 
have reference to religion ; but merely upon that law, 
which was born with the kingdom, and was law even 
in superstitious times, when the pope was received. 
The compassing and imagining of the king's death 
was treason. The statute of the 25th of Edward III. 
which was but declaratory, begins with this article, 
as the capital of capitals in treason, and of all others 
the most odious and the most perilous.] And so the 
civil law, &c. 

At the conclusion of his speech after the words 
[the duke of Anjou and the papists] add 

(a) He was of the family of that name at Godstow in Oxfordshire. 
[Camdeni Annates Regis Jacobi I. p. 12.J He was a young man, who 
had been in Spain ; and was condemned at the King's Bench, on 
Wednesday, May 17, 1615, " for divers most vile and traitorous 
" speeches confessed and subscribed with his own hand ; as, among 
" others, that it was as lawful for any man to kill a king excom- 
" municated, as for the hangman to execute a condemned person. 
" He could say little for himself, or in maintenance of his desperate 
" positions, but only that he meant it not by the king, and he holds 
" him not excommunicate." MS. letter of Mr. Chamberlain to Sir 
Dudley Carleton from London, May 20, 1615. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 8 1 

[As for subjects, I see not, or ever could discern, 
but that by infallible consequence, it is the case of all 
subjects and people, as well as of kings ; for it is all 
one reason, that a bishop, upon an excommunication 
of a private man, may give his lands and goods in 
spoil, or cause him to be slaughtered, as for the pope 
to do it towards a king ; and for a bishop to absolve 
the son from duty to the father, as for the pope to ab- 
solve the subject from his allegiance to his king. And 
this is not my inference, but the very affirmative of 
pope Urban the second, who in a brief to Godfrey, 
bishop of Luca, hath these very words, which cardi- 
nal Baronius reciteth in his Annals, Tom. XL p. 802. 
Non illos homicidas arbitramur, qui adversus excommu- 
nicates zelo catholicce matris ar denies eorum, quoslibet 
trucidare contigerit, speaking generally of all excom- 


Good Mr Murray, 

According to his majesty's pleasure by you sig- 
nified unto me, we have attended my lord Chan- 
cellor, (b) my lord Treasurer, (c) and Mr. Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, {d) concerning Sir Gilbert Hough- 
ton's patent stayed at the seal ; and we have ac- 
quainted them with the grounds and state of the suit, 
to justify them, that it was just and beneficial to his 
majesty And for any thing we could perceive by 
any objection or reply they made, we left them in 
good opinion of the same, with this, that because my 
lord chancellor, by the advice as it seemeth of the 
other two, had acquainted the council-table, for so 
many as were then present, with that suit amongst 
others, they thought fit to stay till his majesty's 

(a) Harl. MS S. Vol. 6986, 

(b) Ellesmere. 

(c) Thomas Howard, earl of Suffolk. 

(d) Sir Fulk Grevile, advanced to that post October 1, 1614, in 
the room of Sir Julius Caesar, made master of the rolls. 


82 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

coming to town being at hand, to understand his 
ferther pleasure. We purpose, upon his majesty's 
coming, to attend his majesty, to give him a more 
particular account of this business, and some other. 
Meanwhile, finding his majesty to have care of the 
matter, we thought it our duty to return this answer 
to you in discharge of his majesty's direction. We 

Your assured friends, 

July 6, 1615. FRANCIS BACON. 



• Fromthe ANSWER TO HOI.* 


of the late Mv Lord, 

Robert y .■> 

Stephens, j AM sorI y f y 0ur misfortune ; and for any thing, 
that is within mine own command, your lordship may 
expect no other than the respects of him, that for- 
getteth not your lordship is to him a near ally, and 
an ancient acquaintance, client, and friend. For that 
which may concern my place, which governeth me, 
and not lit; if any thing be demanded at my hands 
or directed, or that I am ex officio to do any thing ; if, 
I say, it come to any of these three ; for as yet I am 
a stranger to the business ; yet saving my duties, 
which I will never live to violate, your lordship shall 
find, that I will observe those degrees and limitations 
of proceeding, which belongeth to him, that knoweth 
well he serveth a clement and merciful master, and 
that in his own nature shall ever incline to the more 
benign part ; and that knoweth also what belongeth 
to nobility, and to a house of such merit and reputa- 
tion, as the lord Norris is come from. And even so 
I remain, 

Your Lordship's very loving friend. 
Sept. 20, 1615. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 83 


Lt may please your excellent Majesty, 

I received this very day in the forenoon, your ma- 
jesty's several directions touching your cause prose- 
cuted by my lord Hunsdon (b) as your farmer. Your 
first direction was by Sir Christopher Parkins, that 
the day appointed for the judicial sentence should 
hold : and if my lord chief justice, upon my repair to 
him, should let me know, that he could not be pre- 
sent, then my lord chancellor should proceed, call- 
ing to him my lord Hobart, except he should be ex- 
cepted to; and then some other judge by consent. For 
the latter part of this your direction, I suppose, 
there would have been no difficulty in admitting my 
lord Hobart ; for after he had assisted at so many 
hearings, it would have been too late to except to 
him. But then your majesty's second and later di- 
rection, which was delivered unto me from the earl 
of Arundel, as by word of mouth, but so as he had 
set down a remembrance thereof in writing freshly 
after the signification of his pleasure, was to this ef- 
fect, that before any proceeding in the chancery, there 
should be a conference had between my lord chan- 
cellor, my lord chief justice, and myself, how your 
majesty's interest might be secured. This later di- 
rection I acquainted my lord chancellor with ; and 
finding an impossibility, that this conference should 
be had before to-morrow, my lord thought good, that 
the day be put over, taking no occasion thereof other 
than this, that in a cause of so great weight it was 
fit for him to confer with his assistants, before he 
gave any decree or final order. After such time as I 
have conferred with my lords, according to your 
commandment, I will give your majesty account with 
speed of the conclusion of that conference. 

(a) Hart. MSS. Vol. 6986. 
(b) John Carey, baron of Hunsdon. He died in April, 1617. 

o 2 

84 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

Farther, I think fit to let your majesty know, that 
in my opinion I hold it a fit time to proceed in the 
business of the Rege inconsulto, which is appointed 
for Monday. I did think these greater causes would 
have come to period or pause sooner : but now they 
are in the height, and to have so great a matter as 
this of the Rege inconsulto handled, when men do 
aliud agere, I think it no proper time. Besides, your 
majesty in your great wisdom knoweth, that this bu- 
siness of Mr. Murray's is somewhat against the stream 
of the judges' inclination : and it is no part of a skil- 
ful mariner to sail on against a tide, when the tide 
is at strongest. If your majesty be pleased to 
write to my lord Coke, that you would have the bu- 
siness of the Rege inconsulto receive a hearing, when 
he should be animo sedato et libero, and not in the 
midst of his assiduous and incessant cares and indus- 
tries in other practices, I think your majesty shall 
do your service right. Howsoever, I will be pro- 
vided against the day 

Thus praying God for your happy preservation, 
whereof God giveth you so many great pledges, 

I rest your Majesty's most humble 

and devoted subject and servant, 

November 17, 1615. 

Innovations introduced into the laws and govern- 
ment, (a) 

1. The ecclesiasti- In this he prevailed, and the 
cal commission. commission was pared, and 

namely the point of alimony 
left out, whereby wives are left 
wholly to the tyranny of their 
husbands. This point, and some 
others, may require a review, 
and is fit to be restored to the 

(«) This paper was evidently designed against the lord chief jus- 
tice Coke. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


2. Against the pro- 
vincial councils. 

3. Against the star- 
chamber for le- 
vying damages. 

In this he prevailed in such 
sort, as the precedents are con- 
tinually suitors for the enlarge- 
ment of the instructions, some- 
times in one point, sometimes 
in another; and the jurisdictions 
grow into contempt, and more 
would, if the lord chancellor 
did not strengthen them by in- 
junctions, where they exceed 
not their instructions. 

In this he was over-ruled by 
the sentence of the court ; but 
he bent all his strength and wits 
to have prevailed ; and so did 
the other judges by long and la- 
borious arguments . and if they 
had prevailed, the authority of 
the court had been overthrown. 
But the plurality of the court 
took more regard to their own 
precedents, than to the judges' 

In this he prevaileth, for pro- 
hibitions fly continually ; and 
many times are cause of long 
suits, to the discontent of fo- 
reign ambassadors, and the 
king's dishonour and trouble by 
their remonstrances. 

5. Against the court This is new, and would be 
of the duchy of forthwith restrained, and the 
Lancaster prohi- others settled. 

bitions go ; and 
the like may do 
to the court of 
wards and exche- 

6. Against the court In this he prevaileth ; and this 
of requests. but lately brought in question. 

4. Against the ad- 


Letters, etc. 

7 . Against the chan- 
cery for decrees 
after judgment. 

8. Praemunire for 
suits in the chan- 

9. Disputed in the 
Common Pleas, 
whether that 
court may grant 
a prohibition to 
stay suits in the 
chancery, and 
time given to 
search for prece- 

•1 0. Against the new- 
boroughs in Ire- 

of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

In this his majesty hath made 
an establishment : and he hath 
not prevailed, but made a great 
noise and trouble. 

This his majesty hath also 
established, being a strange at 
tempt to make the chancellor 
sit under a hatchet, instead of 
the king's arms. 

This was but a bravery, and 
dieth of itself, especially the au- 
thority of the chancery, by his 
majesty's late proceedings being 
so well established. 

1 1 . Against the 
writs Dom. Rege 

This in good time was over- 
ruled by the voice of eight 
judges of ten, after they had 
heard your attorney And had it 
prevailed, it had overthrown the 
parliament of Ireland, which 
would have been imputed to a 
fear in this state to have pro- 
ceeded ; and so his majesty's 
authority and reputation lost in 
that kingdom. 

This is yet subjudice: but if it 
should prevail, it maketh the 
judges absolute over the patents 
of the king, be they of power 
and profit, contrary to the an- 
cient and ever continued law 
of the crown; which doth call 
those causes before the king 
himself, as he is represented in 

12. Against contri- 
bution, that it 
was not law nei- 
ther to levy it, 
nor to move for 

13. Peachanvs case. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 87 

In this he prevailed, and gave 
opinion, that the king by his 
great seal could not so much as 
move any his subjects for bene- 
volence. But this he retracted 
after in the star-chamber ; but 
it marred the benevolence in 
the mean time. 

In this, for as much as in him 
was, and in the court of King's 
Bench, he prevailed, though it 
was holpen by the good service 
of others. But the opinion, 
which he held, amounted in ef- 
fect to this, that no word of 
scandal or defamation, import- 
ing that the king was utterly 
unable or unworthy to govern, 
were treason, except they dis- 
abled his title, &c. 

In this we prevailed with 
him to give opinion it was trea- 
son : but then it was upon a 
conceit of his own, that was no 
less dangerous, than if he had 
given his opinion against the 
king: for he proclaimed the 
king excommunicate in respect 
of the anniversary bulls of Ccena 
Domini, which was to expose 
his person to the fury of any 
jesuited conspirator. 

By this the intent of the sta- 
tute of 21 Henry VIII. is frus- 
trated ; for there is no benefice 
of so small an improved value 
as 8/. by that kind of rating. 
For this the judges may be as- 
sembled in the exchequer for a 

14. Owen s case. 

15. The value of be- 
nefices not to be 
according to the 
tax in the king's 
book of taxes. 

88 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

16. Suits for lega- The practice hath gone 

cies ought to be against this ; and it is fit, the 

in their proper di- suit be where the probate is. 

oceses,andnotin And this served but to put a 

the prerogative pique between the archbishops' 

court ; although courts and the bishops' courts, 

the will be prov- This may be again propounded 

ed in the preroga- upon a conference of the judges, 
tive court upon 
bona notabilia in 
several dioceses, 


The message, which I received from you by Mr. 
Shute, hath bred in me such belief and confidence, 
as I will now wholly rely upon your excellent and 
happy self. When persons of greatness and quality 
begin speech with me of the matter, and offer me 
their good offices, I can but answer them civilly. But 
those things are but toys : I am yours surer to you 
than to my own life ; for, as they speak of the Tur- 
quois stone in a ring, I will break into twenty pieces, 
before you have the least fall. God keep you ever. 

Your truest servant, 


Feb. 15, 1615. 

My lord Chancellor is prettily amended. I was 
with him yesterday almost half an hour. He used 
me with wonderful tokens of kindness. We both 
wept, which I do not often. 


A letter to Sir G. Villiers, touching a message brought 
to him by Mr. Shute, of a promise of the chancel- 
lor's place. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 89 


old raanu- 

Touching the examination of Sir Robert Cotton J^j£j?,™ y 
upon some information of Sir John Digby. (a) mtuied a 

" & J V ' book of Let- 

ters of Sir 

I received your letter yesterday towards the even- Francis Ba- 
ing, being the 8th of this present, together with the con " 
interrogatory included, which his majesty hath 
framed, not only with a great deal of judgment what 
to interrogate, but in a wise and apt order ; for I do 
find that the degrees of questions are of great efficacy 
in examination. I received also notice and direction 
by your letter, that Sir Robert Cotton was first tho- 
roughly to be examined ; which indeed was a thing 
most necessary to begin with; and that for that 
purpose Sir John Digby was to inform my lord 
chancellor of such points, as he conceived to be ma- 
terial ; and that I likewise should take a full account 
for my lord chief justice of all Sir Robert, Cotton's 
precedent examinations. It was my part then to 
take care, that that, which his majesty had so well 
directed and expressed, should be accordingly per- 
formed without loss of time. For which purpose, 
having soon after the receipt of your letter received 
a letter from my lord chancellor, that he- appointed 
Sir John Digby to be with him at two of the clock 
in the afternoon, as this day, and required my pre- 
sence, I spent the mean time, being this forenoon, 

(a) Secretary Winwood, in a private letter to Sir Thomas Ed- 
mondes, printed in the Historical View of the Negotiations between the 
Courts of England, France, and Brussels, p. 392, mentions, that there 
was great expectation, that Sir John Digby, just then returned from 
Spain, where he had been ambassador, could charge the earl of So- 
merset with some treasons and plots with Spain. " To the king," 
adds Sir Ralph, " as yet he hath used no other language, but that, 
" having served in a place of honour, it would ill become him to 
" be an accuser. Legally or criminally he can say nothing : yet 
" this he says and hath written, that all his private dispatches, 
" wherein he most discovered the practices of Spain, and their in- 
" telligences, were presently sent into Spain ; which could not be 
" but by the treachery of Somerset." 

90 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

in receiving the precedent examinations of Sir Robert 
Cotton from my lord chief justice, and perusing of 
them ; and accordingly attended my lord chancellor 
at the hour appointed, where I found Sir John Digby. 

At this meeting it was the endeavour of my lord 
chancellor and myself to take such light from Sir 
John Digby, as might evidence first the examination 
of Sir Robert Cotton ; and then to the many examina- 
tions of Somerset ; wherein we found Sir John Digby 
ready and willing to discover unto us what he knew ; 
and he had also, by the lord chancellor's direction, 
prepared some heads of examination in writing for Sir 
Robert Cotton ; of all which use shall be made for his 
majesty's service, as is fit. Howbeit, for so much as 
did concern the practice of conveying the prince into 
Spain, or the Spanish pensions, he was somewhat 
reserved upon this ground, that they were things his 
majesty knew, and things, which by some former 
commandment from his majesty he was restrained to 
keep in silence, and that he conceived they could be 
no ways applied to Somerset. Wherefore it was not 
fit to press him beyond that, which he conceived to 
be his warrant, before we had known his majesty's 
farther pleasure ; which I pray you return unto us 
with all convenient speed. I for my part am in no 
appetite for secrets ; but nevertheless seeing his ma- 
jesty's great trust towards me, wherein I shall never 
deceive him ; and that I find the chancellor of the 
same opinion, I do think it were good my lord chan- 
cellor chiefly and myself were made acquainted with 
the persons and the particulars ; not only because it 
may import his majesty's service otherwise, but also 
because to my understanding, for therein I do not 
much rely upon Sir John Digby 's judgment, it may 
have a great connection with the examination of So- 
merset, considering his mercenary nature, his great 
undertaking for Spain in the match, and his favour 
with his majesty ; and therefore the circumstances of 
other pensions given cannot but tend to discover 
whether he were pensioner or no. 

But herein no time is lost ; for my lord chancellor, 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 91 

who is willing, even beyond his strength, to lose no 
moment for his majesty's service, hath appointed me 
to attend him Thursday morning for the examination 
of Sir Robert Cotton, leaving to-morrow for council- 
business to my lord, and to me for considering of fit 
articles for Sir Robert Cotton. 
10 April, 1616. 


May it please yon, Sir, 

The notice I have from my lord Roos, Sir Henry 
Goodere, and other friends, of the extreme obliga- 
tion, wherein I continue towards you, together with 
the conscience I have of the knowledge, how dearly 
and truly I honour and love you, and daily pray, that 
you may rise to that height, which the state, wherein 
you live, can give you, hath taken away the wings of 
fear, whereby I was almost carried away from daring 
to importune you in this kind. But I know how 
good you have always been, and are still, towards 
me ; or rather because I am not able to comprehend 
how much it is, I will presume there is enough for 
any use, whereupon an honest humble servant may 
employ it. 

It imports the business of my poor estate, that I 
be restored to my country for some time : and I have 
divers friends in that court, who will further my de- 
sire thereof, and particularly Mr. secretary Lake and 

(a) Son of Dr. Tobie Matthew, archbishop of York. He was 
born at Oxford in 1578, while his father was dean of Christ-church, 
and educated there. During his travels abroad, he was seduced to 
the Romish religion by father Parsons. This occasioned his living 
out of his own country from the year 1607 to 1617, when he had 
leave to return to England. He was again ordered to leave it in 
October, 1618; butin 1622 was recalled to assist in the match with 
Spain : and on account of his endeavours to promote it, was knighted 
by king James I. at Royston, on the 10th of October, 1623. He 
translated into Italian Sir Francis Bacon's Essays, and died at Ghent 
in Flanders, October 13th, 1655. N. S. 

92 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

my lord Roos, whom I have desired to confer with 
you about it. But nothing can be done therein, un- 
less my lord of Canterbury (b) may be made propi- 
tious, or at least not averse ; nor do I know in the 
world how to charm him but by the music of your 
tongue. I beseech you, Sir, lose some minutes upon 
me, which I shall be glad to pay by whole years of 
service ; and call to mind, if it please you, the last 
speech you made me, that if I should continue as I 
then was, and neither prove ill-affected to the state, 
nor become otherwise than a mere secular man in my 
religion, you would be pleased to negotiate for my 
return. On my part the conditions are performed ; 
and it remains, that you do the like : nor can I doubt 
but that the nobleness of your nature, which loves 
nothing in the world so well as to be doing of good, 
can descend from being the attorney-general to a 
great king, to be solicitor for one of the meanest 
subjects that he hath. 

I send my letter to my lord's grace open, that be- 
fore you seal it, if you shall think fit to seal it, and 
rather not to deliver it open, you may see the reasons 
that I have ; which, if I be not partial, are very preg- 
nant. Although I confess, that till it was now very 
lately mentioned to me by some honourable friends, 
who have already procured to disimpression his ma- 
jesty of some hard conceit he had me in, I did not 
greatly think thereof; and now I am full of hope, that 
I shall prevail. For supposing, that my lord of Can- 
terbury's mind is but made of iron, the adamant of 
your persuasion will have power to draw it. It may 
please you either to send a present answer hereunto; 
or, since I am not worthy of so much favour, to tell 
either of those honourable persons aforenamed what 
the answer is, that accordingly they may co-operate. 
This letter goes by Sir Edward Parham, a gentle- 
man, whom I have been much beholding to. I know 
him to be a perfect honest man ; and since, I pro- 
test, I had rather die than deceive you, I will humbly 

(b) Dr. George Abbot. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 93 

pray, that he may rather receive favour from you, 
than otherwise, when he shall come in your way, 
which at one time or other all the world there must 
do. And I shall acknowledge myself much bound to 
you, as being enabled by this means to pay many of 
my debts to him. 

I presume to send you the copy of apiece of a letter, 
which Galileo, of whom, I am sure, you have heard, 
wrote to a monk of my acquaintance in Italy, about 
the answering of that place in Joshua, which con- 
cerns the sun's standing still, and approving thereby 
the pretended falshood of Copernicus's opinion. The 
letter was written by occasion of the opposition, 
which some few in Italy did make against Galileo, as 
if he went about to establish that by experiments, 
which appears to be contrary to holy Scripture. 
But he makes it appear the while by this piece of a 
letter, which I send you, that if that passage of Scrip- 
ture doth expressly favour either side, it is for the 
affirmative of Copernicus's opinion, and for the ne- 
gative of Aristotle's. To an attorney-general in the 
midst of a town, and such a one, as is employed in 
the weightiest affairs of the kingdom, it might seem 
unseasonable for me to interrupt you with matter of 
this nature. But I know well enough in how high 
account you have the truth of things ; and that no 
day can pass, wherein you give not liberty to your 
wise thoughts of looking upon the works of nature. It 
may please you to pardon the so much trouble which I 
give you in this kind ; though yet, I confess, I do not 
deserve a pardon, because I find not in myself a pur- 
pose of forbearing to do the like hereafter. I most 
humbly kiss your hand. 

Your most faithful and affectionate servant, 
Brussels, this 21st of April, 1616. TOBIE MATTHEW 

94 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


the collec- 

£ Robert M y L ° rd > 

Stephens, J T i s th e king s express pleasure, that because his 
sq " majesty's time would not serve to have conference 
with your lordship and his judges touching his cause 
of commendams at his last being in town, in regard 
of his majesty's other most weighty occasions ; and 
for that his majesty holdeth it necessary, upon the 
report, which my lord of Winchester, who was pre- 
sent at the last argument by his majesty's royal com- 
mandment, made to his majesty, that his majesty be 
first consulted with, ere there be any further proceed- 
ing by argument by any of the judges or otherwise : 
Therefore, that the day appointed for the farther pro- 
ceeding by argument of the judges in that case be put 
off till his majesty's farther pleasure be known upon 
consulting him ; and to that end, that your lordship 
forthwith signify his commandment to the rest of the 
judges ; whereof your lordship may not fail. And so 
I leave your lordship to God's goodness. 

Your loving friend to command, 

the 25th of April, 1616. 

This Thursd ay at afternoon , FR. BACON. 

Questions legal for the Judges [in the case of the 
Earl and Countess of Somerset.] 

Whether the axis to be carried before the prisoner, 
being in the case of felony? 

Whether, if the lady make any digression to clear 
his lordship, she is not by the lord Steward to be in- 
terrupted and silenced ? 

Whether, if my lord of Somerset should break forth 
into any speech of taxing the king, he be not pre- 
sently by the lord Steward to be interrupted and 
silenced ; and, if he persist, he be not to be told, that 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 95 

if he take that course, he is to be withdrawn, and 
evidence to be given in his absence ? And whether 
that may be ; and what else to be done ? 

Whether if there should be twelve votes to con- 
demn, and twelve or thirteen to acquit, it be not a 
verdict for the king? 

Questions of Convenience, whereupon his Ma- 
jesty may confer with some of his Council. 

Whether, if Somerset confess at any time before 
his trial, his majesty shall stay trial in respect of far- 
ther examination concerning practice of treason, as 
the death of the late prince, the conveying into Spain 
of the now prince, or the like; for till he confess the 
less crime, there is [no] likelihood of confessing the 
greater ? 

Whether, if the trial upon that reason shall be put 
off, it shall be discharged privately by dissolving the 
commission, or discharging the summons ? Or whe- 
ther it shall not be done in open court, the peers 
being met, and the solemnity and celebrity preserved; 
and that with some declaration of the cause of putting 
off the farther proceeding ? 

Whether the days of her trial and his shall be im- 
mediate, as it is now appointed ; or a day between, 
to see, if, after condemnation, the lady will confess 
of this lord ; which done, there is no doubt but he 
will confess of himself? 

Whether his trial shall not be set first, and hers 
after, because then any conceit, which may be wrought 
by her clearing of him, may be prevented ; and it 
may be he will be in the better temper, hoping of his 
own clearing, and of her respiting ? 

What shall be the days ; for Thursday and Friday 
can hardly hold in respect of the summons ; and it 
may be as well Friday and Saturday, or Monday and 
Tuesday, as London makes it already? 

96 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

A particular remembrance for his Majesty 

It were good, that after he is come into the Hall, 
so that he may perceive he must go to trial, and shall 
be retired into the place appointed, till the court call 
for him, then the lieutenant should tell him roundly, 
that if in his speeches he shall tax the king, (a) that 
the justice of England is, that he shall be taken away, 
and the evidence shall go on without him; and then 
all the people will cry away with him; and then it 
shall not be in the king's will to save his life, the 
people will be so set on fire. 

Memorial touching the course to be had in my lord 
of Somerset's arraignment. 

(a) The king's apprehension of being taxed by the earl of Somerset 
on his trial, though for what is not known, accounts in some measure 
for his majesty's extreme uneasiness of mind till that trial was over, 
and for the management used by Sir Francis Bacon in particular, as 
appears from his letters, to prevail upon the earl to submit to be 
tried, and to keep him in temper during his trial, lest he, as the king 
expressed it in an apostile on Sir Francis's letter of the 28th of April, 
1616, upon the one part commit unpardonable errors, and I on the other 
seem to punish him in the spirit of revenge. See more on this subject in 
Mr. Mallet's Life of the Lord Chancellor Bacon, who closes his remarks 
with a reference to a letter of Somerset to the king, printed in the 
Cabala, and written in an high style of expostulation, and shewing, 
through the affected obscurity of some expressions, that there was 
an important secret in his keeping, of which his majesty dreaded 
a discovery. The earl and his lady were released from their confine- 
ment in the Tower in January, 162 J, the latter dying August 23, 
1632, leaving one daughter Anne, then sixteen years of age, after- 
wards married to William lord Russel, afterwards earl, and at last 
duke of Bedford. The earl of Somerset survived his lady several 
years, and died in July, 1645, being interred on the 17th of that 
month in the church of St. Paul's, Covent-Garden. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 97 


Apostyle of the 

Ye will doe well to Fi rst it is meant, that Somer- 
remember lykewayes set shall not be charged with 
in your preamble, any thing by way of aggrava- 
that insigne, that the tion, otherwise than as conduc- 
only zeal to justice eth to the proof of the impoison- 
maketh me take this ment. 

course. I have com- For the proofs themselves, 
mandityou not to ex- they are distributed into four: 
patiate, nor digresse The first to prove the malice, 
uponany other points, which Somerset bore to Over- 
that maye not serve bury, which was the motive and 
clearlie for probation ground of the impoisonment. 
or inducement of that The second is to prove the 
point, quhairof he is preparations unto the impoison- 
accused. ment, by plotting his imprison- 

ment, placing his keepers, stop- 
ping access of friends, &c. 

The third is the acts of the 
impoisonments themselves. 

And the fourth is acts sub- 
sequent, which do vehemently 
argue him to be guilty of the 
For the two heads, upon conference, where- 
unto I called serjeant Montagu and serjeant Crew, I 
have taken them two heads to myself; the third I have 
allotted to serjeant Montagu ; and the fourth to ser- 
jeant Crew, 

In the first of these, to my understanding, is the 
only tenderness : for on the one side, it is most neces- 
sary to lay a foundation, that the malice was a deep 
malice, mixed with fear, and not only matter of re- 
venge upon his lordship's quarrel : for periculum peri- 
culo vincitur; and the malice must have a proportion 
to the effect of it, which was the impoisonment : so 
vol. vr H 

98 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

that if this foundation be not laid, all the evidence is 

On the other side, if I charge him, or could charge 
him, by way of aggravation, with matters tending to 
disloyalty or treason, then he is like to grow desperate. 

Therefore I shall now set down perspicuously what 
course I mean to hold, that your majesty may be 
pleased to direct and correct it, preserving the strength 
of the evidence : and this I shall now do, but shortly 
and without ornament. 

First, I shall read some passages of Overbury's 
letters, namely these : " Is this the fruit of nine years 
" love, common secrets, and common dangers?" In 
another letter: "Do not drive me to extremity to 
" do that, which you and I shall be sorry for." In 
another letter : " Can you forget him, between whom 
" such secrets of all kinds have passed? &c." 

Then will I produce Simcock, who deposeth from 
Weston's speech, that Somerset told Weston, that, 
if ever Overbury came out of prison, one of them must 
die for it. 

Then I will say what these secrets were. I mean 
not to enter into particulars, nor to charge him with 
disloyalty, because he stands to be tried for his life 
upon another crime. But yet by some taste, that I 
shall give to the peers in general, they may conceive 
of what nature those secrets may be. Wherein I will 
take it for a thing notorious, that Overbury was a 
man, that always carried himself insolently, both to- 
wards the queen, and towards the late prince : that 
he was a man that carried Somerset on in courses 
separate and opposite to the privy council : that he 
was a man of nature fit to be an incendiary of a state : 
full of bitterness and wildness of speech and project : 
that he was thought also lately to govern Somerset, 
insomuch that in his own letters he vaunted, that 
from him proceeded Somerset's fortune, credit, and under- 

This course I mean to run in a kind of generality, 
putting the imputations rather upon Overbury than 
Somerset ; and applying it, that such a nature was 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 99 

like to hatch dangerous secrets and practices. I mean 
to shew likewise what jargons there were and cyphers 
between them, which are great badges of secrets of 
estate, and used either by princes and their ministers 
of state, or by such as practise against princes. That 
your majesty was called Julius in respect of your em- 
pire; the queen Agrippina, though Somerset now 
saith it was Livia, and that my lady of Suffolk was 
Agrippina; the bishop of Canterbury Unctius; North- 
ampton, Dominic; Suffolk, first Lerma, after Wolsey; 
and many others ; so as it appears they made a play 
both of your court and kingdom ; and that their ima- 
ginations wrought upon the greatest men and matters. 
Neither will I omit Somerset's breach of trust to 
your majesty, in trusting Overbury with all the dis- 
patches, things wherewith your council of estate 
itself was not many times privy or acquainted: and 
yet this man must be admitted to them, not cursorily, 
or by glimpses, but to have them by him, to copy 
them, to register them, to table them, &c. 
Apostyle of the 

This evidence can- I shall also give in evidence, 

not he given in with- in this place, the slight account 
out making me his ac- of that letter, which was brought 
cuser, and that upon to Somerset by Ashton, being 
a very slight ground, found in the fields soon after 
As for all the subse- the late prince's death, and was 
quent evidences, they directed to Antwerp, contain- 
are all so little evi- ing these words, " that the first 
dent, as una litura " branch was cut from the tree, 
may serve thaime all. " and that he should, ere long, 

" send happier and joyfuller 
" news." 

Which is a matter I would riot 
use, but that my lord Coke, who 
hath filled this part with many 
frivolous things, would think all 
lost, except he hear somewhat 
of this kind. But this it is to come 
to the leavings of a business. 
h 2 

100 Letters, etc of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

And for the rest of that kind, 
as to speak of that particular, 
that Airs. Turner did at White- 
hall shew to Franklin the man, 
who, as she said, poisoned the 
prince, which, he says, was a 
physician with a red beard. 

That there was a little picture 
of a voung man in white wax, 
left by Mrs. Turner with For- 
man the conjurer, which my 
lord Coke doubted was the 

That the viceroy of the Indies 
at Goa reported to an English 
factor, that prince Henry came 
to an untimely death by a mis- 
tress of his. 

That Somerset, with others, 
would have preferred Low- 
bell the apothecary to prince 

That the countess laboured 
set. Forman and Gresham, the con- 

jurers, to inibrce the queen by 
witchcraft to favour the coun- 

That the countess told Frank- 
lin, that when the queen died, 
Somerset should have Somer- 

That Northampton said, the 
set. prince, if ever he came to reign, 

would prove a tyrant. 
Not /ling to Sower- That Franklin was moved by 
set. the countess to go to the Pals- 

grave, and should be furnished 
with money. 
The particular reasons, why I omit them, I have 
set in the margin ; but the general is partly to do a 
kind of right to justice, and such a solemn trial, in 

Nothing to Somer- 
set, and declared by 
Franklin after con- 

Nothing to Somer- 
tet, and a loose con- 

No better than a 
gazette, or passage 
of Gallo Belgicus. 

against Lowbell. 

Nothing to Somer- 

Declared by Frank- 
lin after condemna- 

Nothing to Sonicr- 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 101 

not giving that in evidence, which touches not the 
delinquent, or is not of weight ; and partly to observe 
your majesty's direction, to give Somerset no just oc- 
casion of despair or flushes. 

But I pray your majesty to pardon me, that I have 
troubled your majesty with repeating them, lest you 
should hear hereafter, that Mr. Attorney hath omitted 
divers material parts of the evidence. 


Somerset's business and charge, with his majesty's 



Your man made good haste; for he was with me 
yesterday about ten of the clock in the forenoon. 
Since I held him. 

The reason, why I set so small a distance of time 
between the use of the little charm, or, as his ma- 
jesty better terms it, the evangile, (a) and the day of 
his trial (Z>) notwithstanding his majesty's being so far 
off, as advertisement of success and order thereupon 
could not go and come between, was chiefly, for that 
his majesty, from whom the overture of that first 
moved, did write but of a few hours, that this should 
be done, which 1 turned into days. Secondly, be- 
cause the hope I had of effect by that mean, was ra- 
ther of attempting him at his arraignment, than of 
confession before his arraignment. But I submit it 
to his majesty's better judgment. 

The person, by your first description, which was 
without name, I thought had been meant of Pack- 
er : (c) but now I perceive it is another, to me un- 

(</) Cicero, Epist. ad Atticum, Lib. XIII. Ep. 40. uses this word, 
duiyyiXia; which signifies both good news, and the reward given 
to him who brings good news. See Lib. II. Epist. 3. 

(b) The earl of Somerset's. 

(c) John, of whom there are several letters in Winwood's Me- 
morials, Vol. II. 

102 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

known, but, as it seemetb, very fit. I doubt not but 
he came with sufficient warrant to Mr. Lieutenant to 
have access. In this I have no more to do, but to 
expect to hear from his majesty how this worketh. 

The letter from his majesty to myself and the Ser- 
jeants I have received, such as I wished ; and I will 
speak with the commissioners, that he may, by the 
lieutenant, understand his majesty's care of him, and 
the tokens herein of his majesty's compassion to- 
wards him. 

I ever had a purpose to make use of that circum- 
stance, that Overbury, the person murdered, was 
his majesty's prisoner in the Tower; which indeed is 
a strong pressure of his majesty's justice. For Over- 
bury is the first prisoner murdered in the Tower, 
since the murder of the young princes by Richard 
the third, the. tyrant. 

I would not trouble his majesty with any points of 
preamble, nor of the evidence itself, more than that 
part nakedly, wherein was the tenderness, in which 
I am glad his majesty, by his postils, which he re- 
turned to me, approveth my judgment. 

Now I am warranted, I will not stick to say openly, 
I am commanded, not to exasperate, nor to aggra- 
vate the matter in question of the impoisonment with 
any other collateral charge of disloyalty, or other- 
wise ; wherein, besides his majesty's principal inten- 
tion, there will be some use to save the former bruits 
of Spanish matters. 

There is a direction given to Mr. Lieutenant by 
my lord chancellor and myself, that as yesterday Mr. 
Whiting (d) the preacher, a discreet man, and one 
that was used to Helwisse, should preach before the 
lady, (e) and teach her, and move her generally to a 

(d) John Whiting, D.D. rector of St. Martin Vintry, in London, 
and vicar of East-Ham in Essex, prebendary of Ealdstreet in the 
church of St. Paul's, and chaplain to king James I. He attended 
Sir Gervase Helwisse, who had been lieutenant of the Tower, at 
his execution upon Tower-hill, on Monday the 20th of November, 
1615, for the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury. 

(e) Frances, countess of Somerset. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 103 

clear confession. That after the same preacher should 
speak as much to him at his going away in private : 
and so proof to be made, whether this good mean, 
and the last night's thoughts, will produce any thing. 
And that this day the lieutenant should declare to her 
the time of her trial, and likewise of his trial, and per- 
suade her, not only upon Christian duty, but as good 
for them both, that she deal clearly touching him, 
whereof no use can be made, nor need to be made, 
for evidence, but much use may be made for their 

It is thought, at the day of her trial the lady will 
confess the indictment ; which if she do, no evidence 
ought to be given. But because it shall not be a dumb 
show, and for his majesty's honour in so solemn an 
assembly, I purpose to make a declaration of the pro- 
ceedings of this great work of justice, from the be- 
ginning to the end, wherein, nevertheless, I will be 
careful no ways to prevent or discover the evidence 
of the next day 

In this my lord chancellor and I have likewise used 
a point of providence : for I did forecast, that if in 
that narrative, by the connection of things, any thing- 
should be spoken, that should shew him guilty, she 
might break forth into passionate protestations for his 
clearing ; which, though it may be justly made light 
of, yet it is better avoided. Therefore my lord chan- 
cellor and I have devised, that upon the entrance into 
that declaration she shall, in respect of her weakness, 
and not to add farther affliction, be withdrawn. 

It is impossible, neither is it needful, for me, to 
express all the particulars of my care in this business. 
But I divide myself into all cogitations as far as I can 
foresee; being very glad to find, that his majesty doth 
not only accept well of my care and advices, but that 
he applieth his directions so fitly, as guideth me from 
time to time. 

I have received the commissions signed. 

I am not forgetful of the goods and estate of Somer- 
set, as far as is seasonable to inquire at this time. My 
lord Coke taketh upon him to answer for the jewels, 

104 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

being the chief part of his moveable value : and this, 
I think, is done with his majesty's privity But my 
lord Coke is a good mail to answer for it. 
God ever preserve and prosper you. I rest 

Your true and devoted servant, 

May 10, Friday at 7 of the clock pit. BACON, 

in the morning [1616.] 

The charge of the Attorney-General, Sir Fit a n- 
crs Bacon, against Frances, Countess of" 
Somerset, intended to have been spoken by 
him at her arraignment, on Friday, May 24, 
l6l6, in case she had pleaded not guilty (a) 

It may please your grace, my lord high steward of 
England (b) and you my lords the peers. 

You have heard the indictment against this lady 
well opened ; and likewise the point in law, that 
might make some doubt, declared and solved ; where- 
in certainly the policy of the law of England is much 
to be esteemed, which requireth and respecteth form 
in the indictment, and substance in the proof. 

This scruple it may be hath moved this lady to 
plead not guilty, though for the proof I shall not 
need much more that her own confession, which she 
hath formerly made, free and voluntary, and therein 
given glory to God and justice. And certainly con- 
fession, as it is the strongest foundation of justice, so 
it is a kind of corner-stone, whereupon justice and 
mercy may meet. 

The proofs, which I shall read in the end for the 
ground of your verdict and sentence, will be very 
short; and, as much as may serve to satisfy your ho- 
nours and consciences for the conviction of this lady, 

(a) She pleaded guilty, on which occasion the attorney-general 
spoke a charge somewhat different from this, printed in his works. 

(b) Thomas Egerton, viscount Ellesmere, lord high chancellor. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 105 

without wasting of time in a case clear and confessed ; 
or ripping up guiltiness against one, that hath pros- 
trated herself by confession ; or preventing or de- 
flowering too much of the evidence. And therefore 
the occasion itself doth admonish me to spend this 
day rather in declaration, than in evidence, giving 
God and the king the honour, and your lordships and 
the hearers the contentment, to set before you the 
proceeding of this excellent work of the king's justice, 
from the beginning to the end ; and so to conclude 
with the reading the confessions and proofs. 

My lords, this is now the second time (c) within 
the space of thirteen years reign of our happy sove- 
reign, that this high tribunal-seat of justice, ordained 
for the trial by peers, hath been opened and erected ; 
and that, with a rare event, supplied and exercised 
by one and the same person ; which is a great honour 
to you, my lord Steward. 

In all this mean time, the king hath reigned in his 
white robe, not sprinkled with any drop of blood of 
any of his nobles of this kingdom. Nay, such hath 
been the depths of his mercy, as even those noble- 
men's bloods (against whom the proceeding was at 
Winchester), Cobham and Grey, were attainted and 
corrupted, but not spilt or taken away; but that they 
remained rather spectacles of justice in their conti- 
nual imprisonment, than monuments of justice in the 
memory of their suffering. 

It is true, that the objects of his justice then and 
now were very differing. For then it was the revenge 
of an offence against his own person and crown, and 
upon persons, that were malcontents, and contraries 
to the state and government. But now, it is the re- 
venge of the blood and death of a particular subject, 
and the cry of a prisoner. It is upon persons, that 
were highly in his favour ; whereby his majesty, to 
his great honour, hath shewed to the world, as if it 
were written in a sunbeam, that he is truly the lieu- 

(c ) The first time was on the trials of the lords Cobham and Grey, 
in November, 1603. 

106 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

tenant of Him, with whom there is no respect of per- 
sons ; that his affections royal are above his affections 
private : that his favours and nearness about him are 
not like popish sanctuaries to privilege malefactors : 
and that his being the best master of the world doth 
not let him from being the best king of the world. 
His people, on the other side, may say to themselves, 
I will lie down in "peace,; for God and the king and the 
law protect me against great and small. It may be a 
discipline also to great men, especially such as are 
swoln in fortunes from small beginnings, that the king 
is as well able to level mountains, as to fill vallies, if 
such be their desert. 

But to come to the present case ; the great frame 
of justice, my lords, in this present action, hath a 
vault, and it hath a stage : a vault, wherein these 
works of darkness were contrived ; and a stage with 
steps by which they were brought to light. And 
therefore I will bring this work of justice to the 
period of this day ; and then go on with this day's 

Sir Thomas Overbury was murdered by poison in 
the 15th of September, 1613, 1 1 Reg This foul and 
cruel murder did, for a time, cry secretly in the ears 
of God ; but God gave no answer to it, otherwise 
than by that voice, which sometimes he useth, which 
is vox populi, the speech of the people. For there 
went then a murmur that Overbury was poisoned : 
and yet this same submiss and soft voice of God, the 
speech of the vulgar people, was not without a coun- 
ter-tenor, or counter-blast of the devil, who is the 
common author both of murder and slander ; for it 
was given out, that Overbury was dead of a foul 
disease, and his body, which they had made a corpus 
Judaicum with their poisons, so as it had no whole 
part, must be said to be leprosed with vice, and so 
his name poisoned as well as his body For as to 
dissoluteness, I never heard the gentleman noted 
with it : his faults were insolency, and turbulency, 
and the like of that kind : the other part of the soul 
not the voluptuous. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 107 

Meantime, there was some industry used, of which 
I will not now speak, to lull asleep those that were 
the revengers of blood ; the father and the brother of 
the murdered. And in these terms things stood by 
the space almost of two years ; during which time, 
God so blinded the two great procurers, and dazzled 
them with their own greatness, and bind and nail fast 
the actors and instruments, with security upon their 
protection, as neither the one looked about them, nor 
the other stirred or fled, nor were conveyed away ; 
but remained here still, as under a privy arrest of 
God's judgments; insomuch as Franklin, that should 
have been sent over to the Palsgrave with good store 
of money, was, by God's providence, and the acci- 
dent of a marriage of his, diverted and stayed. 

But about the beginning of the progress last sum- 
mer, God's judgments began to come out of their 
depths : and as the revealing of murders is commonly 
such, as a man may say, a Domino hoc factum est; it 
is God's work, and it is marvellous in our eyes ; so 
in this particular it was most admirable ; for it came 
forth by a compliment and matter of courtesy. 

My lord of Shrewsbury, (d) that is now with God, 
recommended to a counsellor of state, of especial 
trust by his place, the late lieutenant Helwisse, (e) 
only for acquaintance as an honest worthy gentle- 
man ; and desired him to know him, and to be ac- 

(d) Gilbert, earl of Shrewsbury, knight of the garter, who died 
May 8, 1616. 

(e) Sir Gervase Helwisse, appointed lieutenant of the Tower, upon 
the removal of Sir William Waad, on the 6th of May, 1613. [Re- 
liquias Wottoniance, p. 412, 3d edit. 167?.] Mr. Chamberlain, in a 
MS. letter to Sir Dudley Carleton, dated at London, May 13, 1613, 
speaks of Sir Gervase's promotion in these terms. " One Sir Ger- 
" vase Helwisse of Lincolnshire, somewhat an unknown man, is 
" put into the place [of Sir W Waad's] by the favour of the lord 
" Chamberlain [earl of Somerset] and his lady. The gentleman 
" is of too mild and gentle a disposition for such an office. He is 
" my old friend and acquaintance in France, and lately renewed in 
" town, where he hath lived past a year, nor followed the court 
" many a day." Sir Henry Wotton, in a letter of the fourteenth of 
May 1613, [ubi supra, p. 13.] says, that Sir Gervase had been be- 
fore one of the pensioners. 

108 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

quainted with him. That counsellor answered him 
civilly, that my lord did him a favour ; and that he 
should embrace it willingly ; but he must let his 
lordship know, that there did lie a heavy imputation 
upon that gentleman, Helwisse ; for that Sir Thomas 
Overbury, his prisoner, was thought to have come to 
a violent and untimely death. When this speech was 
reported back by my lord of Shrewsbury to Helwisse, 
perculit illico animum, he was stricken with it; and 
being a politic man, and of likelihood doubting, that 
the matter would break forth at one time or other, 
and that others might have the start of him, and 
thinking to make his own case by his own tale, re- 
solved with himself, upon this occasion, to discover 
to my lord of Shrewsbury and that counsellor, that 
there was an attempt, whereto he was privy, to have 
poisoned Overbury by the hands of his under-keeper, 
Weston; but that he checked it, and put it by, and 
dissuaded it, and related so much to him indeed ; but 
then he left it thus, that was but an attempt, or un- 
timely birth, never executed ; and, as if his own fault 
had been no more, but that he was honest in forbid- 
ding, but fearful of revealing and impeaching or ac- 
cusing great persons: and so with this fine point 
thought to save himself. 

But that great counsellor of state wisely consider- 
ing, that by the lieutenant's own tale it could not be 
simply a permission or weakness ; for that Weston 
was never displaced by the lieutenant, notwithstand- 
ing that attempt : and coupling the sequel by the 
beginning, thought it matter fit to be brought before 
his majesty, by whose appointment Helwisse set 
down the like declaration in writing. 

Upon this ground, the king playeth Solomon's part, 
Gloria Dei celare rem ; et Gloria Regis investigare rem; 
and sets down certain papers of his own hand, which 
I might term to be c laves justitia, keys of justice ; 
and may serve for a precedent both for princes 
to imitate, and for a direction forjudges to follow : 
and his majesty carried the balance with a con- 
stant and steady hand, evenly and without preju- 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 109 

dice, whether it were a true accusation of the one 
part, or a practice and factious device of the other : 
which writing, because I am not able to express ac- 
cording to the worth thereof, I will desire your lord- 
ship anon to hear read. 

This excellent foundation of justice being laid by 
his majesty's own hand, it was referred unto some 
counsellors to examine farther, who gained some de- 
grees of light from Weston, but yet left it imperfect. 

After it was referred to Sir Edward Coke, chief 
justice of the King's Bench, as a person best prac- 
tised in legal examinations, who took a great deal of 
indefatigable pains in it, without intermission, having, 
as I have heard him say, taken at least three hundred 
examinations in this business. 

But these things were not done in a corner. I 
need not speak of them. It is true, that my lord 
chief justice, in the dawning and opening of the light, 
finding that the matter touched upon these great per- 
sons, very discreetly became suitor to the king to 
have greater persons than his own rank joined with 
him. Whereupon, your lordship, my lord high 
Steward of England, to whom the king commonly re- 
sorteth in arduis, and my lord Steward of the king's 
house, and my lord Zouch, were joined with him. 

Neither wanted there this while practice to sup- 
press testimony, to deface writings, to weaken the 
king's resolution, to slander the justice, and the like. 
Nay, when it came to the first solemn act of justice, 
which was the arraignment of Weston, he had his 
lesson to stand mute ; which had arrested the wheel 
of justice. But this dumb devil, by the means of 
some discreet divines, and the potent charm of jus- 
tice, together, was cast out. Neither did this poi- 
sonous adder stop his ear to those charms, but re- 
lented, and yielded to his trial. 

Then follow the proceedings of justice against the 
other offenders, Turner, Helwisse, Franklin. 

But all these being but the organs and instruments 
of this fact, the actors and not the authors, justice 
could not have been crowned without this last act 

110 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

against these great persons. Else Weston's censure 
or prediction might have been verified, when he said, 
he hoped the small flies should not be caught, and 
the great escape. Wherein the king being in great 
straits, between the defacing of his honour and of his 
creature, hath, according as he useth to do, chosen 
the better part, reserving always mercy to himself. 

The time also of this justice hath had its true mo- 
tions. The time until this lady's deliverance was due 
unto honour, Christianity, and humanity, in respect of 
her great belly The time since was due to another 
kind of deliverance too ; which was, that some causes 
of estate, that were in the womb, might likewise be 
brought forth, not for matter of justice, but for reason 
of state. Likewise this last procrastination of days 
had the like weighty grounds and causes. And this 
is the true and brief representation of this extreme 
work of the king's justice. 

Now for the evidence against this lady, I am sorry 
I must rip it up. I shall first shew you the purvey- 
ance or provisions of the poisons ; that they were 
seven in number brought to this lady, and by her 
billetted and laid up till they might be used ; and 
this done with an oath or vow of secrecy, which is 
like the Egyptian darkness, a gross and palpable 
darkness, that may be felt. 

Secondly, I shall shew you the exhibiting and sort- 
ing of this same number or volley of poisons : white 
arsenic was fit for salt, because it is of tike body and 
colour. The poison of great spiders, and of the ve- 
nomous fly cantharides, was fit for pigs sauce, or 
partridge sauce, because it resembled pepper. As for 
mercury-water and other poisons, they might be fit 
for tarts, which is a kind of hotch-pot, wherein no 
one colour is so proper : and some of these were de- 
livered by the hands of this lady, and some by her 

Thirdly, I shall prove and observe unto you the 
cautions of these poisons ; that they might not be too 
swift, lest the world should startle at it by the sudden- 
ness of the dispatch : but they must abide long in the 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 1 1 1 

body, and work by degrees : and for this purpose 
there must be essays of them upon poor beasts, &c. 

And lastly, I shall shew you the rewards of this 
impoisonment, first demanded by Weston, and de- 
nied, because the deed was not done ; but after the 
deed done and perpetrated, that Overbury was dead, 
then performed and paid to the value of 180/. 

And so without farther aggravation of that, which 
in itself bears its own tragedy, I will conclude with 
the confessions of this lady herself, which is the 
strongest support of justice ; and yet is the foot-stool 
of mercy For, as the Scripture says, mercy and truth 
have kissed each other; there is no meeting or greeting 
of mercy, till there be a confession, or trial of truth. 
For these read, 

Franklin, November 16, 

Franklin, November 17, 

Rich. Weston, October 1, 

Rich. Weston, October 2, 

Will. Weston, October 2, 

Richard Weston, October 3, 

Helwisse, October 2, 

The Countess's letter without date, 

The Countess's confession, January 8. 


of the late 

It may please your excellent Majesty, Robert 

According to your Majesty's reference signified by Esq. 
Sir Roger Wilbraham, I have considered of the pe- 
tition of Sir Gilbert Houghton, your majesty's ser- 
vant, for a licence of sole transportation of tallow, 
butter, and hides, &c. out of your realm of Ireland ; 
and have had conference with the lord Chichester, 
late lord deputy of Ireland, and likewise with Sir 
John Davies, your majesty's attorney there: And 
this is that which I find : 

First, that hides and skins may not be meddled 
withal, being a staple commodity of the kingdom, 
wherein the towns are principally interested. 

1 ] 2 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

That for tallow, butter, beef, not understanding it 
of live cattle, and pipe-staves, for upon these things 
we fell, although they were not all contained in the 
petition, but in respect hides were more worth than 
all the rest, they were thought of bv way of some 
supply ; these commodities are such, as the kingdom 
may well spare, and in that respect fit to be trans- 
ported ; wherein nevertheless some consideration 
may be had of the profit, that shall be taken upon 
the licence. Neither do I find, that the farmers of 
the customs there, of which some of them were be- 
fore me, did much stand upon it. but seemed rather 
to give way to it. 

I find also, that at this time all these commodities 
are free to be transported by proclamation, so as no 
profit can be made of it. except there be first a 
restraint ; which restraint I think fitter to be by some 
prohibition in the letters patents, than by any new 
proclamation ; and the said letters patents to pass 
rather here, than there, as it was in the licence of 
wines granted to the lady Arbella; but then those 
letters patents to be inrolled in the chancery of Ire- 
land, whereby exemplifications of them may be taken 
to be sent to the ports. 

All which nevertheless I submit to your majesty s 
better judgment. 

Your Majesty's most humble 

bounden subject and servant, 

5 June, 1616. 



May it please your Honour, 
Such, as know your honour, may congratulate 
with you the favour, which you have lately received 
from his majesty, of being made a counsellor of 
state ; {a) but as for me, I must have leave to con- 

(a) Sir Francis Bacon was sworn at Greenwich of the privy 
council, June 9, 1616. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 1 13 

gratulate with the council-table, in being so happy as 
to have you for an assessor. I hope these are but be- 
ginnings, and that the marriage, which now I perceive 
that fortune is about to make with virtue, will be con- 
summate in your person. I cannot dissemble, though, 
I am ashamed to mention, the excessive honour, 
which you have vouchsafed to do unto my picture. 
But shame ought not to be so hateful as sin ; and with- 
out sin I know not how to conceal the extreme obli- 
gation into which I am entered thereby, which is in- 
comparably more than I can express, and no less than 
as much as I am able to conceive. And as the copy 
is more fortunate than the original, because it hath 
the honour to be under your eye ; so the original 
being much more truly yours than the copy can be, 
aspires, by having the happiness to see you, to put the 
picture out of countenance. 

I understand by Sir George Petre, (a) who is arrived 
here at the Spa, and is so wise as to honour you ex- 
tremely, though he have not the fortune to be known 
to your honour, that he had heard how my lord of 
Canterbury had been moved in my behalf; and that 
he gave way unto my return. This, if it be true, 
cannot have happened without some endeavour of 
your honour ; and therefore, howsoever I have not 
been particularly advertised that your honour had 
delivered my letter to his grace ; yet now methinks 
I do as good as know it, and dare adventure to pre- 
sent you with my humblest thanks for the favour. But 
the main point is, how his majesty should be moved ; 
wherein my friends are straining courtesy ; and un- 
less 1 have your honour for a master of the ceremo- 
nies, to take order, who shall begin, all the benefit 
that I can reap by this negotiation, will be to have 
the reputation of little judgment in attempting that 
which I was not able to obtain ; and that, howsoever 
I have shot fair, I know not how to hit the mark. I 
have been directed by my lord Koos, who was the 

(a) Grandson of John, the first lord Petre, and son of William, 
second baron of that name. 


114 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

first mover of this stone, to write a letter, which him- 
self would deliver to the master of the horse, (a) who 
doth me the honour to wish me very well : and I have 
obeyed his lordship, and beseech your honour, that 
you will be pleased to prevent, or to accompany, or 
second it with your commendation, lest otherwise the 
many words that I have used, have but the virtue of 
a single o, or cypher. But indeed, if I had not been 
over- weighed by the authority of my lord Roos's com- 
mandment, I should rather have reserved the master 
of the horse's favour to some other use afterward. In 
conformity whereof, I have also written to his lord- 
ship; and perhaps he will thereupon forbear to deliver 
my letter to the master of the horse: whereas, I should 
be the less sorry, if your honour's self would not 
think it inconvenient to make the suit of my return 
to his majesty ; in which case I should, to my extreme 
contentment, "have all my obligations to your ho- 
nour only. 

His majesty's being now in progress will give some 
impediment to my suit, unless either it be my good 
fortune, that your honour do attend his person ; or 
else, that you will be pleased to command some one 
of the many servants your honour hath in court, to 
procure the expedition of my cause, wherein I can 
foresee no difficulty, when I consider the interest 
which your honour alloweth me in your favour, and 
my innocent carriage abroad for so many years ; 
whereunto all his majesty's ministers, who have known 
me, I am sure, will give an attestation, according to 
the contents of my letter to his grace of Canterbury 
If I durst, I would most humbly intreat your honour 
to be pleased, that some servant of yours may speedily 
advertise me whether or no his grace of Canterbury 
hath received my letter ; what his answer was ; and 
what I may hope in this my suit. I remember, that 
the last words which I had the honour to hear from 
your mouth, were, that if I continued any time free 

(«) Sir George Villiers, who was appointed to that office, Jan. 4, 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 115 

both from disloyalty and priesthood, your honour 
would be pleased to make yourself the intercessor for 
my return. Any letter sent to Mr. Trumball for me 
will come safely and speedily to my hands. 

The term doth now last with your honour all the 
year long ; and therefore the sooner I make an end, 
the better service I shall do you. I presume to kiss 
your hands, and continue 

Your Honour's most intirely, 

and humbly ever at commandment, 

Spa, this 16th of July, TOBIE MATTHEW 

stylo novo, 1616. 

Postsc. It is no small penance that I am forced to 
apparel my mind in my man's hand, when it speaks 
to your honour But God Almighty will have it so, 
through the shaking I have in my right hand ; and I 
do little less than want the use of my fore finger. 


It may please your Honour, 

I presumed to importune your honour with a let- 
ter of the 16th of this month, whereby I signified, 
how I had written to the master of the horse, that he 
would be pleased to move his majesty for my return 
into England ; and how that I had done it upon the 
direction of my lord Roos, who offered to be the de- 
liverer thereof. Withal I told your honour, that I ex- 
pressed thereby an act rather of obedience, than pru- 
dence, as not holding his lordship a fit man, whom, by 
presenting that letter, the king might peradventure 
discover to be my favourer in this business. In regard 
whereof I besought him, that, howsoever I had com- 
plied with his command in writing, yet he would for- 
bear the delivery : and I gave him divers reasons for 
it. And both in contemplation of those reasons, as also 
of the hazard of miscarriage, that letters do run into 
between these parts and those, I have now thought fit 

i 2 

1 16 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

to send your honour this inclosed, accompanied with 
a most humble intreaty, that you will be pleased to 
put it into the master of the horse's hands, with such 
a recommendation as you can give. Having read it, 
your honour may be pleased to seal it : and if his 
honour have received the former by other hands, this 
may serve in the nature of a duplicate or copy : if 
not, it may be the original. And indeed, though it 
should be but the copy, if it may be touched by your 
honour, it would have both greater grace and greater 
life, than the principal itself; and therefore, howso- 
ever, I humbly pray, that this may be delivered. 

If my business should be remitted to the council 
table, which yet, I hope, will not be, I am most a 
stranger to my lord chancellor and my lord chamber- 
lain («) of whom yet I trust, by means of your ho- 
nour's good word in my behalf, that I shall receive 
no impediment. 

The bearer, Mr. Becher, (b) can say what my car- 
riage hath been in France under the eye of several 
ambassadors ; which makes me the more glad to use 
him in the delivery of this letter to your honour : and 
if your honour may be pleased to command me any 
thing, he will convey it to my knowledge. 

I hear, to my unspeakable joy of heart, how much 
power you have with the master of the horse ; and 
how much immediate favour you have also with his 
most excellent majesty : so that I cannot but hope for 
all good success, when I consider withal the protec- 
tion, whereinto you have been pleased to take me, 

Most humble and most obliged 

of your Honour's many servants, 

Spa, this last of July, T0B1E MATTHEW 

stylo novo, 1616. 

(a) William, earl of Pembroke. 

(b) William, afterward knighted. He had been secretary to Sir 
George Calvert, ambassador to the court of France, and was after- 
Ward agent at that court; and at last made clerk of the council. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 117 


May it please your Honour, 

I have been made happy by your honour's noble 
and dear lines of the two-and-twentieth of July : and 
the joy that I took therein, was only kept from 
excess by the notice they gave me of some intentions 
and advices of your honour, which you have been 
pleased to impart to others of my friends, with a 
meaning that they should acquaint me with them ; 
whereof they have intirely failed. And therefore if 
still it should import me to understand what they 
were, I must be inforced to beg the knowledge of 
them from yourself. Your honour hath, by this short 
letter, delivered me otherwise from a great deal of 
laborious suspense. For, besides the great hope you 
give me of being so shortly able to do you reverence, 
I am come to know, that by the diligence of your 
favour towards me, my lord of Canterbury hath been 
drawn to give way, and the master of the horse hath 
been induced to move. That motion, I trust, will 
be granted howsoever ; but I should be out of fear 
thereof, if, when he moves the king, your honour 
would cast to be present ; that if his majesty should 
make any difficulty, some such reply, as is wont to 
come from you, in such cases, may have power to 
discharge it. 

I have been told rather confidently than credibly, 
for in truth I am hardly drawn to believe it, that Sir 
Henry Goodere should under-hand, upon the reason 
of certain accounts that run between him and me, 
wherein I might justly lose my right, if I had so little 
wit as to trouble your honour's infinite business, by 
a particular relation thereof, oppose himself to my re- 
turn ; and perform ill offices in conformity of that un- 
kind affection which he is said to bear me. But, as 
I said, I cannot absolutely believe it, though yet I 
could not so far despise the information, as not to ac- 
quaint your honour with what I heard. 1 offer it not 

1 18 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

as a ruled case, but only as a query, as I have also 
done to Mr Secretary Lake, in this letter, which I 
humbly pray your honour may be given him, together 
with your best advice, how my business is to be car- 
ried in this conjuncture of his majesty's drawing near 
to London, at which time I shall receive my sentence. 
I have learned from your honour to be confident that 
it will be pronounced in my favour : but if the will of 
God should be otherwise, I shall yet frame for myself 
a good proportion of contentment ; since, howsoever 
I was so unfortunate, as that I might not enjoy my 
country, yet withal, I was so happy, as that my re- 
turn thither was desired and negotiated by the affec- 
tion which such a person as yourself vouchsafed to 
bear me- When his majesty shall be moved, if he 
chance to make difficulty about my return, and offer 
to impose any condition, which, it is known, I can- 
not draw myself to digest ; I desire it may be remem- 
bered, that my case is common with many of his sub- 
jects, who breathe in the air of their country, and that 
my case is not common with many, since I have lived 
so long abroad with disgrace at home ; and yet have 
ever been free, not only from suspicion of practice, 
but from the least dependence upon foreign princes. 
My king is wise ; and I hope, that he hath this just 
mercy in store for me. God Almighty make and keep 
your honour ever happy, and keep me so in his fa- 
vour, as I will be sure to continue 

Your Honour's ever most obliged 
and devoted servant, 

Antwerp, this first of Sept. TOBIE MATTHEW 

stylo novo, 1616. 


May it please your Honour, 

I have written to Sir John Digby ; and I think he 
would do me all favour, if he were handsomely put 
upon it. My lady of Pembroke (a) hath written, and 

(a) Mary, widow of Henry, earl of Pembroke, who died January 
19, 1601-2, daughter of Sir Henry Sidney, and sister of Sir Philip. 
She died September 25, 1621. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 119 

that very earnestly, to my lord chamberlain in my 

This letter goes by Mr. Robert Garret, to whom I 
am many ways beholden, for making me the best 
present that ever I received, by delivering me your 
honour's last letter. 


May it please your excellent Majesty, 

Because I have ever found, that in business the con- 
sideration of persons, who are instrumenta animata, is 
no less weighty than of matters, I humbly pray your 
majesty to peruse this inclosed paper, containing a 
diligence, which I have used in omnem eventum. If 
Towerson, (a) as a passionate man, have overcome 
himself in his opinion, so it is. But if his company 
make this good, then I am very glad to see in the 
case, wherein we now stand, there is this hope left, 
and your majesty's honour preserved in the entier. 
God have your majesty in his divine protection. 

Your Majesty's most devoted, and 

most bounden servant, &c. 

This is a secret to all men but my lord chancellor ; 
and we go on this day with the new company, with- 
out discouraging them at all. 

September 18, 1616. 


To the King, upon Towerson's propositions about 
the cloth business. 

(a) Whose brother, captain Gabriel Towerson, was one of the 
English merchants executed by the Dutch at Amboyna, in 1623. 

120 Letters, eta. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


Right Honourable, 

My attendance at court two days, in vain, consi- 
dering the end of my journey, was no loss unto me, 
seeing thereby I made the gain of the overture and 
assurance of your honour's affection. These comforts 
have given new life and strength to my hopes, which 
before began to faint. I know, what your honour 
promiseth, you will undertake ; and what you under- 
take, you seldom fail to compass ; for such proof of 
your prudence and industry your honour hath of late 
times given to the swaying world. There is, to my 
understanding, no great intricacy in my affair, in 
which I plainly descry the course to the shore I would 
land at ; to which neither I, nor any other can attain, 
without the direction of our great master-pilot, who 
will not stir much without the beloved mate sound 
the way Both these none can so well set awork as 
yourself, who have not only their ear, but their affec- 
tion, and that with good right, as I hope, in time, to 
good and public purpose. It is fit likewise, that your 
honour know all my advantages. The present incum- 
bent is tied to me by firm promise, which gives an 
impediment to the competitors, whereof one already, 
according to the heaviness of his name and nature, 
petit deorsum. And though I be a bad courtier, yet I 
know the style of gratitude, and shall learn as I am 
instructed. Whatsoever your honour shall undertake 
for me, I will make good. Therefore I humbly and 
earnestly intreat your best endeavour, to assure to 

(a) Bora about 1570, entered a commoner of Broad -gate's hall, 
now Pembroke-college, Oxford, in 1585, whence he removed to the 
Middle Temple. In the parliament of 1601, he served for the bo- 
rough of Barnstaple in Devon ; and in the first parliament of king 
James I. he served for Cirencester in Gloucestershire ; he was chosen 
recorder of London in September, 161 8 ; but died in the last day of 
the following month. He was much esteemed by the men of learn- 
ing and genius of that age. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 121 

yourself and your master a servant, who both can and 
will, though as yet mistaken, advance his honour and 
service with advantage. Your love and wisdom is 
my last address ; and on the real nobleness of your 
nature, whereof there is so good proof, stands my last 
hope. If I now find a stop, I will resolve it is fatum 
Carthaginis, and sit down in perpetual peace. In 
this business I desire all convenient silence ; for 
though I can endure to be refused, yet it would trou- 
ble me to have my name blasted. If your honour re- 
turn not, and you think it requisite, I will attend at 
court. Mean time, with all humble and hearty 
wishes for increase of all happiness, I kiss your ho- 
nour's hands. 

Your Honour's humbly at command, 
September 27, 1616. It. MARTIN 

To the right honourable Sir Francis Bacon, knight, 
his Majesty's attorney-general, and one of his Ma- 
jesty's most honourable privy council, my singular 
patron at court. 


It may please your Majesty, 

This morning, according to your majesty's com- 
mand, we have had my lord chief justice of the King's 
Bench (a) before us, we being assisted by all our 
learned council, except serjeant Crew, who was then 
gone to attend your majesty It was delivered unto 
him, that your majesty's pleasure was, that we should 
receive an account from him of the performance of a 
commandment of your majesty laid upon him, which 
was, that he should enter into a view and retraction 
of such novelties, and errors, and offensive conceits, 
as were dispersed in his Reports ; that he had had 
good time to do it ; and we doubted not but he had 

(a) Sir Edward Coke. 

122 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

used good endeavour in it, which we desired now in 
particular to receive from him. 

His speech was, that there were of his Reports 
eleven books, that contained about five hundred cases : 
that heretofore in other Reports, as namely, those of 
Mr. Plowden, (a) which he reverenced much, there 
hath been found nevertheless errors, which the wis- 
dom of time had discovered, and later judgments 
controlled ; and enumerated to us four cases in Plow- 
den which were erroneous : and thereupon delivered 
in to us the inclosed paper, wherein your majesty 
may perceive, that my lord is a happy man, that 
there should be no more errors in his five hundred 
cases, than in a few cases of Plowden. Your majesty 
may also perceive, that your majesty's direction to my 
lord chancellor and myself, and the travail taken by 
us and Mr. Solicitor, (b) in following and performing 
your direction, was not altogether lost ; for that of 
those three heads, which we principally respected, 
which were the rights and liberties of the church, 
your prerogative, and the jurisdiction of other your 
courts, my lord hath scarcely fallen upon any, except 
it be the prince's case, which also yet seemeth to 
stand but upon the grammatical of French and 

My lord did also give his promise, which your ma- 
jesty shall find in the end of his writing, thus far in a 
kind of common-place or thesis, that it was sin for a 
man to go against his own conscience, though erro- 

(<z) Edmund Plowden, born of an ancient family of that name at 
Plowden in Shropshire, who, as he tells us himself in the preface to 
his Reports in the twentieth year of his age, and the thirtieth of the 
reign of Henry VIII. anno 1539, began his study of the common law 
in the Middle Temple. Wood adds, Ath. Oxon. Vol. I. col. 219, that 
he spent three years in the study of arts, philosophy, and physic, at 
Cambridge, and four at Oxford, where, in November 1552, he was 
admitted to practise chirurgery and physic. In 1557 he became 
summer reader of the Middle Temple, and three years after Lent 
reader, having been made Serjeant October 27, 1558. He died Fe- 
bruary 6, 1584-5, at the age of sixty-seven, in the profession of the 
Roman Catholic faith, and lies interred in the Temple church. 

Q>) Sir Henry Yelverton. 

Lettet^s, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 123 

neous, except his conscience be first informed and 

The lord chancellor in the conclusion signified to 
my lord Coke your majesty's commandment, that, un- 
til report made, and your pleasure thereupon known, 
he shall forbear his sitting at Westminster, &c. not 
restraining nevertheless any other exercise of his place 
of chief justice in private. 

Thus having performed, to the best of our under- 
standing, your royal commandment, we rest ever 

Your Majesty's most faithful 

and most bounden servants, 8§c. 



I have acquainted his majesty with my lord chan- 
cellor's and your report, touching my lord Coke ; as 
also with your opinion therein ; which his majesty 
doth dislike for these three reasons : first, because, 
that by this course you propound, the process cannot 
have a beginning, till after his majesty's return ; which, 
how long it may last after, no man knoweth. He 
therefore thinketh it too long and uncertain a de- 
lay, to keep the bench so long void from a chief 
justice. Secondly, although his majesty did use the 
council's advice in dealing with the chief justice 
upon his other misdemeanors ; yet he would be loth 
to lessen his prerogative, in making the council judges, 
whether he should be turned out of his place or no, 
if the case should so require. Thirdly, for that my 
lord Coke hath sought means to kiss his majesty's 
hands, and withal to acquaint him with some things 
of great importance to his service; he holdeth it not 
fit to admit him to his presence, before these points 
be determined, because that would be a grant of his 
pardon before he had his trial. And if those things, 

124 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

wherewith he is to acquaint his majesty, be of such 
consequence, it would be dangerous and prejudicial 
to his majesty to delay him too long. Notwithstand- 
ing, if you shall advise of any other reasons to the 
contrary, his majesty would have you, with all the 
speed you can, to send them unto him ; and in the 
mean time to keep back his majesty's letter, which is 
herein sent unto you, from my lord Coke's knowledge, 
until you receive his majesty's further direction for 
your proceeding in his business. 

And so I rest, 

your ever assured friend at command, 

.1 ia ^n^u'*' 1R1R GEORGE VILLIERS. 

the 3d of October, 1616. 

To the right honourable Sir Francis Bacon, knight, 
his Majesty's attorney-general, and of his most ho- 
nourable privy council. 


It may please your most excellent Majesty, 

We have considered of the letters, which we received 
from your majesty, as well that written to us both, as 
that other written by my lord Villiers to me, the at- 
torney, which I thought good to acquaint my lord 
chancellor withal, the better to give your majesty sa- 
tisfaction. And we most humbly desire your majesty 
to think, that we are, and ever shall be, ready to per- 
form and obey your majesty's directions ; towards 
which the first degree is to understand them well. 

In answer therefore to both the said letters, as well 
concerning matter as concerning time, we shall in all 
humbleness offer to your majesty's high wisdom the 
considerations following : 

First, we did conceive, that after my lord Coke was 
sequestered from the table and his circuits, (a) when 

(a) On the 30th of June, 1616, Camdeni Annates Regis Jacobi I. 
p. 19; and Peck, Desiderata Curiosa, Vol. I. Lib. VI. p. 18. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 125 

your majesty laid upon him your commandment for 
the expurging of his Reports, and commanded also 
our service to look into them, and into other novel- 
ties introduced into the government, your majesty had 
in this your doing two principal ends : 

The one, to see, if upon so fair an occasion, he 
would make any expiation of his former faults : and 
also shew himself sensible of those things in his Re- 
ports, which he could not but know were the likest 
to be offensive to your majesty. 

The other, to perform de vero this right to your 
crown and succession, and your people also ; that 
those errors and novelties might not run on and au- 
thorize by time, but might be taken away, whether 
he consented to it or no. 

But we did not conceive your majesty would have 
had him charged with those faults of his book, or 
those other novelties ; but only would have had them 
represented to you for your better information. 

Now your majesty seeth what he hath done, you 
can better judge of it than we can. If, upon this pro- 
bation, added to former matters, your majesty think 
him not fit for your service, we must in all humble- 
ness subscribe to your majesty, and acknowledge that 
neither his displacing, considering he holdeth his 
place but during your will and pleasure, nor the choice 
of a fit man to be put in his room, are council-table 
matters, but are to proceed wholly from your ma- 
jesty's great wisdom and gracious pleasure. So that 
in this course, it is but the signification of your plea- 
sure, and the business is at an end as to him. Only 
there remaineth the actual expurgation or animad- 
versions of the books. 

But if your majesty understand it that he shall be 
charged, then, as your majesty best knoweth, justice 
requireth, that he be heard and called to his answer, 
and then your majesty will be pleased to consider, be- 
fore whom he shall be charged ; whether before the 
body of your council, as formerly he was, or some se- 
lected commissioners ; for we conceive your majesty 
will not think it convenient it should be before us 

126 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

two only Also the manner of his charge is consider- 
able, whether it shall be verbal by your learned coun- 
cil, as it was last ; or whether, in respect of the mul- 
tiplicity of matters, he shall not have the collections 
we have made in writing, delivered to him. Also the 
matter of his charge is likewise considerable, whether 
any of those points of novelty, which by your ma- 
jesty's commandment we collected, shall be made 
part of his charge ; or only the faults of his books, and 
the prohibitions and habeas corpus, collected by my 
lord of Canterbury. In all which course we foresee 
length of time, not so much for your learned council 
to be prepared, for that is almost done already, but 
because himself, no doubt, will crave time of advice 
to peruse his own books, and to see whether the col- 
lections be true, and that he be justly charged ; and 
then to produce his proofs, that those things, which 
he shall be charged with, were not conceits or singu- 
larities of his own, but the acts of court, and other 
like things, tending to excusation or extenuation ; 
wherein we do not see how the time of divers days, 
if not of weeks, can be denied him. 

Now for time, if this last course of charging him be 
taken, we may only inform your majesty thus much, 
that the absence of a chief justice, though it should be 
for a whole term, as it hath been often upon sickness, 
can be no hindrance to common justice. For the bu- 
siness of the King's Bench may be dispatched by the 
rest of the judges : his voice in the star-chamber may 
be supplied by any other judge, that my lord chan- 
cellor shall call ; and the trials by nisi prius may be 
supplied by commission. 

But as for those great matters of discovery, we can 
say nothing more than this, that either they are old or 
new- If old, he is to blame for having kept them so 
long : if new, or whatsoever, he may advertise your 
majesty of them by letter, or deliver them by word 
to such counsellor as your majesty will assign. 

Thus we hope your majesty will accept of our sin- 
cerity, having dealt freely and openly with your ma- 
jesty, as becometh us : and when we shall receive 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 127 

your pleasure and direction, we shall execute and 
obey the same in all things ; ending with our prayers 
for your majesty, and resting 

Your Majesty s most faithful, and 

most bounden servants, 
October 6, 1616. 



That although the discharging and removing of his 
majesty's officers and servants, as well as the choice 
and advancement of men to place, be no council-table 
matters, but belong to his majesty's princely will and 
secret judgment ; yet his majesty will do his council 
this honour, that in his resolutions of that kind, his 
council shall know them first before others, and shall 
know them, accompanied by their causes, making as 
it were a private manifesto, or revealing of himself to 
them without parables. 

Then to have the report of the lords touching the 
business of the lord Coke, and the last order of the 
council read. 

That done, his majesty farther to declare, that he 
might, upon the same three grounds in the order men- 
tioned, of deceit, contempt, and slander of his go- 
vernment, very justly have proceeded then, not only 
to have put him from his place of chief justice, but to 
have brought him in question in the star-chamber, 
which would have been his utter overthrow ; but then 
his majesty was pleased for that time only to put him 
off from the council-table, and from the public exer- 
cise of his place of chief justice, and to take farther 
time to deliberate. 

That in his majesty's deliberation, besides the pre- 
sent occasion, he had in some things looked back to 
the lord Coke's former carriage, and in some things 
looked forward, to make some farther trial of him. 

128 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

That for things passed, his majesty had noted in 
him a perpetual turbulent carriage, first towards the 
liberties of his church and estate ecclesiastical ; to- 
wards his prerogative royal, and the branches thereof; 
and likewise towards all the settled jurisdictions of 
all his other courts, the high commission, the star- 
chamber, the chancery, the provincial councils, the 
admiralty, the duchy, the court of requests, the com- 
mission of inquiries, the new boroughs of Ireland ; 
in all which he had raised troubles and new questions ; 
and lastly, in that, which might concern the safety of 
his royal person, by his exposition of the laws in cases 
of high treason. 

That, besides the actions themselves, his majesty in 
his princely wisdom hath made two special obser- 
vations of him ; the one, that he having in his nature 
not one part of those things, which are popular in 
men, being neither civil, nor affable, nor magnificent, 
he hath made himself popular by design only, in 
pulling down government. The other, that whereas 
his majesty might have expected a change in him, 
when he made him his own, by taking him to be of 
his council, it made no change at all, but to the worse, 
he holding on all his former channel, and running se- 
parate courses from the rest of his council ; and rather 
busying himself in casting fears before his council, 
concerning what they could not do, than joining his 
advice what they should do. 

That his majesty, desirous yet to make a farther 
trial of him, had given him the summer's vacation to 
reform his Reports, wherein there be many danger- 
ous conceits of his own uttered for law, to the pre- 
judice of his crown, parliament, and subjects ; and to 
see, whether by this he would in any part redeem his 
fault. But that his majesty hath failed of the redemp- 
tion he desired, but hath met with another kind of 
redemption from him, which he little expected. For 
as to the Reports, after three months' time and consi- 
deration, he had offered his majesty only five animad- 
versions, being rather a scorn, than a satisfaction to 
his majesty ; whereof one was that in the prince's case 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Hacon. 129 

he had found out the French statue, which was filz 
aisne, whereas the Latin was primogenitus ; and so 
the prince is duke of Cornwall in French, and not 
duke of Cornwall in Latin. And another was, that 
he had set Montagu to be chief justice in Henry 
VIII's time, when it should have been in Edward 
"VTs, and such other stuff; not falling upon any of 
those things, which he could not but know were of- 

That hereupon his majesty thought good to refresh 
his memory, and out of many cases, which his ma- 
jesty caused to be collated, to require his answer to 
five, being all such, as were but expatiations of his 
own, and no judgments ; whereunto he returned such 
an answer, as did either justify himself, or elude 
the matter, so as his majesty seeth plainly antiquum 


I have kept your man here thus long, because I 
thought there would have been some occasion for me 
to write after Mr. Solicitor- General's being with the 
king. But he hath received so full instruction from 
his majesty, that there is nothing left for me to add 
in the business. And so I rest 

Your faithful servant, 

Royston, the 13th of Octob. 1616. GEORGE VILLIERS. 

To the right honourable Sir Francis Bacon, knight, one 
of his majesty s privy council, and his attorney- 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vpl. 7006. 

vol. yi. 

1 30 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My Lord, 
I am bold to present unto your hands by this bearer, 
whom the law calls up, some salt of wormwood, being 
uncertain, whether the regard of your health makes 
you still continue the use of that medicine. 1 could 
wish it otherwise ; for I am persuaded, that all diure- 
tics, which carry with them that punctuous nature 
and caustic quality by calcination, are hurtful to the 
kidnies, if not enemies to the other principal parts 
of the body Wherein if it shall please you, for your 
better satisfaction, to call the advice of your learned 
physicians, and that they shall resolve of any medi- 
cine for your health, wherein my poor labour may 
avail you, you know where your faithful apothe- 
cary dwells, who will be ready at your command- 
ment ; as I am bound both by your favours to myself, 
as also by those to my nephew, whom you have 
brought out of darkness into light, and, by what I 
hear, have already made him, by your bounty, a sub- 
ject of emulation to his elder brother. We are all 
partakers of this your kindness towards him ; and 
for myself, I shall be ever ready to deserve it by any 
service that shall lie in the power of 

Your Lordship s poor nephew, 
Redgrave, this 19th of 

October, 1616. EDM. BACON. 

For the right honourable Sir Francis Bacon, knight, 
his majesty's attorney-general, and one of his most 
honourable privy counsellors, be these delivered at 

(a) Nephew of Sir Francis Bacon, being eldest son of Sir Ni- 
cholas Bacon, lord keeper of the great seal. Sir Edmund died 
without issue, April 10, 1649. There are several letters to him 
from Sir Henry Wotton, printed among the works of the latter. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 131 


May it please your excellent Majesty, 

I send your majesty a form of discharge for my 
lord Coke from his place of chief justice of your 
bench. («) 

T send also a warrant to the lord chancellor, for 
making forth a writ for a new chief justice, leaving a 
blank for the name to be supplied by your majesty's 
presence; for I never received your majesty's ex- 
press pleasure in it. 

If your majesty resolve of Montagu (//) as I con- 
ceive and wish, it is very material, as these times are, 
that your majesty have some care, that the recorder 
succeeding be a temperate and discreet man, and 
assured to your majesty's service. If your majesty, 
without too much harshness, can continue the place 
within your own servants, it is best: if not. the man, 
upon whom the choice is like to fall, which is Co- 
ventry, (c) I hold doubtful for your service ; not but 
that he is a well learned, and an honest man ; but he 
hath been, as it were, bred by lord Coke, and sea- 
soned in his ways. 

God preserve your majesty. 

Your Majesty's most humble 

and bounden servant, 


I send not these things, which concern my lord 
Coke, by my lord Villiers, for such reasons as your 
majesty may conceive. 

November 13, at noon [1616. J 

(a) Sir Edward Coke was removed from that post on the. 15th of 
November, 1616. 

(6) Sir Henry Montagu, recorder of London, who was made lord 
chief justice of the King's Bench, November 16, 1616. He was 
afterward made lord treasurer, and created earl of Manchester. 

(c) Thomas Coventry, esq ; afterward lord keeper of the great 


132 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


It may please your most excellent Majesty, 

I send your majesty, according to your command- 
ment, the warrant for the review of Sir Edward 
Coke's Reports. I had prepared it before I received 
your majesty's pleasure : but I was glad to see it 
was in your mind, as well as in my hands. In the 
nomination, which your majesty made of the judges, 
to whom it should be directed, your majesty could 
not name the lord chief justice, that now is, (a) be- 
cause he was not then declared : but you could not 
leave him out now, without discountenance. 

I send your majesty the state of lord Darcy's 
cause (Z>) in the star-chamber, set down by Mr. So- 
licitor, (c) and mentioned in the letters, which your 
majesty received from the lords. I leave all in hum- 
bleness to your majesty's royal judgment : but this is 

(a) Sir Henry Montagu. 

(6) This is just mentioned in a letter of Sir Francis Bacon to the 
lord viscount Villiers, printed in his works; but is more particularly 
stated in the Reports of Sir Henry Hobart, lord chief justice of the 
Common Pleas, p. 120, 121. Edit. London, 1658, fol. as follows. 
The lord Darcy of the North sued Gervase Markham, esq. in the 
Star-Chamber, in 1616, on this occasion. They had hunted to- 
gether, and the defendant and a servant of the plaintiff, one Beck- 
with, fell together by the ears in the field ; and Beckwith threw 
him down, and was upon him cuffing him, when the lord Darcy took 
his servant off, and reproved him. However, Mr. Markham ex- 
pressing some anger against his lordship, and charging him with 
maintaining his man, lord Darcy answered, that he had used Mr. 
Markham kindly ; for if he had not rescued him from his man, the 
latter would have beaten him to rags. Mr. Markham, upon this, 
wrote five or six letters to lord Darcy, subscribing them with his 
name ; but did not send them, and only dispersed them unsealed 
in the fields ; the purport of them being this : that whereas the lord 
Darcy had said, that, but for him, his servant Beckwith had beaten 
him to rags, he lied ; and as often as he should speak it, he lied ; 
and that he would maintain this with his life : adding, that he had 
dispersed those letters, that his lordship might find them, or some- 
body else bring them to him ; and that if his lordship were desirous 
to speak with him, he might send his boy, who should be well used. 
For this offence, Mr. Markham was censured, and fined 5001. by 
the Star-Chamber. 

(c) Sir Henry Yelverton. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 133 

true, that it was the clear opinion of my lord chan- 
cellor, that myself, and the two chief justices, and 
others, that it is a cause most fit for the censure of 
the court, both for the repressing of duels, and the 
encouragement of complaints in courts of justice. If 
your majesty be pleased it shall go on, there resteth 
but Wednesday for the hearing; for the last day of 
term is commonly left for orders, though sometimes, 
upon extraordinary occasions, it hath been set down 
for the hearing of some great cause. 

I send your majesty also baron Bromley's (d) re- 
port, which your majesty required ; whereby your 
majesty may perceive things go not so well in Cum- 
berland, which is the seat of the party your majesty 
named to me, as was conceived. And yet if there 
were land-winds, as there be sea- winds, to bind men 
in, I could wish he were a little wind-bound, to keep 
him in the south. 

But while your majesty passeth the accounts of 
judges in circuits, your majesty will give me leave to 
think of the judges here in their upper region. And 
because Tacitus saith well, opportuni magnus conati- 
bus transitus rerum ; now upon this change, when he, 
that letteth, is gone, I shall endeavour, to the best 
of my power and skill, that there may be a consent 
and united mind in your judges to serve you, and 
strengthen your business. For I am persuaded there 
cannot be a sacrifice, from which there may come 
up to you a sweeter odour of rest, than this effect, 
whereof I speak. 

For this wretched murderer, Bertram, (e) now gone 
to his place, I have, perceiving your majesty's good 
liking of what I propounded, taken order, that there 

(d) Edward Bromley, made one of the barons of the exchequer, 
February 6, 16$§. 

(e) John Bertram, a grave man, above seventy years of age, and 
of a clear reputation, according to Camden, Annates Regis Jacobi I. 
p. 21. He killed with a pistol, in Lincoln's Inn, on the 12th of 
November, 1616, Sir John Tyndal, a master in Chancery, for hav- 
ing made a report against him in a cause, wherein the sum contended 
for did not exceed 2001. He hanged himself in prison on the 17th 
of that month. 

134 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

shall be a declaration concerning the cause in the 
king's bench, by occasion of punishment of the of- 
fence of his keeper ; and another in chancery, upon 
the occasion of moving for an order, according to his 
just and righteous report. And yet withal, I have 
set on work a good pen, (/) and myself will overlook 
it, for making some little pamphlet fit to fly abroad 
in the country 

For your majesty's proclamation touching the wear- 
ing of cloth, after I had drawn a form as near as I 
could to your majesty's direction, 1 propounded it 
to the lords, my lord chancellor being then absent ; 
and after their lordships good approbation, and some 
points by them altered, I obtained leave of them to 
confer thereupon with my lord chancellor and some 
principal judges, which 1 did this afternoon ; so as, 
it being now perfected, I shall offer it to the board 
to-morrow, and to send it to your majesty 

So humbly craving your majesty's pardon for trou- 
bling you with so long a letter, especially being ac- 
companied with other papers, I ever rest 

Your Majesty s most humble 

and bounden servant, 
This 21st of November, at 

ten at night [1616.] FR . BACON 


May it please your Majesty, 

Although your journey be but as a long progress, 
and that your majesty shall be still within your own 
land ; and therefore any extraordinary course neither 
needful, nor in my opinion fit ; yet nevertheless, I 
thought it agreeable to my duty and care of your 
service, to put you in mind of those points of form, 
which have relation, not so much to a journey into 

(/) Mr. Trott. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 135 

Scotland, as to an absence from your city of London 
for six months, or to a distance from your said city 
near three hundred miles ; and that in an ordinary 
course, wherein I lead myself, by calling to conside- 
ration what things there are, that require your signa- 
ture, and may seem not so fit to expect sending to 
and fro ; and therefore to be supplied by some pre- 
cedent warrants. 

First, your ordinary commissions of justice, of as- 
size, and the peace, need not your signature, but 
pass of course by your chancellor. And your com- 
missions of lieutenancy, though they need your sig- 
nature, yet if any of the lieutenants should die, your 
majesty's choice and pleasure may be very well at- 
tended. Only I should think fit, under your ma- 
jesty's correction, that such of your lord lieutenants, 
as do not attend your person, were commanded to 
abide within their counties respectively 

For grants, if there were a longer cessation, I think 
your majesty will easily believe it will do no hurt. 
And yet if any be necessary, the continual dispatches 
will supply that turn. 

That, which is chiefly considerable, is proclama- 
tions, which all do require your majesty's signature, 
except you leave some warrant under your great seal 
to your standing council here in London. 

It is true, I cannot foresee any case of such sudden 
necessity, except it should be the apprehension of 
some great offenders, or the adjournment of the term 
upon sickness, or some riot in the city, such as hath 
been about the liberties of the Tower, or against 
strangers, &c. But your majesty, in your great wis- 
dom, may perhaps think of many things, that I can- 
not remember or foresee : and therefore it was fit to 
refer those things to your better judgment. 

Also my lord chancellor's age and health is such, 
as it doth not only admit, but require the accident of 
his death (g) to be thought of; which may fall in such 
a time, as the very commissions of ordinary justice 

(g) He died at the age of seventy, on the 15th of March, 161&, 
having resigned the great seal on the 3d of that month ; which was 
given on the 7th to Sir Francis Bacon. 

136 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

before-mentioned, and writs, which require present 
dispatch* cannot well be put off. Therefore your 
majesty may be pleased to take into consideration, 
whether you will not have such a commission, as was 
prepared about this time twelvemonth in my lord's 
extreme sickness, for the taking of the seal into cus- 
tody, and for the seal of writs and commissions for 
ordinary justice, till you may advise of a chancellor 
or keeper of the great seal. 

Your majesty will graciously pardon my care, which 
is assiduous ; and it is good to err in caring even rather 
too much than too little. These things, for so much 
as eoncerneth forms, ought to proceed from my place, 
as attorney, unto which you have added some interest 
in matter, by making me of your privy council. But 
for the main they rest wholly in your princely judg- 
ment, being well informed; because miracles are ceas- 
ed, though admiration will not cease, while you live. 

Indorsed, February 21, 1616. 

Most gracious Sovereign, 
I think it now my duty to inform your majesty of 
the motives that induced the lord chancellor and 
judges to resolve, that a murder or felony, committed 
by one Englishman upon another in a foreign king- 
dom, shall be punished before the constable and mar- 
shal here in England. 

First, in the book-case, in the 13th year of king 
Henry the fourth, in whose reign the statute was 
made, it is expressly said, one liege-man was killed in 
Scotland by another liege-man ; and the wife of him 
that was killed, did sue an appeal of murder in the 
constable's court of England. Vide Statutum, saith the 
book, de primo Henrici IV Cap. 14. Et contem- 
poranea cvpositio est fortissimo in Lege. Stanford, (a) 

(a) Sir William, the most ancient writer on the pleas of the crown. 
He was born in Middlesex, August 22, 1509, educated in the uni- 
versity of Oxford, studied the law at Gray's Inn, in which he was 
elected autumn reader in 1545, made serjeant in 1552, theyear fol- 
lowing queen's serjeant, and, in 1554, one of the justices of the 
Common Pleas. He died August 28, 1558. 

Letters , etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 137 

an author without exception, saith thus, fol. 65, a. : 
" By the statute of Henry IV Cap. 14. if any subject 
" kill another subject in a foreign kingdom, the wife 
" of him that is slain, may have an appeal in Eng- 
" land before the constable and marshal ; which is a 
" case in terminis terminantibus. And when the wife^ 
" if the party slain have any, shall have an appeal, 
" there, if he hath no wife, his next heir shall have it." 

If any fact be committed out of the kingdom, upon 
the high sea, the lord admiral shall determine it. If 
in a foreign kingdom, the cognizance belongeth to 
the constable, where the jurisdiction pertains to him. 

And these authorities being seen by Bromley, chan- 
cellor, and the two chief justices, they clearly resolved 
the case, as before I have certified your majesty. 

I humbly desire I may be so happy, as to kiss 
your majesty's hands, and to my exceeding comfort 
to see your sacred person ; and I shall ever rest 
Your Majesty's faithful and loyal subject, 

Feb. 25 [161f.] EDW COKE. 

To the King's most excellent Majesty. 

TO THE KING, (fl) 

May it please your most excellent Majesty, 
My continual meditations upon your majesty's ser- 
vice and greatness have, amongst other things, pro- 
duced this paper inclosed, ^which I most humbly 
pray your majesty to excuse, being that, which, in 
my judgment, I think to be good both devero and ad 
populum. Of other things I have written to my lord 
of Buckingham. God for ever preserve and prosper 
your majesty 

Your Majesty's humble servant, 

most devoted and most bounden, 

March 23, 1616. FB. BACON. 

My lord keeper to his majesty, with some addi- 
tional instructions for Sir John Digby 

(«) His Majesty had begun his journey towards Scotland, on the 
14th of March, 161f. 

138 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

Additional instructions to Sir John Digby (a) 

Besides vour instructions directory to the substance 
of the main errand, we would have you in the whole 
carriage and passages of the negotiation, as well with 
the king himself, as the duke of Lerma, and council 
there, intermix discourse upon fit occasions, that may 
express ourselves to the effect following : 

That you doubt not but that both kings, for that 
which concerns religion, will proceed sincerely, both 
being intire and perfect in their own belief and way 
But that there are so many noble and excellent effects, 
which are equally acceptable to both religions, and 
for the good and happiness of the Christian world, 
which may arise of this conjunction, as the union of 
both kings inactions of state, as may make the differ- 
ence in religion as laid aside, and almost forgotten. 

As first, that it will be a means utterly to extinguish 
and extirpate pirates, which are the common enemies 
of mankind, and do so much infest Europe at this 

Also, that it may be a beginning and seed (for the 
like actions heretofore have had less beginnings) of a 
holy war against the Turk : whereunto it seems the 
events of time do invite Christian kings, in respect of 
the great corruption and relaxation of discipline of 
war in that empire ; and much more in respect of the 
utter ruin and enervation of the Grand Signor's navy 
and forces by sea ; which openeth a way, with con- 
gregating vast armies by land, to suffocate and starve 
Constantinople, and thereby to put those provinces 
into mutiny and insurrection. 

Also, that by the same conjuction there will be 
erected a tribunal, or praetorian power, to decide the 
controversies, which may arise amongst the princes 
and estates of Christendom, without effusion of Chris- 
tian blood ; for so much as any estate of Christendom 

(a) Ambassador to the court of Spain. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 139 

will hardly recede from that, which the two kings 
shall meditate and determine. 

Also, that whereas there doth, as it were, creep 
upon the ground a disposition in some places to make 
popular estates and leagues to the disadvantage of 
monarchies, the conjunction of the two kings will be 
able to stop and impedite the growth of any such evil. 

These discourses you shall do well frequently to 
treat upon, and therewithal to fill up the spaces of the 
active part of your negotiation ; representing, that it 
stands well with the greatness and majesty of the two 
kings to extend their cogitations and the influence of 
their government, not only to their own subjects but 
to the state of the whole world besides, specially the 
Christian portion thereof. 

Account of Council Business. 

For remedy against the infestation of pirates, than 
which there is not a better work under heaven, and 
therefore worthy of the great care his majesty hath 
expressed concerning the same, this is done : 

First, Sir Thomas Smith (a) hath certified in writing, 
on the behalf of the merchants of London, that there 
will be a contribution of 20,000/. a year, during two 
years space, towards the charge of repressing the pi- 
rates ; wherein we do both conceive, that this, being 
as the first offer, will be increased. And we consider 
also, that the merchants of the West, who have sus- 
tained in proportion far greater damage than those of 
London, will come into the circle, and follow the ex- 

(a) Of Biborough in Kent, second son of Thomas Smith, of Os- 
tenhanger, of that county, esq. He had farmed the customs in the 
reign of queen Elizabeth, and was sent, by king James I. ambas- 
sador to the court of Russia, in March 1604-5 ; from whence return- 
ing, he was made governor of the society of merchants trading to 
the East-Indies, Muscovy, the French and Summer Islands; and 
treasurer for the colony and company of Virginia. He built a mag- 
nificent house at Deptford, which was burnt on the 30th of Ja- 
nuary, 1618; and in April 1619, he was removed from his employ- 
ment of governor and treasurer, upon several complaints of frauds 
committed by him. 

140 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

ample : and for that purpose letters are directed unto 

Secondly, for the consultation de modo of the arming 
and proceeding against them, in respect that my lord 
admiral (b) cometh not yet abroad, the table hath re- 
ferred it to my lord treasurer, (c) the lord Carew, (d) 
and Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer, (e) who here- 
tofore hath served as treasurer of the navy, to confer 
with the lord admiral, calling to that conference Sir 
Robert Mansell, and others expert in sea-service ; and 
so to make report unto the board. At which time 
some principal merchants shall likewise attend for the 
lords better information. 

So that, when this is done, his majesty shall be 
advertised from the table : whereupon his majesty 
may be pleased to take into his royal consideration, 
both the business in itself, and as it may have relation 
to Sir John Dlgby's embassage. 

For safety and caution against tumults and disor- 
ders in and near the city, in respect of some idle fly- 
ing papers, that were cast abroad of a May-day, &c. 
the lords have wisely taken a course neither to nurse 
it, or nourish it, by too much apprehension, nor 
much less to neglect due provision to make all sure. 
And therefore order is given, that as well the trained 
bands, as the military bands, newly erected, shall be 
in muster as well weekly, in the mean time, on every 
Thursday, which is the day upon which May-day 
falleth, as in the May-week itself, the Monday, Tues- 
day, Wednesday, and Thursday Besides, that the 
strength of the watch shall that day be increased. 

For the buildings in and about London, order is 
given for four selected aldermen, and four selected 
justices, to have the care and charge thereof laid 
upon them ; and they answerable for the observing of 

(b) Charles Howard, earl of Nottingham. 

(c) Thomas Howard, earl of Suffolk. 

{d) George, lord Carew, who had been president of Munster, 
in Ireland, and was now master of the ordnance. He was created 
earl of Totness by king Charles I. in 1626. 

(0 Sir Fulk Greville. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 141 

his majesty's proclamation, and for stop of all farther 
building ; for which purposes the said Eslus are warn- 
ed to be before the board, where they shall receive a 
strait charge, and be tied to a continual account. 

For the provosts marshals, there is already direc- 
tion given for the city and the counties adjacent ; and 
it shall be strengthened with farther commission, if 
there be cause. 

For the proclamation, that lieutenants, not bing 
counsellors, deputy-lieutenants, justices of the peace, 
and gentlemen of quality, should depart the city, and 
reside in their countries : we find the city so dead of 
company of that kind for the present, as we account 
it out of season to command that, which is already 
done. But after men have attended their business the 
two next terms, in the end of Trinity-term, accord- 
ing to the custom, when the justices shall attend at 
the star-chamber, I shall give a charge concerning 
the same : and that shall be corroborated by a pro- 
clamation, if cause be. 

For the information given against the Withering- 
tons, that they should countenance and abet the spoils 
and disorders in the middle shires ; we find the in- 
formers to falter and fail in their accusation. Never- 
theless, upon my motion, the table hath ordered, that 
the informer shall attend one of the clerks of the 
council, and set down articulately what he can speak, 
and how T he can prove it, and against whom, either 
the Witheringtons or others. 

For the causes of Ireland, and the late letters from 
the deputy, (a) we have but entered into them, and 
have appointed Tuesday for a further consultation of 
the same ; and therefore of that subject I forbear to 
write more for this present. 


March 30, 1617 An account of council business. 

(a) Sir Oliver St. John, afterward viscount Grandison. 

142 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My honourable Lord, 
Whereas the late lord chancellor thought it fit to 
dismiss out of the chancery a cause touching Henry 
Skipwith to the common law, where he desireth it 
should be decided : these are to intreat your lord- 
ship (b) in the gentleman's favour, that if the adverse 
party shall attempt to bring it now back again into 
your lordship's court, you would not retain it there, 
but let it rest in the place where now it is, that with- 
out more vexation unto him in posting him from one 
to another, he may have a final hearing and determi- 
nation thereof. And so I rest 

Your Lordship's ever at command, 


My Lord, 

This is a business, wherein I spake to my lord 
chancellor ; (c) whereupon he dismissed the stiit. 
Lincoln, the 4th of April, 1617. 


Amongst the gratulations I have received, none 
are more welcome and agreeable to me than your 
letters, wherein the less I acknowledge of those attri- 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

{b) This is the first of many letters, which the marquis of Buck- 
ingham wrote to lord Bacon in favour of persons, who had causes 
depending in, or likely to come into, the court of Chancery. And it 
is not improbable, that such recommendations were considered in 
that age as less extraordinary and irregular, than they would appear 
now. The marquis made the same kind of applications to lord 
Bacon's successor, the lord keeper Williams, in whose Life, by 
bishop Hacket, Part I. p. 107, we are informed, that " there was 
" not a cause of moment, but, as soon as it came to publication, 
" one of the parties brought letters from this mighty peer, and the 
" lord keeper's patron." 

(c) Ellesmere. 

(d) From the collections of the late Robert Stephens, esq. ; his- 
toriographer royal, and John Locker, esq. ; now in possession of 
the editor. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 143 

butes you give me, the more I must acknowledge of 
your affection, which bindeth me no less to you, that 
are professors of learning, than my own dedication 
doth to learning itself. And therefore you have no 
need to doubt, but I will emulate, as much as in me 
is, towards you the merits of him that is gone, by 
how much the more I take myself to have more pro- 
priety in the principal motive thereof. And for the 
equality you write of, I shall by the grace of God, 
far as may concern me, hold the balance as equally 
between the two universities, as I shall hold the 
balance of other justice between party and party - 
And yet in both cases I must meet with some in- 
clinations of affection, which nevertheless shall not 
carry me aside. And so I commend you to God's 

Your most loving and assured friend, 
Gorhambury, April 12, 1617 yr. BACOX. 


My honourable Lord, 
I have acquainted his majesty with your letters, 
who liked all your proceedings well, saving only the 
point, for which you have since made amends, in 
obeying his pleasure touching the proclamation. His 
majesty would have your lordship go thoroughly 
about the business of Ireland, whereinto you are so 
well entered, especially at this time, that the chief 
justice (b) is come over, who hath delivered his 
opinion thereof to his majesty, and hath understood 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

(b) Sir John Denham, one of the lords justices of Ireland in 
1616. "He was made one of the barons of the Exchequer in Eng- 
land, May 2, 1617. He died January 6, 1638, in the eightieth 
year of his age. He was the first who set up customs in Ireland 
(not but there were laws for the same before) ; of which the first 
year's revenue amounted but to 500/. but before his death, which 
was about twenty-two years after, they were let for 54,000/. per 
annum. Borlase's Reduction of Ireland to the Crown of England, 
p. 200. Edit. London, 1675. 

144 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

what his majesty conceived of the same ; wherewith 
he will acquaint your lordship, and with his own 
observation and judgment of the businesses of that 

I give your lordship hearty thanks for your care 
to satisfy my lady of Rutland's (c) desire ; and will 
be as careful, when I come to York, of recommend- 
ing your suit to the bishop, (d) So I rest 

Your Lordships ever at command, 

Newark, the 5th of April, 1617 

To my very honourable lord, Sir Francis Bacon, knight, 
lord keeper of the great seal of England. 


My very good Lord, 

I spake at York with the archbishop, (f) touch- 
ing the house, which he hath wholly put into your 
hands, to do with it what your lordship shall be 

I have heretofore, since we were in this journey, 
moved his majesty for dispatch of my lord Brack- 
ley's (g) business: but because his majesty never hav- 
ing heard of any precedent in the like case, was of 

(c) Frances, countess of Rutland, first wife of Francis, earl of 
Rutland, and daughter and coheir of Sir Henry Knevet, of Charle- 
ton in Wiltshire, knight. She had by the earl an only daughter 
and heir, Catharine, first married to George, marquis, and after- 
ward duke, of Buckingham ; and secondly to Randolph Mac-Do- 
nald, earl, and afterward marquis, of Antrim in Ireland. 

(rf) Relating to York-house. 

(e) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

(/) Dr. Tobie Matthew. 

(g) Who desired to be created earl in an unusual manner, by let- 
ters patents, without the delivering of the patent by the king's own 
hand, or without the ordinary solemnities of creation. He was ac- 
cordingly created earl of Bridgwater, May 27, 1617. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 145 

opinion, that this would be of ill consequence in 
making that dignity as easy, as the pulling out of a 
sword to make a man a knight, and so make it of 
little esteem, he was desirous to be assured, first, that 
it was no new course, before he would do it in that 
fashion. But since he can receive no assurance from 
your lordship of any precedent in that kind, his ma- 
jesty intendeth not so to precipitate the business, as 
to expose that dignity to censure and contempt, in 
omitting the solemnities required, and usually belong- 
ing unto it. 

His majesty, though he were awhile troubled with 
a little pain in his back, which hindered his hunting, 
is now, God be thanked, very well, and as merry as 
he ever was ; and we have all held out well. 

I shewed his majesty your letter, who taketh very 
well your care and desire to hear of his health. 

So I commit you to God, and rest 

Your Lordship's most assured friend 

to do you service, 
Aukland,the 18th of Apr. 1617 


Since the writing of this letter, I have had some 
farther speech with his majesty, touching my lord 
Brackley ; and find, that if, in your lordship's inform- 
ation in the course, you write any thing, that may 
tend to the furthering of the dispatch of it in that 
kind, he desire th it may be done. 


My honourable Lord, 

I send your lordship the warrant for the queen (b) 
signed by his majesty, to whom I have likewise de- 

(o) Harl. MiSS. Vol. 7006. 

(6) Relating to her house. See the lord keeper's letter of April 7, 
1617, printed in his works. 


146 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

livered your lordship's letter. And touching the mat- 
ter of the pirates, his majesty cannot yet resolve ; but 
within a day or two your lordship shall see a dis- 
patch, which he purposeth to send to the lords of his 
council in general, what his opinion and pleasure is 
in that point. 

I would not omit this opportunity to let your lord- 
ship know, that his majesty, God be thanked, is in 
very good health, and so well pleased with his jour- 
ney, that I never saw him better, nor merrier. So 
I rest 

Your Lordship's ever at command, 

From Newcastle, „ ,„ 

the 23d of Apr. 1617. G ' BUCKINGHAM. 


Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, (a) 

After my hearty commendations, I having heard 
of you, as a man well deserving, and of able gifts to 
become profitable in the church ; and there being- 
fallen within my gift the rectory of Frome St. Quintin 
with the chapel of Evershot, in Dorsetshire, which 
seems to be a thing of good value, 18/. in the king's 
books, and in a good country, I have thought good to 
make offer of it to you ; the rather for that you are 
of Trinity college, whereof myself was some time : 
and my purpose is to make choice of men rather by 
care and inquiry, than by their own suits and com- 
mendatory letters. So I bid you farewell. 

From your loving friend, 

From Dorset House, „ ^ . _ . _, r c 

23 April, 1617- FR ' BAC0 ^ C - A. 

(a) From the collections of the late Robert Stephens, esq. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 147 


Good Niece, 

Amongst your other virtues, I know there wanteth 
not in you a mind to hearken to the advice of your 
friends. And therefore you will give me leave to 
move you again more seriously than before in the 
match with Mr. Comptroller.^^ 

The state, wherein you now are, is to be preferred 
before marriage, or changed for marriage, not simply 
the one or the other, but according as, by God's pro- 
vidence, the offers of marriage are more or less fit to 
be embraced. This gentleman is religious, a person 
of honour, being counsellor of state, a great officer, 
and in very good favour with his majesty He is of 
years and health fit to be comfortable to you, and to 
free you of burdensome cares. He is of good means, 
and a wise and provident man, and of a loving and 
excellent goodnature ; and, I find, hath set his affec- 
tions upon you ; so as I foresee you may sooner change 
your mind, which, as you told me, is not yet towards 
marriage, than find so happy a choice. I hear he is 
willing to visit you, before his going into France, 
which, by the king's commandment, is to be within 
some ten days : and I could wish you used him kindly 
and with respect. His return out of France is in- 
tended before Michaelmas. God direct you, and be 
with you. I rest 

Your very loving uncle, and assured friend, 

Dorset-House, „^. T 

this 28th of April, 1617. FR. BACON. 

{a) Sir Thomas Edmonds, who had been appointed to that office, 
December 21, 1616; and January 19, 1617-8, was made treasurer 
of the household. He had been married to Magdalen, one of the 
daughters and coheirs of Sir John Wood, knight, clerk of the signet : 
which lady died at Paris, Dec. 31, 1614. 

The proposal for a second marriage between him and the lord 
keeper's niece does not appear to have had success. 

L 2 

148 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My honourable Lord, 
I understand that Sir Lewis Tresham hath a suit 
depending in the chancery before your lordship ; and 
therefore out of my love and respect toward him, I 
have thought fit to recommend him unto your favour 
so far only, as may stand with justice and equity, 
which is all he desireth, having to encounter a strong 
party And because he is shortly to go into Spain, 
about some other business of his own, I farther desire 
your lordship to give him what expedition you can, 
that he may receive no prejudice by his journey 

Your Lordship's ever at command, 
Indorsed May 6, 1616. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My honourable Lord, 
I have by reports, heard that, which doth much 
grieve and trouble me, that your lordship hath, 
through a pain in one of your legs, been forced to 
keep your chamber. And being desirous to under- 
stand the true estate of your health, which reports do 
not always bring, I intreat your lordship to favour me 
with a word or two from yourself, which, I hope, 
will bring me the comfort I desire, who cannot but be 
very sensible of whatsoever happeneth to your lord- 
ship, as being 

Your Lordship's most affectionate 
to do you service, 


His majesty, God be thanked, is very well and 
safely returned from his hunting journey. 

From Edinburgh, 
the 3d of June, 1617. 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. (b) Ibid. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 149 


My very good Lord, 

This day I have made even with the business of the 
kingdom for common justice; not one cause unheard ; 
the lawyers drawn dry of all the motions they were to 
make ; not one petition unanswered. And this, I 
think, could not be said in our age before. This I 
speak not out of ostentation, but out of gladness 
when I have done my duty I know men think I 
cannot continue, if I should thus oppress myself with 
business : but that account is made. The duties of 
life are more than life ; and, if I die now, I shall die 
before the world will be weary of me, which in our 
times is somewhat rare. And all this while I have 
been a little unperfect in my foot. But I have taken 
pains more like the beast with four legs, than like a 
man with scarce two legs. But if it be a gout, which 
I do neither acknowledge, nor much disclaim, it is a 
good-natured gout ; for I have no rage of it, and it 
goeth away quickly. I have hope, it is but an acci- 
dent of changing from a field-air («) to a Thames- 
air ; (b) or rather, I think, it is the distance of the 
king and your lordship from me, that doth congeal 
my humours and spirits. 

When I had written this letter, I received your 
lordship's letter of the third of this present, wherein 
your lordship sheweth your solicitous care of my 
health, which did wonderfully comfort me. And it 
is true, that at this present I am very well, and my 
supposed gout quite vanished. 

I humbly pray you to commend my service, infinite 
in desire, howsoever limited in ability, to his ma- 
jesty, to hear of whose health and good disposition is 

(a) Gray's Inn. 

(6) Dorset-house, originally belonging to the bishops of Salisbury, 
afterward the house of Sir Richard Sackville, and then of his son 
Sir Thomas, earl of Dorset, and lord treasurer. 

1 50 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

to me the greatest beatitude, which I can receive in 
this world. And I humbly beseech his majesty to par- 
don me, that I do not now send him my account of 
council business, and other his royal commands, till 
within these four days ; because the flood of business 
of justice did hitherto wholly possess me; which, I 
know, worketh this effect, as it contenteth his sub- 
jects, and knitteth their hearts more and more to his 
majesty, though, I must confess, my mind is upon 
other matters, as his majesty shall know, by the grace 
of God, at his return. God ever bless and prosper 

Your Lordship's true and most 

devoted friend and servant, 
this 8th of June, 1617. FR * BACON - 


My honourable Lord, 

Your lordship will understand, by Sir Thomas Lake's 
letter, his majesty's directions touching the surveyor's 
deputy of the court of wards. And though I assure 
myself of your lordship's care of the business, which 
his majesty maketh his own ; yet my respect to Sir 
Robert JNaunton (b) maketh me add my recommen- 
dation thereof to your lordship, whom I desire to give 
all the furtherance and assistance you can to the bu- 
siness, that no prejudice or imputation may light 
upon Sir Robert Naunton, through his zealous affec- 
tion to attend his majesty in this journey. 

I will not omit to let you know, that his majesty 
is very well, and receiveth much contentment in his 
journey. And with this conclusion, I rest 

Your Lordship's most affectionate 

to do you service, 
the llth of June, 1617. G - BUCKINGHAM. 

(«) Harl. MSS< Vol. 7006. (b) Surveyor of the court of wards. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 151 


My very good Lord, 

I thank your lordship for your courteous letter : 
and if I were asked the question, I would always 
choose rather to have a letter of no news, than a letter 
of news ; for news imports alteration : but letters 
of kindness and respect bring that, which, though it 
be no news amongst friends, is more welcome. 

I am exceedingly glad to hear, that this journey 
of his majesty, which I never esteemed more than a 
long progress, save that it had reason of state joined 
with pleasure, doth sort to be so joyful and so com- 

For your parliament, God speed it well ; and for 
ours, you know the sea would be calm, if it were not 
for the winds : and I hope the king, whensoever that 
shall be, will find those winds reasonably well laid. 

Now that the sun is got up a little higher, God or- 
dains all things to the happiness of his majesty, and 
his monarchy 

My health, I thank God, is good ; and I hope this 
supposed gout was but an incomer. I ever rest 

Your Lordship's affectionate 

and assured friend, 

Whitehall, June 18 [1617.] 


to the lord keeper, written from scotland, 
june 28, 1618.(6) 

I will begin to speak of the business of this day; 
opus hujus did in die suo, which is of the parliament, 
It began on the 7th of this month, and ended this 

(a) Sir Thomas Erskine, who for his service to the king, in the 
attempt of the earl of Gowry, was, upon his majesty's accession to 
the throne of England, made captain of his guard in the room of 
Sir Walter Raleigh. He was afterward created earl of Kelly. 

(/>) .from a copy in the paper-office. 

152 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

day, being the 28th of June. His majesty, as I 
perceived by relation, rode thither in great state the 
first day. These eyes are witnesses, that he rode in 
an honourable fashion, as I have seen him in Eng- 
land, this day. All the lords rode in English robes : 
not an English lord on horseback, though all the 
parliament-house at his majesty's elbow, but my lord 
of Buckingham, who waited upon the king's stirrup 
in his collar, but not in his robes. His majesty the 
first day, by way of preparation to the subject of the 
parliament, made a declaratory speech, wherein he 
expressed himself what he would not do, but what 
he would do. The relation is too prolix for a sheet 
of paper ; and I am promised a copy of it, which I 
will bring myself unto your lordship with all the 
speed I may. But I may not be so reserved, as not 
to tell your lordship, that in that speech his majesty 
was pleased to do England and Englishmen much 
honour and grace ; and that he studied nothing so 
much, sleeping and waking, as to reduce the barba- 
rity, I have warrant to use the king's own word, of 
this country unto the sweet civility of ours ; adding 
farther, that if the Scotish nation would be as docible 
to learn the goodness of England, as they are teach- 
able to limp after their ill, he might with facility pre- 
vail in his desire: for they had learned of the English 
to drink healths, to wear coaches and gay clothes, to 
take tobacco, and to speak neither Scotish nor Eng- 
lish. Many such diseases of the times his majesty 
was pleased to enumerate, not fit for my pen to re- 
member, and graciously to recognize, how much he 
was beholden to the English nation for their love and 
conformity to his desires. The king did personally 
and infallibly sit amongst them of the parliament 
every day ; so that there fell not a word amongst 
them, but his majesty was of council with it. 

The whole assembly, after the wonted manner, was 
abstracted into eight bishops, eight lords, eight gen- 
tlemen, knights of the shires, and eight lay burgesses 
for towns. And this epitome of the whole parliament 
did meet every day in one room to treat and debate of 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 153 

the great affairs of the kingdom. There was ex- 
ception taken against some of the lower house, which 
were returned by the country, being pointed at as 
men averse in their appetites and humours to the 
business of the parliament, who were deposed of 
their attendance by the king's power; and others, 
better affected, by the king's election, placed in their 

The greatest and weightiest articles, agitated in 
this parliament, were specially touching the govern- 
ment of the kirk and kirkmen, and for the abolishing 
of hereditary sheriffs to an annual charge ; and to 
enable justices of the peace to have as well the real 
execution, as the title of their places. For now the 
sheriff doth hold jura regalia in his circuit without 
check or controlment ; and the justices of the peace 
do want the staff of their authority- For the church 
and commonwealth, his majesty doth strive to shape 
the frame of this kingdom to the method and degrees 
of the government of England, as by reading of the 
several acts it may appear. The king's desire and 
travail herein, though he did suffer a momentary op- 
position (for his countrymen will speak boldly to 
him), hath in part been profitable. For though he 
hath not fully and complementally prevailed in all 
things, yet he hath won ground in most things, and 
hath gained acts of parliament to authorize particular 
commissioners, to set down orders for the church 
and churchmen, and to treat with sheriffs for their 
offices by way of pecuniary composition. But all 
these proceedings are to have an inseparable refer- 
ence to his majesty If any prove unreasonably and 
undutifully refractory, his majesty hath declared him- 
self, that he will proceed against him by the warrant 
of the law, and by the strength of his royal power. 

His majesty's speech this day had a necessary con- 
nexion with his former discourse. He was pleased 
to declare what was done and determined in the pro- 
gress of this parliament ; his reasons for it ; and that 
nothing was gotten by shouldering or wrestling, but 
by debate, judgment, and reason, without any inter- 

154 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

position of his royal power in any thing. He com- 
manded the lords in state of judicature, to give life, 
by a careful execution, unto the law, which other- 
wise was but mortuum cadaver et bona peritura. 

Thus much touching the legal part of my adver- 
tisement unto you. I will give your lordship an ac- 
count in two lines of the complement of the country, 
time, and place. 

The country affords more profit and better con- 
tentment, than I could ever promise myself, by my 
reading of it. 

The king was never more chearful in body and 
mind, never so well pleased : and so are the English 
of all conditions. 

The entertainment, very honourable, very general, 
and very full : every day feasts and invitations. I 
know not who paid for it. They strive, by direction, 
to give us all "fair contentment, that we may know, 
that the country is not so contemptible, but that it 
is worth the cherishing. 

The lord provost of this town, who in English is 
the mayor, did feast the king and all the lords this 
week ; and another day all the gentlemen. And, I 
confess, it was performed with state, with abund- 
ance, and with a general content. 

There is a general, and a bold expectation, that 
Mr. John Murray shall be created a baron of this 
country ; and some do chat, that my lord of Buck- 
ingham's Mr. Wray shall be a groom of the bed- 
chamber in his place. 

There hath been yet no creation of lords, since his 
majesty did touch Scotland ; but of knights many, 
yet not so many as we heard in England ; but it is 
thought all the pensioners will be knights to-morrow 
Neither are there any more English lords sworn of 
the privy council here, save my lord of Buckingham. 

The earl of Southampton, Montgomery, and Hay, 
are already gone for England. 

I have made good profit of my journey hither ; for 
I have gotten a transcript of the speech, which your 
lordship did deliver at your first and happy sitting in 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 1 55 

chancery ; which I could not gain in England. It 
hath been shewed to the king, and received due ap- 
probation. The God of heaven, all-wise and all- 
sufficient, guard and assist your lordship in all your 
actions : for I can read here whatsoever your lord- 
ship doth act there ; and your courses be such, as 
you need not to fear to give copies of them. But 
the king's ears be wide and long, and he seeth with 
many eyes. All this works for your honour and com- 
fort. I pray God nothing be soiled, heated, or cooled 
in the carriage. Envy sometimes attends virtues, 
and not for good ; and these bore certain proprieties 
and circumstances inherent to your lordship's mind ; 
which men may admire, I cannot express. But I 
will wade no farther herein, lest I should seem elo- 
quent. I have been too saucy with your lordship, 
and held you too long with my idleness. He that 
takes time from your lordship, robs the public. God 
give your body health, and your soul heaven. 

My lord of Pembroke, my lord of Arundel, my 
lord Zouch, and Mr. Secretary Lake, were new 
sworn of the council here. 


My very good Lord, 

I have sent inclosed a letter to his majesty concern- 
ing the strangers ; in which business I had formerly 
written to your lordship a joint letter with my lord 
of Canterbury, and my lord Privy Seal, (a) and Mr. 
Secretary Winwood. 

I am, I thank God, much relieved with my being 
in the coUntry-air, and the order I keep ; so that of 
late years I have not found my health better. 

Your lordship writeth seldomer than you were 
wont ; but when you are once gotten into England, you 
will be more at leisure. God bless and prosper you. 

Your Lordship's true and devoted 

friend and servant, 
Gorhambury, July 29, 1617. 

Fit. BACON. 
(«) Edward, earl of Worcester. 

156 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My honourable Lord, 

I have acquainted his majesty with your letter, who 
in this business of Sir John Bennet's, (b) hath alto- 
gether followed your lordship's direction. 

His majesty hath at length been pleased to dis- 
patch Mr. Lowder, (c) according to your lordship's 
desire, for the place in Ireland. What the cause of 
the stay was, I shall impart to your lordship, when 
I see you, being now too long to relate. 

His majesty hath not yet had leisure to read the 
little book you sent me to present unto him ; but, as 
soon as I see the fittest opportunity, I will offer it to 
him again. 

His majesty, God be thanked, is very well ; and I 
am exceeding glad to hear of your health, that you 
are of so good term-proof, which is the best of it, 
being you are in those businesses put most to the 
trial, which I wish may long continue in that strength, 
that you may still do his majesty and your country 
that good service, whereof we hear so general appro- 
bation, that it much rejoiceth me, who rest 

Your Lordship's ever at command, 

Falkland, the 5th of July, 1617. 


(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

lb) Of Godstow in Oxfordshire, who was sent to Brussels to the 
archduke, to expostulate with him concerning a libel on the king, 
imputed to Erycius Puteanus, and intitled, Isaaci Casauboni Corona 

(c) He had been solicitor to the queen ; but finding her dislike 
of him, he was willing to part with his place for that of one of the 
barons of the exchequer in Ireland; for which he was recom- 
mended by the lord keeper to the earl of Buckingham, in a letter 
dated at Whitehall, May 25, 1617. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 157 

TO THE KING, (fl) 

May it please your most excellent Majesty, 

I do very much thank your majesty for your letter, 
and think myself much honoured by it. For though 
it contain some matter of dislike, in which respect it 
hath grieved me more than any event which hath 
fallen out in my life ; yet because I know reprehen- 
sions from the best masters to the best servants are 
necessary ; and that no chastisement is pleasant for 
the time, but yet worketh good effects ; and for that 
I find intermixed some passages of trust and grace : 
and find also in myself inwardly sincerity of intention, 
and conformity of will, howsoever I may have erred ; 
I do not a little comfort myself, resting upon your 
majesty's accustomed favour ; and most humbly de- 
siring, that any one of my particular notions may be 
expounded by the consent and direct course, which, 
your majesty knoweth, I have ever held in your ser- 

And because it hath pleased your majesty, of your 
singular grace and favour, to write fully and freely 
unto me ; it is duty and decorum in me not to write 
shortly to your majesty again, but with some length ; 
not so much by way of defence or answer, which 
yet, I know, your majesty would always graciously 
admit ; as to shew, that I have, as I ought, weighed 
every word of your majesty's letter. 

First, I do acknowledge, that this match of Sir 
John Villiers is magnum in parvo in both senses, that 
your majesty speaketh. But your majesty perceiveth 
well, that I took it to be in a farther degree, majus in 
parvo, in respect of your service. But since your ma- 
jesty biddeth me to confide upon your act of empire, 
I have done. For, as the Scripture saith, to God all 

(a) This letter appears, from the indorsement of the king's answer 
to it, to have been written at Gorhambury, July 25, 1617. That 
printed with this date in his Works, should be August 2, 1617, as I 
find by the original draught of it. 

158 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

things are possible; so certainly to wise kings much 
is possible. But for that second sense, that your ma- 
jesty speaketh of, magnum inparvo, in respect of the 
stir ; albeit it being but a most lawful and ordinary 
thing, I most humbly pray your majesty to pardon 
me, if I signify to you, that we here take the loud 
and vocal, and as I may call it, streperous carriage to 
have been far more on the other side, which indeed is 
inconvenient, rather than the thing itself. 

Now for the manner of my affection to my lord of 
Buckingham, for whom I would spend my life, and 
that which is to me more, the cares of my life ; I 
must humbly confess, that it was in this a little pa- 
rent-like, this being no other term, than his lordship 
hath heretofore vouchsafed to my counsels ; but in 
truth, and it please your majesty, without any grain 
of disesteem for his lordship's discretion. For I know 
him to be naturally a wise man, of a sound and staid 
wit, as I ever said unto your majesty And again, I 
know he hath the best tutor in Europe. But yet I 
was afraid, that the height of his fortune might make 
him too secure ; and as the proverb is, a looker-on 
sometimes seeth more than a gamester. 

For the particular part of a true friend, which your 
majesty witnesseth, that the earl hath lately per- 
formed towards me, in palliating some errors of mine ; 
it is no new thing with me to be more and more 
bound to his lordship ; and I am most humbly to 
thank, whatsoever it was, both your majesty and him : 
knowing well, that I may, and do commit many 
errors, and must depend upon your majesty's gra- 
cious countenance and favour for them, and shall 
have need of such a friend near your majesty For I 
am not so ignorant of mine own case, but that I 
know I am come in with as strong an envy of some 
particulars, as with the love of the general. 

For my opposition to this business, which, it 
seemeth, hath been informed your majesty, I think it 
was meant, if it be not a thing merely feigned, and 
without truth or ground, of one of these two things ; 
for I will dissemble nothing with your majesty. It is 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 159 

true, that in those matters, which, by your majesty's 
commandment and reference, came before the table 
concerning Sir Edward Coke, I was sometimes sharp, 
it may be too much ; but it was with end to have 
your majesty's will performed ; or else, when me- 
thought he was more peremptory than became him, 
in respect of the honour of the table. It is true also, 
that I disliked the riot or violence, whereof we of 
your council gave your majesty advertisement by our 
joint letter ; and I disliked it the more, because he 
justified it to be law ; which was his old song. But in 
that act of council, which was made thereupon, I did 
not see but all my lords were as forward as myself, as 
a thing most necessary for preservation ofyour peace, 
which had been so carefully and firmly kept in your 
absence. And all this had a fair end, in a reconcile- 
ment made by Mr. Attorney, (b) whereby both hus- 
band and wife and child should have kept together. 
Which, if it had continued, I am persuaded the match 
had been in better and fairer forwardness, than now 
it is. 

Now for the times of things, I beseech your ma- 
jesty to understand that which my lord of Bucking- 
ham will witness with me, that I never had any word 
of letter from his lordship of the business, till I wrote 
my letter of advice ; nor again, after my letter of 
advice, till five weeks after, which was now within 
this sennight So that although I did in truth pre- 
sume, that the earl would do nothing without your 
majesty's privity ; yet I was in some doubt, by this 
his silence of his own mind, that he was not earnest 
in it, but only was content to embrace the officious 
offers and endeavours of others. 

But, to conclude this point, after I had received, by 
a former letter of his lordship, knowledge of his 
mind, I think Sir Edward Coke himself, the last time 
he was before the lords, might particularly perceive 
an alteration in my carriage. And now that your 
majesty hath been pleased to open yourself to me, I 

(b) Sir Henry Yelverton. 

160 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

shall be willing to further the match by any thing, 
that shall be desired of me, or that is in my power. 

And whereas your majesty conceiveth some dregs 
of spleen in me by the word Mr. Bacon; truly it was 
but to express in thankfulness the comparative of my 
fortune unto your majesty, the author of the latter, 
to shew how little I needed to fear, while I had your 
favour. For, I thank God, I was never vindicative 
nor implacable. 

As for my opinion of prejudice to your majesty's 
service, as I touched it before, I have done : I do 
humbly acquiesce in your majesty's satisfaction, and 
rely upon your majesty's judgment, who unto judg- 
ment have also power, so to mingle the elements, as 
may conserve the fabric. 

For the interest, which I have in the mother, I do 
not doubt but it was increased by this, that I in judg- 
ment, as I then stood, affected that which she did in 
passion. But I think the chief obligation was, that I 
stood so firmly to her in the matter of her assurance, 
wherein I supposed I did your majesty service, and 
mentioned it in a memorial of council-business, as 
half craving thanks for it. And sure I am now, that, 
and the like, hath made Sir Edward Coke a convert, 
as I did write to your majesty in my last. 

For the collation of the two spirits, I shall easily 
subscribe to your majesty's answer ; for Solomon 
were no true man, if in matter of malice the woman 
should not be the superior. 

To conclude, I have gone through, with the plain- 
ness of truth, the parts of your majesty's letter : very 
humbly craving pardon for troubling your majesty so 
long ; and most humbly praying your majesty to con- 
tinue me in your grace and favour, which is the fruit 
of my life upon the root of a good conscience. And 
although time in this business have cast me upon a 
particular, which, I confess, may have probable shew 
of passion or interest ; yet God is my witness, that 
the thing that most moved me, was an anxious 
and solicitous care of your majesty's state and ser- 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 161 

vice, out of consideration of the time past and pre- 

God ever preserve and bless your majesty, and 
send you a joyful return after your prosperous 

The King to the Lord Keeper, in answer to 
his Lordship's letter from Gorhambury, of 
July 25, 1617 


Right trusty and well beloved counsellor, we greet 
you well. 

Although our approach doth now begin to be near 
London, and that there doth not appear any great 
necessity of answering your last letter, since we are 
so shortly to be at home ; yet we have thought good 
to make some observations to you upon the same, 
that you may not err, by mistaking our meaning. 

The first observation we are to make is, that, 
whereas you would invert the second sense, wherein 
we took your magnum in parvo, in accounting it to be 
made magnum by their streperous carriage, that were 
for the match, we cannot but shew you your mis- 
taking therein. For every wrong must be judged by 
the first violent and wrongous ground, whereupon it 
proceeds. And was not the thefteous stealing away 
of the daughter from her own father (a) the first 
ground whereupon all this great noise hath since 
proceeded ? For the ground of her getting again 
came upon a lawful and ordinary warrant, subscribed 

(a) Lady Hatton had first removed her daughter to Sir Edmund 
Withipole's house, near Oatlands, without the knowledge of Sir 
Edward Coke ; and from thence, according to a letter of Mr. Cham- 
berlain, dated July 19, 1617, the young lady was privately conveyed 
to a house of the lord of Argyle's by Hampton-Court. " Whence," 
adds Mr. Chamberlain, " her father, with a warrant from Mr. Secre- 
" tary [Winwood] fetched her: but indeed went farther than his 
" warrant, and brake open divers doors before he got her." 

162 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

scribed by one of our council, (a) for redress of the 
former violence : and except the father of a child 
might be proved to be either lunatic, or idiot, we 
never read in any law, that either it could be lawful 
for any creature to steal his child from him ; or that 
it was a matter of noise and streperous carriage for 
him to hunt for the recovery of his child again. 

Our next observation is, that whereas you protest 
your affection to Buckingham, and thereafter confess, 
that it is in some sort parent- like ; yet, after that you 
have praised his natural parts, we will not say, that 
you throw all down by a direct imputation upon 
him ; but we are sure you do not deny to have had 
a greater jealousy of his discretion, than, so far as we 
conceive, he ever deserved at your or any man's hands. 
For you say, that you were afraid, that the height of 
his fortune might make him too secure ; and so, as a 
looker-on, you might sometimes see more than a 
gamester. Now we know not how to interpret this 
in plain English otherwise, than that you were afraid, 
that the height of his fortune might make him mis- 
know himself. And surely, if that be your parent-like 
affection toward him, he hath no obligation to you for 
it. And, for our part, besides our own proof, that 
we find him farthest from that vice of any courtier, 

(a) Secretary Winwood, who, as Mr. Chamberlain observes, in 
the letter cited in the note above, was treated with ill language at 
the council-board by the lord keeper, and threatened with a prae- 
munire, on account of his warrant granted to Sir Edward Coke. His 
lordship, at the same time, told the lady Compton, mother of the 
earl of Buckingham, that they wished well to her and her sons, and 
would be ready to serve the earl with all true affection ; whereas 
others did it out of faction and ambition. Which words glancing 
directly at secretary Winwood, he alledged, that what he had done 
was by the direction of the queen and the other parties, and shewed 
a letter of approbation of all his courses from the king, making the 
whole table judge vihvA faction or ambition appeared in his carriage : 
to which no answer was returned. The queen, some time after, 
taking notice of the disgust, which the lord keeper had conceived 
against secretary Winwood, and asking his lordship, what occasion 
the secretary had given him to oppose himself so violently against 
him, bis lordship answered, " Madam, I can say no more but he is 
" proud, and I am proud." MS. letter of Mr. Chamberlain, Octo- 
ber 11, 1617. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 163 

that ever we had so near about us ; so do we fear, 
that you shall prove the only phenix in that jealousy 
of all the kingdom. For we would be very sorry, 
that the world should apprehend that conceit of him. 
But we cannot conceal, that we think it was least 
your part of any to enter into that jealousy of him, 
of whom we have heard you oft speak in a contrary 
style. And as for that error of yours, which he 
lately palliated, whereof you seem to pretend igno- 
rance ; the time is so short since you commended to 
him one (a) to be of the barons of our exchequer in 
Ireland, as we cannot think you to be so short of 
memory, as to have forgotten how far you undertook 
in that business, before acquainting us with it ; what 
a long journey you made the poor man undertake, 
together with the slight recommendation you sent 
of him ; which drave us to those straits, that both 
the poor man had been undone, and your credit a 
little blasted, if Buckingham had not, by his impor- 
tunity, made us both grant you more than suit, for 
you had already acted a part of it, and likewise run 
a hazard of the hindrance of your own service, by 
preferring a person to so important a place, whom 
you so slightly recommended. 

Our third observation is upon the point of your 
opposition to this business, wherein you either do, or 
at least would seem to, mistake us a little. For first, 
whereas you excuse yourself of the oppositions you 
made against Sir Edward Coke at the council-table, 
both for that, and other causes ; we never took upon 
us such a patrociny of Sir Edward Coke, as if he 
were a man not to be meddled withal in any case., 
For whatsoever you did against him, by our em- 
ployment and commendation, we ever allowed it, 
and still do, for good service on your part. De bonis 
operibus non lapidamus vos. But whereas you talk of 
the riot and violence committed by him, we wonder 
you make no mention of the riot and violence of them, 

(a) Mr. Lowder. See the letter of the earl of Buckingham, of 
the 5th of July. 

M 2 

164 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

that stole away his daughter, which was the first 
ground of all that noise, as we said before. For a 
man may be compelled by manifest wrong beyond 
his patience ; and the first breach of that quietness, 
which hath ever been kept since the beginning of our 
journey, was made by them that committed the 
theft. And for your laying the burthen of your op- 
position upon the council, we meddle not with that 
question; but the opposition, which we justly find 
fault with you, was the refusal to sign a warrant for 
the father to the recovery of his child, clad with those 
circumstances, as is reported, of your slight carriage 
to Buckingham's mother, when she repaired to you 
upon so reasonable an errand. What farther oppo- 
sition you made in that business, we leave it to the 
due trial in the own time. But whereas you would 
distinguish of times, pretending ignorance either of 
our meaning or his, when you made your opposition; 
that would have served for a reasonable excuse not 
to have furthered such a business, till you had been 
first employed in it : but that can serve for no ex- 
cuse of crossing any thing, that so nearly concerned 
one, whom you profess such friendship unto. We 
will not speak of obligation ; for surely we think, 
even in good manners, you had reason not to have 
crossed any thing, wherein you had heard his name 
used, till you had heard from him. For if you had 
willingly given your consent and hand to the reco- 
very of the young gentlewoman ; and then written 
both to us and to him what inconvenience appeared 
to you to be in such a match; that had been the part 
indeed of a true servant to us, and a true friend to 
him. But first to make an opposition ; and then to 
give advice by way of friendship, is to make the 
plow go before the horse. 

Thus leaving all the particulars of your carriage, 
in this business, to the own proper time, which is 
ever the discoverer of truth, we commend you to 
God. Given under our signet at Nantwich, in the 
fifteenth year of our reign of Great Britain, &c. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 165 


My Lord, 

If your man had been addressed only tome, I should 
have been careful to have procured him a more speedy 
dispatch : but now you have found another way of 
address, I am excused ; and since you are grown 
weary of employing me, I can be no otherwise in 
being employed. In this business of my brother's 
that you over trouble yourself with, I understand from 
London by some of my friends, that you have car- 
ried yourself with much scorn and neglect both to- 
ward myself and friends ; which, if it prove true, I 
blame not you, but myself, who was ever 

Your Lordship's assured friend, 

[July, 1617.] G. BUCKINGHAM, 


My Lord, 

I have received your lordship's letter by your man ; 
but having so lately imparted my mind to you in my 
former letters, I refer your Lordship to those letters, 
without making a needless repetition, and rest 

Your Lordships at command, 

Ashton, the 25th of Aug. 1617 G. BUCKINGHAM. 

To my honourable lord, Sir Francis Bacon, knight, lord 
keeper of the great seal of England. 


My most worthy and honourable Lord, 

I dare not think my journey lost, because I have 
with joy seen the face of my master, the king, though 
more clouded towards me than I looked for. 

(a) From the collections of Robert Stephens, esq. deceased. 

166 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

Sir Edward Coke hath not forborne, by any engine, 
to heave at your honour, and at myself; and he works 
by the weightiest instrument, the earl of Buckingham, 
who, as I see, sets him as close to him as his shirt, the 
earl speaking in Sir Edward's praise, and, as it were, 
menacing in his spirit. 

My lord, I emboldened myself to assay the temper 
of my lord of Buckingham to myself, and found it 
very fervent, misled by information, which yet I find 
he embraced as truth, and did nobly and plainly tell 
me, he would not secretly bite ; but whosoever had 
any interest, or tasted of the opposition to his bro- 
ther's marriage, he would as openly oppose them to 
their faces, and they should discern what favour he 
had, by the power he would use. 

In the passage between him and me, I stood with 
much confidence upon these grounds. 

First, that neither your lordship, nor myself had 
any way opposed, but many ways had furthered, the 
fair passage to the marriage. 

Secondly, that we only wished the manner of Sir 
Edward's proceedings to have been more temperate, 
and more nearly resembling the earl's sweet dispo- 

Thirdly, that the chiefest check in this business 
was Sir Edward himself, who listened to no advice, 
who was so transported with passion, as he purposely 
declined the even way, which your lordship and the 
rest of the lords left both him, his lady, and his 
daughter, in. 

Fourthly, I was bold to stand upon my ground ; 
and so I said I knew your lordship would, that these 
were slanders, which were brought him of us both, 
and that it stood not with his honour to give credit 
to them. 

After I had passed these straits with the earl, leaving 
him leaning still to the first relation of envious and 
odious adversaries, I adventured to approach his ma- 
jesty, who graciously gave me his hand to kiss, but 
intermixed withal that I deserved not that favour, if 
three or four things were true, which he had to object 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 167 

against me. I was bold to crave his princely justice; 
first, to hear, then to judge ; which he graciously 
granted, and said, he wished I could clear myself. I 
answered I would not appeal to his mercy in any of 
the points, but would endure the severest censure, if 
any of them were true. Whereupon he said, he would 
reserve his judgment till he heard me ; which could 
not be then, his other occasions pressed him so much. 
All this was in the hearing of the earl ; and I protest, 
I think the confidence in my innocency made me 
depart half justified; for I likewise kissed his majesty's 
hand at his departure ; and though out of his grace 
he commanded my attendance to Warwick, yet upon 
my suit he easily inclined to give me the choice, to 
wait on him at Windsor, or at London. 

Now, my lord, give me leave, out of all my affec- 
tions, that shall ever serve you, to intimate touching 

1 . That every courtier is acquainted, that the earl 
professeth openly against you, as forgetful of his kind- 
ness, and unfaithful to him in your love, and in your 

2. That he returneth the shame upon himself, in not 
listening to counsel, that dissuaded his affection from 
you, and not to mount you so high, not forbearing in 
open speech, as divers have told me, and this bearer, 
your gentleman, hath heard also, to tax you, as if it 
were an inveterate custom with you, to be unfaithful 
to him, as you were to the earls of Essex and Somerset. 

3. That it is too common in every man's mouth in 
court, that your greatness shall be abated ; and as 
your tongue hath been as a razor to some, so shall 
theirs be to you. 

4. That there are laid up for you, to make your 
burden the more grievous, many petitions to his 
majesty against you. 

My lord, Sir Edward Coke, as if he were already 
upon his wings, triumphs exceedingly ; hath much 
private conference with his majesty; and in public 
doth offer himself, and thrust upon the king, with as 
great boldness of speech, as heretofore. 

168 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

It is thought, and much feared, that at Woodstock 
he will again be recalled to the council-table : for 
neither are the earl's ears, nor his thoughts, ever off 

Sir Edward Coke, with much audacity affirmeth 
his daughter to be most deeply in love with Sir John 
Villiers ; that the contract pretended with the earl of 
Oxford is counterfeit ; and the letter also, that is pre- 
tended to have come from the earl. 

My noble lord, if I were worthy, being the meanest 
of all to interpose my weakness^ I would humbly 

1. That your lordship fail not to be with his majesty 
at Woodstock. The sight of you will fright some. 

2. That you single not yourself from other lords ; 
but justify the proceedings as all your joint acts; and 
I little fear but you pass conqueror. 

3. That you retort the clamour and noise in this 
business upon Sir Edward Coke, by the violence of 
his carriage. 

4. That you seem not dismayed, but open yourself 
bravely and confidently, wherein you can excel all 
subjects ; by which means I know you shall amaze 
some, and daunt others. 

I have abused your lordship's patience long ; but 
my duty and affection towards your lordship shall 
have no end: but I will still wish your honour 
greater, and rest myself 

Your Honours servant, 

Daventry, Sept. 3, 1617. HENRY YELVERTOX. 

I beseech your lordship burn this letter. 

To the right honourable his singular good lordship, the 
lord keeper of the great seal. 

Letters,. etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon, 169 


My Lord, 

I have received so many letters lately from your 
lordship, that I cannot answer them severally : but 
the ground of them all being only this, that your 
lordship feareth I am so incensed against you, that I 
will hearken to every information that is made unto 
me : this one letter may well make answer unto them 
all. As his majesty is not apt to give ear to any idle 
report against men of your place ; so, for myself, I will 
answer, that it is far from my disposition to take any 
advantage in that kind. And for your lordship's un- 
kind dealing with me in this matter of my brother's, 
time will try all. His majesty hath given me com- 
mandment to make this answer in his name to your 
letter to him, that he needeth not to make any other 
answer to you, than that which in that letter you 
make to yourself, that you know his majesty to be so 
judicious, that whatsoever he heareth, he will keep 
one ear open to you. Which being indeed his own 
princely disposition, you may be assured of his gra- 
cious favour in that kind. 

I will not trouble your lordship with any longer dis- 
course at this time, being to meet you so shortly, 
where will be better trial of all that hath passed, than 
can be made by letters. So I rest 

Your Lordship's at command, 

Warwick, Sept. 5, [1617.} G. BUCKINGHAM. 

To the right honourable Sir Francis Bacon, knight, lord 
keeper of the great seal of England. 

Advice to the king, for reviving the 
commission of suits. 

That, which for the present I would have spoken 
with his majesty about, as a matter wherein time may 
be precious, being upon the tenderest point of all 

170 Letter's, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon, 

o+hers. For though the particular occasion may be 
despised, and yet nothing ought to be despised in 
this kind, yet the counsel thereupon I conceive to be 
most sound and necessary, to avoid future perils. 

There is an examination taken within these few 
days, by Mr. Attorney, concerning one Baynton, or 
Baynham, for his name is not yet certain, attested by 
two witnesses, that the said Baynton, without any 
apparent shew of being overcome with drink, other- 
wise than so as might make him less wary to keep se- 
crets, said, that he had been lately with the king, to 
petition him for reward of service : which was de- 
nied him. Whereupon it was twice in his mind to 
have killed his majesty The man is not yet appre- 
hended, and said by some to be mad, or half mad ; 
which, in my opinion, is not less dangerous : for such 
men commonly do most mischief ; and the manner of 
his speaking imported no distraction. But the coun- 
sel I would out of my care ground hereupon, is, that 
his majesty would revive the commission for suits, 
which hath been now for these three years, or more, 
laid down. For it may prevent any the like wicked 
cogitations, which the devil may put into the mind 
of a roarer or swaggerer, upon a denial : and besides, 
it will free his majesty from such importunity, and 
save his coffers also. For I am sure when I was a 
commissioner, in three whole years space there passed 
scarce ten suits that were allowed. And 1 doubt 
now, upon his majesty's coming home from his jour- 
ney, he will be much troubled with petitions and 
suits ; which maketh me think this remedy more sea- 
sonable. It is not meant, that suits generally should 
pass that way, but only such suits as his majesty 
would be rid on. 


September 21, 1617 
To revive the commission of suits. For the King. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 171 


My Lord, 

I have made his majesty acquainted with your note 
concerning that wicked fellow's speeches, which his 
majesty contemneth, as is usual to his great spirit in 
these cases. But, notwithstanding, his majesty is 
pleased, that it shall be exactly tried, whether this 
foul-mouthed fellow was taken either with drunken- 
ness or madness, when he spake it. And as for your 
lordship's advice for setting- up again the commission- 
ers for suits, his majesty saith, there will be time 
enough for thinking upon that, at his coming to 
Hampton Court. 

But his majesty's direction, in answer of your let- 
ter, hath given me occasion to join hereunto a disco- 
very upon the discourse you had with me this day. (b) 
For I do freely confess, that your offer of submission 
unto me, and in writing, if so I would have it, bat- 
tered so the unkindness, that I had conceived in my 
heart for your behaviour towards me in my absence, as 
out of the sparks of my old affection towards you, I 
went to sound his majesty's intention towards you, 
specially in any public meeting ; where I found, on 
the one part, his majesty so little satisfied with your 
late answer unto him, which he counted, for I protest 
I use his own terms, confused and childish, and his ri- 
gorous resolution, on the other part, so fixed, that he 
would put some public exemplary mark upon you ; as 
I protest the sight of his deep-conceived indignation 
quenched my passion, making me upon the instant 
change from the person of a party into a peace-maker 
so as 1 was forced upon my knees to beg of his majesty; 

(a) This seems to be the letter to which the lord keeper returned 
an answer, September 22, 1617, printed in his works. 

(6) At Windsor, according to Sir Antony Weldon, who may per- 
haps be believed in such a circumstance as this. See Court and Cha- 
racter of King James I, p. 122. 

172 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

that he would put no public act of disgrace upon you. 
And as, I dare say, no other person would have been 
patiently heard in this suit by his majesty but myself; 
so did I, though not without difficulty, obtain thus 
much, that he would not so far disable you from the 
merit of your future service, as to put any particular 
mark of disgrace upon your person. Only thus far his 
majesty protesteth, that upon the conscience of his 
office he cannot omit, though laying aside all passion, 
to give a kindly reprimand, at his first sitting in coun- 
cil, to so many of his counsellors as were then here 
behind, and were actors in this business, for their ill 
behaviour in it. Some of the particular errors com- 
mitted in this business he will name, but without ac- 
cusing any particular persons by name. 

Thus your lordship seeth the fruits of my natural 
inclination. I. protest, all this time past it was no 
small grief unto me to hear the mouth of so many, 
upon this occasion, open to load you with innumer- 
able malicious and detracting speeches, as if no music 
were more pleasing to my ear, than to rail of you ; 
which made me rather regret the ill-nature of man- 
kind, that, like dogs, love to set upon them that they 
see snatched at. 

And, to conclude, my lord, you have hereby a fair 
occasion so to make good hereafter your reputation, 
by your sincere service to his majesty, as also by 
your firm and constant kindness to your friends, as J 
may, your lordship's old friend, participate of the 
comfort and honour that will thereby come to you. 
Thus I rest at last 

Your Lordship 's faithful friend and servant, 

G. B. 

The force of your old kindness hath made me set 
down this in writing unto you, which some, that 
have deserved ill of me in this action, would be glad 
to obtain by word of mouth, though they be far 
enough from it, for ought I yet see. But I beseech 
your lordship to reserve this secretly to yourself only, 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 173 

till our meeting at Hampton Court, lest his majesty- 
should be highly offended, for a cause that I know 


A letter of reconciliation from lord Buckingham, 

after his majesty's return from Scotland. 


My very good Lord, 

It may please your lordship to let his majesty un- 
derstand, that 1 have spoken with all the judges, sig- 
nifying to them his majesty's pleasure touching the 
commendams. They all ana voce did re-affirm, that 
his majesty's powers, neither the power of the crown, 
nor the practised power by the archbishop, as well 
in the commendam ad recipiendum, as the commendam 
ad retinendum, are intended to be touched ; but that 
the judgment is built upon the particular defects and 
informalities of this commendam now before them. 
They received with much comfort, that his majesty 
took so well at their hands the former stay, and 
were very well content and desirous, that when judg- 
ment is given, there be a faithful report made of the 
reason thereof. 

The accounts of the summer-circuits, as well as 
that of the lent-circuit, shall be ready against his ma- 
jesty's coming. They will also be ready with some 
account of their labours concerning Sir Edward 
Coke's Reports: wherein I told them his majesty's 
meaning was, not to disgrace the person, but to rec- 
tify the work, having in his royal contemplation 
rather posterity than the present. 

The two points touching the peace of the middle 
shires, I have put to a consult with some selected 

The cause of the Egertons I have put off, and shall 
presently enter into the treaty of accord, according 
to his majesty's commandment, which is well tasted 
abroad in respect of his compassion towards those 
ancient families. 

174 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

God ever preserve and prosper your lordship, ac- 
cording to the faithful and fervent wishes of 

Your Lordship's true friend and devoted sen-ant, 
York-house, October 11, 1617. FR. BACON 


My very good Lord, 

I have reformed the ordinance according to his ma- 
jesty's corrections, which were very material. And 
for the first, of phrasis -non placet, I understand his 
majesty, nay farther, I understand myself, the better 
for it. I send your lordship therefore six privy seals ; 
for every court will look to have their several war- 
rant. 1 send also two bills for letters patents to the 
two reporters : and for the persons, I send also four 
names, with my commendations of those two, for 
which I will answer upon my knowledge. The names 
must be filled in the blanks : and so they are to be 

For the business of the court of wards, your lord- 
ship s letter found me in the care of it. Therefore, 
according to his majesty's commandment, by you 
signified, I have sent a letter for his majesty's signa- 
ture. And the directions themselves are also to be 
signed. These are not to be returned to me, lest the 
secret come out ; but to be sent to my lord of Wal- 
lingford, as the packets used to be sent. 

I do much rejoice to hear of his majesty's health 
and good disposition. For me, though I am inces- 
santly in business, yet the reintegration of your love 
maketh me find all things easy. 

God preserve and prosper you. 

Your Lordship's true friend and devoted servant, 
York-house, October 18, 1617. FR. BACON. 

Letters, etc, of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 175 


My honourable Lord, 

I have delivered the judges' advice, touching the 
middle shires, unto his majesty, who liketh it very 
well. As for the point of law, his majesty will con- 
sider of it at more leisure, and then send you his opi- 
nion thereof. And so I rest 

Your Lordship s faithful friend and servant, 

Hinchinbroke, the 22d of Oct. 1617 


J\Iy honourable Lord, 

His majesty hath spent some time with Sir Lionel 
Cranfield about his own business, wherewith he ac- 
quainted his majesty- He hath had some conference 
with your lordship, upon whose report to his ma- 
jesty of your zeal and care of his service, which his 
majesty accepteth very well at your hands, he hath 
commanded Sir L. Cranfield to attend your lordship, 
to signify his farther pleasure for the furtherance of 
his service ; unto whose relation I refer you. His 
majesty's farther pleasure is, you acquaint no crea- 
ture living with it, he having resolved to rely upon 
your care and trust only 

Thus wishing you all happiness, I rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

October 26, 1617. 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. (6) Ibid. 

176 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


Right Honourable, 
Give me leave, I beseech your lordship, for want 
of other means, by this paper to let your lordship 
understand, that notwithstanding I rest in no con- 
tempt, nor have to my knowledge broken any order 
made by your lordship concerning the trust, either 
for the payment of money, or assignment of land ; 
yet, by reason of my close imprisonment, and the un- 
usual carriage of this cause against me, I can get no 
counsel, who will in open court deliver my case unto 
your lordship. I must therefore humbly leave unto 
your lordship's wisdom, how far your lordship will, 
upon my adversary's fraudulent bill, exhibited by the 
wife withouther husband's privity, extend the most 
powerful arm of your authority against me, who de- 
sire nothing but the honest performance of a trust, 
which I know not how to leave, if I would. So, 
nothing doubting but your lordship will do what ap- 
pertained to justice, and the eminent place of equity 
your lordship holdeth, I must, since I cannot under- 
stand from your lordship the cause of my late close 
restraint, rest, during your lordship's pleasure, 

Your Lordship's close prisoner in the Fleet, 

October 28, 1617. FR. ENGLEFYLD. 

(a) This gentleman was very unfortunate in his behaviour, with 
regard to those, who had the great seal ; for in Hilary term of the 
year 162|, he was fined 3000/. by the Star Chamber, for casting an 
imputation of bribery on the lord keeper Williams, bishop of Lincoln. 
MS. letter of Mr. Chamberlain to Sir Dudley Carleton, dated at 
London, 162|. Sir Francis had been committed to the Fleet for a 
contempt of a decree in Chancery; upon which he was charged, by 
Sir John Bennet, with having said, before sufficient witness, " that 
" he could prove this holy bishop judge had been bribed by some 
" that fared well in their causes." A few days after the sentence in 
the Star Chamber, the lord keeper sent for Sir Francis, and told 
him, he would refute his foul aspersions, and prove upon him, that 
he scorned the pelf of the world, or to exact, or make lucre of any 
man : and that for his own part, he forgave him every penny of his 
fine, and would crave the same mercy towards him from the king. 
Bishop Hacket's Life of Archbishop Williams, Part I. pp. 83, 84. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 177 


My honourable Lord, 

I have thought good to renew my motion to your 
lordship, in the behalf of my lord of Huntingdon, 
my lord Stanhope, and Sir Thomas Gerard ; for that 
I am more particularly acquainted with their desires ; 
they only seeking the true advancement of the chari- 
table uses, unto which the land, given by their grand- 
father, was intended : which, as I am informed, was 
meant by way of a corporation, and by this means, 
that it might be settled upon the schoolmaster, usher, 
and poor, and the coheirs to be visitors. The tenants 
might be conscionably dealt withal; and so it will be 
out of the power of any feoffees to abuse the trust ; 
which, it hath been lately proved, have been hitherto 
the hindrance of this good work. These coheirs de- 
sire only the honour of their ancestor's gift, and wish 
the money, misemployed and ordered to be paid into 
court by Sir John Harper, may rather be bestowed 
by your lordship's discretion for the augmentation of 
the foundation of their ancestors, than by the censure 
of any other And so I rest 

Your Lordships servant, 
Theobald's, November 12. G . BUCKINGHAM. 

Indorsed, 1517. 


My honourable Lord, 

Though I had resolved to give your lordship no more 
trouble in matters of controversy depending before 
you, with what importance soever my letters had 
been ; yet the respect I bear unto this gentleman 
hath so far forced my resolution, as to recommend 
unto your lordship the suit, which, I am informed by 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. (*) Ibid. 


178 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

him, is to receive a hearing before you on Monday- 
next, between Barnaby Leigh and Sir Edward Dyer, 
plaintiffs, and Sir Thomas Thynne, {a) defendant ; 
wherein I desire your lordship's favour on the plain- 
tiffs so far only as the justice of their cause shall re- 
quire. And so I rest 

Your Lordship s faithful servant, 

Newmarket, the 15th of Nov. <j. BUCKINGHAM. 

Indorsed, 1617. 


My honourable. Lord, 

The certificate being returned upon the commission 
touching Sir .Richard Haughton's alum-mines, I have 
thought fit to desire your lordship's furtherance in 
the business, which his majesty, as your lordship 
will see by his letter, much affecteth as a bargain 
for his advantage, and for the present relief of Sir 
Richard Haughton. What favour your lordship shall 
do him therein, I will not fail to acknowledge, and 
will ever rest 

Your Lordship '«? faithful servant, 


Received November 16, 1617 

(a) Eldest son of Sir John Thynne, knight, who died November 
21, 1604. This Sir Thomas's younger son by his first wife, Mary, 
daughter of George, lord Audley, was father of Thomas Thynne, 
esq. assassinated by the followers of count Coningsmark, February 
12, 1682-3. 

(J) Harl.MSS. Vol.7006. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 179 


My honourable Lord, 

I have acquainted his majesty with your lordship's 
letter, who liketh well of the judges' opinion you sent 
unto him, and hath pricked the sheriff of Bucking- 
hamshire in the roll you sent, which I return signed 
unto your lordship. 

His majesty takes very well the pains you have 
taken in sending to Sir Lionel Cranneld ; and de- 
sireth you to send to him again, and to quicken him 
in the business. 

Your Lordship 's faithful friend and servant, 


His majesty liketh well the course taken about his 
household, wherewith he would have your lordship, 
and the rest of his council, to go forward. 

Newmarket, the 17th of November, 1617. 

My lord of Buckingham shewing his majesty's appro- 
bation of the courses held touching the household. 


My honourable Lord, 

Understanding, that Thomas Hukeley, a merchant 
of London, of whom I have heard a good report, 
intendeth to bring before your lordship in chancery 
a cause depending between him, in right of his wife, 
daughter of William Austen, and one John Horsmen- 
don, who married another daughter of the said 
Austen ; I have thought fit to desire your lordship 
to give the said Thomas Hukeley a favourable hear- 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. (*) Ibid. 

N 2 

180 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

ing when his cause shall come before you ; and so 
far to respect him for my sake, as your lordship shall 
see him grounded upon equity and reason ; which is 
no more than, I assure myself, your lordship will 
grant readily, as it is desired by 

Your Lordship s faithful friend and servant, 
Indorsed, November 17, 1617. Gi BUCKINGHAM. 


My very good Lord, 

The last letter of my lord's, whereof the conclusion 
indeed is a little blunt, as the king calleth it, was con- 
cluded in my absence, which hath been but once 
since I came to this town ; and brought me by the 
clerk of the council, as I sat in chancery Where- 
upon I retired to a little closet I have there, and 
signed it, not thinking fit to sever. 

For my opinion, I dispatched it the morrow fol- 
lowing. And till Sir Lionel Cranfield (b) be able to 
execute his part in the sub-commission, it will, in my 
opinion, not be so fit to direct it. He crept to me 
yesternight, but he is not well. I did his majesty's 
message to him touching the tobacco ; and he said 
he would give his majesty very real and solid satis- 
faction touching thesame. 

This is all for the present I shall trouble your lord- 
ship withal, resting ever 

Your Lordship's true friend and devoted servant, 
November 20, 1617. FR. BACON. 

(a) In answer to his lordship's letter from Newmarket, Novem- 
ber 19, 1617, printed in lord Bacon s work. 

(b) He was originally a merchant in the city of London, intro- 
duced to the king's knowledge by the earl of Northampton, and into 
his service by the earl of Buckingham, being the great projector for 
reforming the king's household, advancing the customs, and other 
services; for which he was made lord treasurer, baron Cranfield, 
and earl of Middlesex ; but being accused by the House of Com- 
mons for misdemeanors in his office, he had a severe sentence passed 
upon him by the lords, in 1624. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 181 


My honourable Lord, 

His majesty liketh very well of the draught your 
lordship sent of the letter for the sub-commission, 
and hath signed it, as it was, without any alteration, 
and sent it to the lords. Which is all I have to write 
at this time, but that I ever rest 

Your Lordships faithful friend and servant, 

Newmarket, the 2d of Decemb. 1617- G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My honourable Lord, 

His majesty hath been pleased to refer a petition of 
one Sir Thomas Blackstones to your lordship, who 
being brother-in-law to a gentleman, whom I much 
respect, Sir Henry Constable, I have, at his request, 
yielded to recommend his business so far to your 
lordship's favour, as you shall find his case to deserve 
compassion, and may stand with the rules of equity. 
And so I rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

Newmarket, the 4th of December. 

Indorsed, 1617. G - BUCKINGHAM. 


My very good Lord, 

Your lordship may marvel, that together with the 
letter from the board, which you see passed so well, 
there came no particular letter from myself; wherein, 
though it be true, that now this very evening I have 

(a) Had. MSS. Vol. 7006. (*) Ibid. 

182 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

made even with the causes of chancery, and com- 
paring with the causes heard by my lord, (a) that dead 
is, of Michaelmas-term was twelve- month, I find 
them to be double so many and one more ; besides 
that the causes that I dispatch do seldom turn upon 
me again, as his many times did : yet nevertheless I 
do assure your lordship, that should have been no ex- 
cuse to me, who shall ever assign both to the causes 
of the subject, yea, and to my health, but the leavings 
of times after his majesty's business done. But the 
truth is, I could not speak with Sir Lionel Cranfield, 
with whom of necessity I was to confer about the 
names, till this afternoon. 

First, therefore, I send the names, by his advice, 
and with mine own good allowance of those, which 
we wish his majesty should select ; wherein I have 
had respect somewhat to form, more to the avoiding 
of opposition, but most to the service. 

Two most important effects his majesty's letter hath 
wrought already : the one, that we perceive his ma- 
jesty will go through stitch , which goeth to the root 
of our disease. The other, that it awaketh the parti- 
cular officers, and will make their own endeavours 
and propositions less perfunctory, and more solid and 
true for the future. Somewhat is to be done presently, 
and somewhat by seasonable degrees. For the pre- 
sent, my advice is, his majesty would be pleased to 
write back to the table, that he doth well approve, 
that we did not put back or retard the good ways we 
were in of ourselves ; and that we understood his ma- 
jesty's right : that his late direction was to give help, 
and not hindrance, to the former courses ; and that he 
doth expect the propositions we have in hand, when 
they are finished : and that for the sub-commissions, 
he hath sent us the names he hath chosen out of those 
by us sent and propounded ; and that he leaveth the 
particular directions from time to time, in the use of 
the sub-commissioners, wholly to the table. 

This I conceive to be the fairest way ; first to seal 

(a) Chancellor Ellesmere. 

Letters, etc.of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 183 

the sub-commission without opening the nature of 
their employments, and without seeming that they 
should have any immediate dependence upon his ma- 
jesty, but merely upon the table. 

As for that which is to be kept in breast, and to 
come forth by parts, the degrees are these : 

First, to employ the sub-commissioners in the re- 
considering of those branches, which the several offi- 
cers shall propound. 

Next, in taking consideration of other branches of 
retrenchment, besides those which shall be pro- 

The third, to take into consideration the great and 
huge arrears and debts in every office ; whether there 
be cause to abate them upon deceit or abuse ; and 
at least how to settle them best, both for the king's 
honour, and avoiding of clamour, and for the taking 
away, as much as maybe, that same ill influence and 
effect, whereby thearrear past destroys the good hus- 
bandry and reformation to come. 

The fourth is to proceed from the consideration of 
the retrenchments and arrears to the improvements. 

All these four, at least the last three, I wish not to 
be stirred in till his majesty's coming. 

God ever preserve and prosper you. 

Your Lordship's true friend 
and devoted servant, 


Your lordship will be pleased to have a little care 
of the bestowing of this letter. 

York-house, this 6th of December, 1617. 

184 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My honourable Lord, 

Lest Mr. Secretary (b) should be come away before 
the delivery of this packet, I have thought fit to di- 
rect it to your lordship, with this letter to your lord- 
ship about the court of wards, and another to the 
lords from his majesty Which is all I have now to 
write, but that I ever rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

Newmarket, the 7th of December, 1 6 1 7 „ 


My honourable Lord, 

I have acquainted his majesty with your lordship s 
letter, who hath followed your directions therein, and 
written to the lords accordingly Which is all I 
have now to write to your lordship, but that I shall 
ever rest 

Your Lordship' s faithful friend and servant, 

Newmarket, the 9th day of December, 1617. 


My lord of Buckingham to your lordship, shewing 
the king's liking of your opinion and choice of 
names for sub-commission. 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

(6) Sir Thomas Lake. His colleague, secretary Winwood, died 
October 27, 1617 ; and Sir Robert Naunton succeeded to the post 
of secretary, January 8, 161$, from that of surveyor of the Court of 


(c) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 185 


My very good Lord, 

Your lordship's letters patents (a) are ready. I 
would be glad to be one of the witnesses at the de- 
livery ; and therefore, if the king and your lordship 
will give me leave, I will bring it to-morrow at any 
hour shall be appointed. 

Your Lordships ever, 
New- Year's eve, 1617. 


I was bold to send your lordship, for your new-year's 
gift, a plain cap of essay, in token, that if your lord- 
ship in any thing shall make me your sayman, I will 
be hurt before your lordship shall be hurt. I present 
therefore to you my best service, which shall be my 
All- Years gift. 


My very good Lord, 

Sir George Chaworth and I am agreed, so that now 
I shall retain the grace of my place, and yet he re- 
warded. The king hath no ill bargain ; for he hath 
four times as much as he was offered by Sir George 
of increase ; and yet I take upon me to content my 
servants, and to content him. Nevertheless, I shall 
think myself pleasured by his majesty, and do ac- 
knowledge, that your lordship hath dealt very ho- 
nourably and nobly with me. 

I send inclosed a letter, whereby your lordship sig- 
nifieth his majesty's pleasure to me; and I shall 

(a) For the title of marquis of Buckingham to himself and the 
male heirs of his body. 

186 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

make the warrant to Mr Attorney. I desire it may 
be carried in privateness. I ever rest 

Your Lordships true friend 

and devoted servant, 

This New- Year's eve, 1617. 



I presume to send his highness this pair of small 
candlesticks, that his light, and the light of his pos- 
terity, upon the church and commonwealth, may 
never fail. I pray you do me the favour to present 
it to his highness, with my best and humblest service. 

Your most affectionate and assured friend, 

fr. bacon, C. S. 


My honourable Lord, 

I have heretofore recommended unto your lordship 
the determination of the cause between Sir Row- 
land Egerton and Edward Egerton, (c) who, I un- 
derstand, did both agree, being before your lordship, 
upon the values of the whole lands. And as your 
lordship hath already made so good an entrance into 

(a) He had been surveyor of the lands to prince Charles, when 
duke of York ; and was groom of the stole to him, when king. He 
died in January, 1630-1. 

(b) Sir Francis Bacon had that title given him January 4. 

(c) This was one of the causes mentioned in the charge of the 
House of Commons against the lord Bacon ; in his answer to which, 
he acknowledged, that some days after perfecting his award, which 
was done with the advice and consent of the lord chief justice Ho- 
bart, and publishing it to the parties, he received 300/. of Mr. Ed- 
ward Egerton, by whom, soon after his coming to the seal, he had 
likewise been presented with 400/. in a purse. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 1 87 

the business, I doubt not but you will be as noble in 
furthering the full agreement between the parties : 
whereunto, I am informed, Sir Rowland Egerton is 
very forward, offering on his part that, which to me 
seemeth very reasonable, either to divide the lands, 
and his adverse party to choose ; or the other to di- 
vide, and he to choose. Whereupon my desire to 
your lordship is, that you would accordingly make a 
final end between them, in making a division, and 
setting forth the lands, according to the values agreed 
upon by the parties themselves. Wherein, besides the 
charitable work your lordship shall do in making an 
end of a controversy between those, whom name and 
blood should tie together, and keep in unity, I will 
acknowledge your favour as unto myself, and will 
ever rest 

Your Lordship s faithful servant, 

January 9, 1617 G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My honourable Lord, 

His majesty having given order to Mr Solicitor (b) 
to acquaint your lordship with a business touching ale- 
houses, (c) that upon consideration thereof you might 
certify your opinion unto his majesty, whether it be 
fit to be granted or not ; I have thought fit to desire 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

(6) Sir Thomas Coventry. 

(c) The lord chancellor, in his letter to the marquis of Bucking- 
ham, dated January 25, 1617, printed in his works, has the follow- 
ing passage : " For the suit of the ale-houses, which concerneth your 
" brother, Mr. Christopher Villiers, and Mr. Patrick Maule, I have 
" conferred with my lord chief justice, and Mr. Solicitor thereupon, 
" and there is a scruple in it, that it should be one of the grievances 
" put down in parliament ; which if it be, I may not, in my duty and 
" love to you, advise you to deal in it; if it be not, I will mould in 
" the best manner, and help it forward." A patent for licensing 
ale-houses being afterward granted to Sir Giles Mompesson and Sir 
Francis Mitchel, and greatly abused by them, they were punished 
for those abuses \>y the parliament, which met January 30, 1620-1. 

188 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

your lordship to give it what favour and furtherance 
you may, if you find it reasonable and not prejudicial 
to his majesty's service, because it concerneth Mr. 
Patrick Maule. and my brother, Christopher Villiers, 
whose benefit I have reason to wish and advance 
by any just courses. And so I rest 

Your Lordship s faithful servant, 

Royston, Jan. 11th, 1617 



My honourable Lord, 

Sir John Cotton (b) having acquainted me with a 
petition he intended to exhibit to his majesty, that, 
without any apparent fault committed by him, he was 
put from his office of Custos Rotulorum ; I have per- 
suaded him to forbear the presenting of his petition, 
until I had written to your lordship, and received 
your answer. I have therefore thought fit to signify 
unto your lordship, that he is a gentleman, of whom 
his majesty maketh good esteem, and hath often occa- 
sion to use his service and therefore, besides that he 
is a man of good years, and hath served long in the 
place, I know his majesty, out of these respects, will 
be loth he should receive any disgrace. I desire there- 
fore to understand from your lordship the reasons of 
his remove, that, if I cannot give satisfaction to the 
gentleman himself, I may at least make answer to his 
majesty for that act of your lordship's, which is al- 
ledged to be very unusual, unless upon some prece- 
dent misdemeanor of the party- Thus, having in this 
point discharged my part in taking the best course I 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

(b) Of Lanwade, in Cambridgeshire, knight. He served many 
years as knight of the shire for that county, and died in 1620, at the 
age of seventy-seven. His eldest son, Sir John Cotton, was created 
a baronet, July 14, 1641. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 189 

could, that no complaint should come against you to 
the king, I rest 

Your Lordsh ip's faithful friend, 
January 16, 1617. G- BUCKINGHAM. 


Mr, Attorney, 

Whereas there dependeth before me in chancery 
a great cause of tithes concerning the benefices of 
London, though in a particular, yet, by consequence 
leading to a general ; his majesty, out of a great 
religious care of the state, both of church and city, 
is graciously pleased, that before any judicial sen- 
tence be pronounced in chancery, there be a commis- 
sion directed unto me, the lord chancellor, lord trea- 
surer, the lord privy-seal, and the lord chamberlain ; 
and likewise to the lord archbishop, the lord bishop of 
Winchester, (a) and the bishop of Ely,(6) and also to 
the master of the rolls, (c) the two lord chief justices,^ 
justice Dodderidge, and justice Hutton, who formerly 
assisted me in the cause, to treat of some concord in a 
reasonable moderation between the ministers and the 
mayor and the commonalty of London in behalf of the 
citizens ; and to make some pact and transaction be- 
tween them by consent, if it may be ; or otherwise to 
hear and certify their opinions touching the cause, 
that thereupon his majesty may take such farther or- 
der, by directing of a proceeding in chancery, or by 
some other course, as to his wisdom shall seem fit. 

You will have care to draw the commission with 
some preface of honour to his majesty, and likewise 
to insert in the beginning of the commission, that it 

(a) Dr. James Montagu. 
(6) Dr. Lancelot Andrews, 
(c) Sir Julius Caesar. 

(<f) Sir Henry Montagu of the King's Bench, and Sir Henry Ho- 
bart of the Common Pleas. 

190 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

was de advisamento cancellarii (as it was indeed) lest 
it should seem to be taken from the court. So I com- 
mit you to God's &c. 

Jan. 19, 1617. FR- bacon, Cane. 


My very good Lord, 

I do not easily fail towards gentlemen of quality to 
disgrace them. For I take myself to have some in- 
terest in the good wills of the gentlemen of England, 
which I keep and cherish for his majesty's special ser- 
vice. And for this gentleman of whom you write, 
Sir John Cotton, I know no cause in the world, why 
I should have displaced him, but that it was certified 
unto me, that it was his own desire to resign : where- 
in if I was abused, I will restore him. But if he did 
consent, and, now it is done, changeth his mind, 
then I would be loth to disgrace the other, that is 
come in. Therefore I pray your lordship, that I may 
know and be informed from himself what passed 
touching his consent ; and I will do him reason. 

Thus, with my thanks to your lordship, I will 
ever rest 

Your Lordships true friend 

and most devoted servant, 
Jan. 20, 1617. 

fr. bacon, Cane. 


To the marquis of Buckingham, concerning Sir John 
Cotton's resigning the place of Custos Rotulorum 
of Cambridgeshire. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 191 


My honourable Lord, 

I thank your lordship for your favour to Sir George 
Tipping, in giving liberty unto him to make his ap- 
pearance before you after the holy-days, at my re- 
quest ; who, as I understand by some friends of mine, 
who moved me to recommend him to your lordship's 
favour, is willing to conform himself in performance 
of the decree made in the chancery by your lord- 
ship's predecessor, but that he is persuaded, that pre- 
sently, upon the performance thereof, his son will 
make away the land that shall be conveyed unto him : 
which being come to Sir George from his ancestors, 
he desireth to preserve to his posterity I desire 
your lordship's farther favour therefore unto him, that 
you will find out some course, how he may be ex- 
empted from that fear of the sale of his lands, whereof 
he is ready to acknowledge a fine to his son, and to 
his heirs by Anne Pigot ; and, they failing, to his son's 
heirs males, and, for want thereof, to any of his son's 
or brethren's heirs males, and so to the heirs general 
of his father and himself, by lineal descent, and the 
remainder to the crown. This offer, which seemeth 
very reasonable, and for his majesty's advantage, I 
desire your lordship to take into your consideration, 
and to shew him what favour you may for my sake ; 
which I will readily acknowledge, and ever rest 

Your Lordship s faithful servant, 

Newmarket, Jan. 23, 1617. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My honourable Lord, 

Since I received your lordship's letter, Sir Lionel 
Cranfield being here, hath informed his majesty of 
the whole proceeding in his business of the household; 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. (b) Ibid. 

192 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

which his majesty liketh very well, and is glad it 
Is approved by your lordship, of whose care and 
pains therein he receiveth very good satisfaction. 

In the business touching Sir John Cotton, your 
lordship dealeth as nobly as can be desired : and so, 
if it should come in question before his majesty, I 
would answer in your behalf. I leave Sir John Cot- 
ton to inform your lordship by his letter of the busi- 
ness, and ever rest 

Your Lordship 's faithful servant, 

Newmarket, Jan. 24, 1617. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My honourable Lord, 

I have been intreated by a gentleman, whom I much 
respect, to recommend to your lordship's favour 
Mr. John Huddy, between whom and Mr. Richard 
Huddy there is, as I am informed, a cause to be 
heard before your lordship, in the chancery, on Sa- 
turday next. My desire unto your lordship is, that 
you would shew the said John Huddy what favour 
you lawfully may, and as his cause will bear, when it 
cometh before you, for my sake. Which I will not 
fail to acknowledge, ever resting 

Your Lordship's faithful servant, 

Newmarket, Jan. 28, 1617. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My honourable Lord, 

I understand that his majesty hath been pleased 
to refer a suit unto him by two of his servants, 
Robert Maxwell and John Hunt, for the making of 
sheriffs and escheators patents, to your lordship's con- 

(«) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. (J) Ibid. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 193 

sideration. My desire unto your lordship on their 
behalf is, that you would shew them thus much fa- 
vour for my sake, and with as much expedition as 
may be, and your lordship's other occasions may per- 
mit, to certify your opinion thereof unto his majesty ; 
which I will be ready to acknowledge, and ever rest 

Your Lordship's faithful servant, 

Newmarket, Feb. 4, 1617. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My honourable Lord, 

Though I had resolved not to write to your lordship 
in any matter between party and party ; yet at the 
earnest request of my noble friend, the lord Norris, 
to whom I account myself much beholden, I could 
not but recommend unto your lordship's favour a 
special friend of his, Sir Thomas Monk, who hath 
a suit before your lordship in the chancery (b) with 
Sir Robert Basset: which, upon the report made unto 
me thereof, seemeth so reasonable, that I doubt not 
but the cause itself will move your lordship to favour 
him, if upon the hearing thereof it shall appear the 
same unto your lordship, as at the first sight it doth 
unto me. I therefore desire your lordship to shew in 
this particular what favour you lawfully may, for my 
sake, who will account it as done unto myself; and 
will ever rest 

Your Lordship's faithful servant, 

Newmarket, Feb. 4, 1617 G. BUCKINGHAM. 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

(b) Lord Bacon was afterward accused by the House of Com- 
mons of having received of Sir Thomas Monk 100 pieces; which 
he did not deny, but alledged, that it was after the suit was ended. 


194 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My very good Lord, 

I have sent inclosed a letter to his majesty about 
the public charge I am to give the last Star- Cham- 
ber day, which is this day sevennight, to the judges 
and justices before the circuit. I pray deliver it to 
his majesty with speed. I send also some papers 
appertaining to that business, which I pray your 
lordship to have in readiness, if his majesty call for 
them. I ever rest 

Your Lordship's true friend and devoted servant, 

February 6, 1617. FR. BACON, Cane. 


My honourable Lord, 

His majesty marvelleth, that he heareth nothing of 
the business touching the gold and silver thread ; (b) 
and therefore hath commanded me to write unto 
your lordship to hasten the dispatch of it ; and to 
give him as speedy an account thereof as you can. 
And so I rest 

Your Lordship's faithful servant, 
Newmarket, Feb. 7. G. BUCKINGHAM. 

Indorsed, 1617. 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

(6) A patent for the monopoly of which was granted to Sir 
Giles Mompesson and Sir Francis Mitchel, who were punished for 
the abuse of that patent by the parliament, which met January 30, 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 195 


My honourable Lord, 

I understand by this bearer, Edward Hawkins, 
how great pains your lordship hath taken, in the busi- 
ness which I recommended to you concerning him, 
and how favourably your lordship hath used him for 
my sake. For which I give your lordship many 
thanks, and will be ever ready to acknowledge your 
favour toward him by all the testimonies of 

Your Lordships faithful friend, 

Theobalds, Feb. 12, 1617. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My honourable Lord, 

I have acquainted his majesty with your letter, who 
liketh well of the course you mention in the end of 
your letter, and will speak with you farther of it at 
his return to London. In the mean time he would 
have your lordship give direction to the master of 
the Rolls (c) and Mr. Attorney (d) to stay the exami- 
nation. And so I rest 

Your Lordship's most assured to do you service, 

Hampton Court, March 18, 1617. 

(<») Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. (c) Sir Julius Caesar. 

(*) Ibid. (d) Sir Henry YelVertou. 

Q 2 

196 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My Lord Chancellor, 

I will not have you account the days of my not 
answering your letter. It is a thing imposed upon 
the multitude of my business to lodge many things 
faithfully, though I make no present return. 

Your conjunction and good understanding with the 
deputy (ti) I approve and commend ; for I ever loved 
intire and good compositions, which was the old 
physic, better than fine separations. 

Your friendly attributes I take as effects of affec- 
tion ; which must be causes of any good offices, 
wherewith I can requite you. 

We conceive that kingdom is in growth. God send 
soundness to the increase ; wherein I doubt not but 
your lordship will do your part. God keep you. 

Your Lordship's very loving friend, 

York-house, April 15, 1618. FR. BACON, Cane. 


My Lord Chief Justice, 

I thank you for your letter, and assure you, that 
you are not deceived, neither in the care I have of 
the public in that state, nor in my good wishes, and 
the effects thereof, when it shall lie in my power 

I am glad to receive your testimony of my lord 
deputy, both because I esteem your judgment, and 
because it concurreth with my own. 

(a) Dr. Thomas Jones, archbishop of Dublin, who died April 
10, 1619. r 

(6) Sir Oliver St. John, afterward viscount Grandison. He died 
atBattersea in Surrey, December 29, 1630, aged seventy. 

(c) Sir William Jones, to whom, upon his being called to that 
post, the lord keeper made a speech, printed in his works. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 197 

The materials of that kingdom, which is trade and 
wealth, grow on apace. I hope the form, which 
giveth the best living of religion and justice, will not 
be behind, the rather by you, as a good instrument. 
I rest 

Your Lordship's assured friend, 

York -house, ** of April, 1618. FR. BACON, Cane. 


My honourable Lord, 

Understanding, that there is a suit depending be- 
fore your lordship, between Sir Rowland Cotton, (b) 
plaintiff, and Sir John Gawen, defendant, which is 
shortly to come to a hearing ; and having been like- 
wise informed, that Sir Rowland Cotton hath under- 
taken it in the behalf of certain poor people ; which 
charitable endeavour of his, I assure myself, will find 
so good acceptation with your lordship, that there 
shall be no other use of recommendation : yet, at 
the earnest request of some friends of mine, I have 
thought fit to write to your lordship in his behalf, 
desiring you to shew him what favour you lawfully 
may, and the cause may bear, in the speedy dispatch 
of his business ; which I shall be ever ready to ac- 
knowledge, and rest 

Your Lordship's most devoted to serve you, 

Whitehall, April 20, 1618. G. BUCKINGHAM. 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

(b) A gentleman eminent for his learning, especially in the He- 
brew language, in which he had been instructed by the famous 
Hugh Broughton, who died in 1612. He was son of Mr. William 
Cotton, citizen and draper of London, and had an estate at Bella- 
port in Shropshire, where he resided, till he came to live at Lon- 
don at the request of Sir Allen Cotton, his father's younger bro- 
ther, who was lord mayor of that city in 1625. Sir Rowland 
was the first patron of the learned Dr. Lightfoot, and encouraged 
him in the prosecution of his studies of the Hebrew language and 

198 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My honourable Lord, 

I mill not go about to excuse mine own fault, by 
making you believe his majesty was backward in 
your business ; but upon the first motion, he gave 
me directions for it ; which it was my negligence, as 
I freely confess, that I have no sooner performed, 
having not been slack in moving his majesty, but in 
dispatching your man. All is done, which your lord- 
ship desired, and I will give order, according to his 
majesty's directions, so that your lordship shall not 
need to trouble yourself any farther, but only to 
expect the speedy performance of his majesty's gra- 
cious pleasure. 

I will take" the first opportunity to acquaint his ma- 
jesty with the other business, and will ever rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

Theobald's, May 8, [1618.] G- BUCKINGHAM. 


My honourable good Lord, 

Whereas in Mr. Hansbye's cause, (c) which for- 
merly, by my means, both his majesty and myself 
recommended to your lordship's favour, your lordship 
thought good, upon a hearing thereof, to decree some 
part for the young gentleman, and to refer to some 
masters of the chancery, for your farther satisfaction, 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. (b) Ibid. 

(c) This seems to be one of the causes, on account of which lord 
Bacon was afterward accused by the House of Commons ; in an- 
swer to whose charge he admits, that in the cause of Sir Ralph 
Hansbye there being two decrees, one for the inheritance, and the 
other for goods and chattels ; some time after the first decree, and 
before the second, there was 500/. delivered to him by Mr. Tobie 
Matthew; nor could his lordship deny, that this was upon the 
matter pendente lite. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 199 

the examination of witnesses to this point ; which 
seemed to your lordship to be the main thing your 
lordship doubted of, whether or no the leases, con- 
veyed by old Hansbye to young Hansbye by deed, 
were to be liable to the legacies, which he gave by 
will ; and that now I am credibly informed, that it 
will appear upon their report, and by the depositions 
of witnesses, without all exception, that the said 
leases are no way liable to those legacies ; these 
shall be earnestly to intreat your lordship, that upon 
consideration of the report of the masters, and depo- 
sitions of the witnesses, you will, for my sake, shew 
as much favour and expedition to young Mr. Hansbye 
in this cause, as the justness thereof will permit. 
And I shall receive it at your lordship's hands as a 
particular favour. 

So I take my leave of your lordship, and rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

Greenwich, June 12, 1618. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My honourable Lord, 
Understanding, that the cause depending in the 
chancery between the lady Vernon and the officers of 
his majesty's household is now ready for a decree ; 
though I doubt not, but, as his majesty hath been sa- 
tisfied of the equity of the cause on his officers be- 
half, who have undergone the business, by his ma- 
jesty's command, your lordship will also find their 
cause worthy of your favour : yet I have thought fit 
once again to recommend it to your lordship, desiring 
you to give them a speedy end of it, that both his 
majesty may be freed from farther importunity, and 
they from the charge and trouble of following it : 
which I will be ever ready to acknowledge as a favour 
done unto myself, and always rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 
Greenwich, June 15, 1618. G. BUCKINGHAM, 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

200 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My honourable Lord, 

I wrote unto your lordship lately in the behalf of 
Sir Rowland Cotton, that then had a suit in depend- 
ence before your lordship and the rest of my lords in 
the Star-Chamber. The cause, I understand, hath 
gone contrary to his expectation ; yet he acknowledges 
himself much bound to your lordship for the noble 
and patient hearing he did then receive ; and he 
rests satisfied, and I much beholden to your lord- 
ship, for any favour it pleased your lordship to afford 
him for my cause. It now rests only in your lord- 
ship's power for the assessing of costs ; which, be- 
cause, I am certainly informed, Sir Rowland Cotton 
had just cause of complaint, I hope your lordship 
will not give any against him. And I do the rather 
move your lordship to respect him in it, because it 
concerns him in his reputation, which I know he 
tenders, and not the money which might be im- 
posed upon him ; which can be but a trifle. Thus 
presuming of your lordship's favour herein, which I 
shall be ready ever to account to your lordship for, I 

Your Lordship's most devoted to serve you, 

June 19, 1618. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My honourable Lord, 

Whereas it hath pleased his majesty to recommend 
unto your consideration a petition exhibited by Mr. 
Fowle, together with the grievances and request for 
the rectifying of the work of gold and silver thread ; 
and now understandeth, that your lordship hathcalled 
unto you the other commissioners in that case, and 

(a) Hail. MSS. Vol. 7006. (b) Ibid. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 201 

spent some time to hear what the opposers could ob- 
ject, and perceiveth by a relation of a good entrance 
you have made into the business ; and is now in- 
formed, that there remaineth great store of gold and 
silver thread in the merchants' hands, brought from 
foreign parts, besides that, which is brought in daily 
by stealth, and wrought here by underhand workers ; 
so that the agents want vent, with which inconveni- 
encies, it seemeth the ordinary course of law cannot 
so well meet : and yet they are inforced, for freeing 
of clamour, to set great numbers of people on work ; 
so that the commodity lying dead in their hands, will 
in a very short time grow to a very great sum of 
money : To the end therefore, that the undertakers 
may not be disheartened by these wrongs and losses, 
his majesty hath commanded me to write unto your 
lordship, to the end you might bestow more time this 
vacation in prosecuting the course you have so wor- 
thily begun, that all differences being reconciled, the 
defects of the commission may be also amended, for 
prevention of farther abuses therein ; so as the agents 
may receive encouragement to go on quietly in the 
work without disturbance. And I rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

the 20th da™ rflSg. 1618. G " BUCKINGHAM. 


Most honourable Lord, 

Herewith a l I presume to send a note inclosed, 
both of my business in chancery, and with my lord 
Roos, which it pleased your lordship to demand of 
me, that so you might better do me good in utro- 
que genere. It may please your lordship, after having 
perused it, to commend it over to the care of Mr. 
Meautys for better custody 

At my parting last from your lordship, the grief 
I had to leave your lordship's presence, though but 

202 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

for a little time, was such, as that being accompanied 
with some small corporal indisposition that I was in, 
made me forgetful to say that, which now for his 
majesty's service I thought myself bound not to si- 
lence. I was credibly informed and assured, when 
the Spanish ambassador went away, that howsoever 
Ralegh and the prentices (a) should fall out to be pro- 
ceeded withal, no more instances would be made 
hereafter on the part of Spain, for justice to be done 
ever in these particulars : but that if slackness were 
used here, they would be laid up in the deck, and 
would serve for materials (this was the very word) 
of future and final discontentments. Now as the hu- 
mour and design of some may carry them towards 
troubling of the waters; so I know your lordship's 
both nature and great place require an appeasing 
them at your hands. And I have not presumed to 
say this little out of any mind at all, that I may have 
to meddle with matters so far above me, but out of 
a thought I had, that I was tied in duty to lay thus 
much under your lordship's eye ; because I know and 
consider of whom I heard that speech, and with how 
great circumstances it was delivered. 

I beseech Jesus to give continuance and increase 
to your lordship's happiness ; and that, if it may stand 
with his will, myself may one day have the honour of 
casting some small mite into that rich treasury So 
I humbly do your lordship reverence, and continue 

The most obliged of your Lordship's 

many faithful servants, 

Nottingham, August 21, 1618. TOBIE MATTHEW 

(a) Who on the 12th of July, 1618, had insulted Gondomar, the 
Spanish ambassador, on account of a boy's being hurt by him as he 
was riding. [Camdeni Annates Regis Jacobi, I. p. 33. J They were 
proceeded against by commissioners at Guildhall on Wednesday 
the 12th of August following; seven being found guilty, and ad- 
judged to six months' imprisonment, and to pay 500/. a piece. Two 
others were acquitted. MS. letter of Mr. Chamberlain to Sir 
Dudley Carleton, London, August, 15, 1618. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 203 


Mr Wake, 

I have received some letters from you; and hearing 
from my lord Cavendish (a) how well he affects you, 
and taking notice also of your good abilities and ser- 
vices in his majesty's affairs, and not forgetting the 
knowledge I had, when young, of your good father, (b) 
I thought myself in some measure tied not to keep 
from you my good opinion of you, and my desire to 
give you any furtherance in your fortunes and occa- 
sions, whereof you may take knowledge and liberty 
to use me for your good. Fare you well. 

Your very loving friend, 

fr. verulam, (c) Cane. 
York-house, this 1st of Sept. 1618. 


My honourable Lord, 

His majesty is desirous to be satisfied of the fitness 
and conveniency of the gold and silver thread-busi- 
ness ; as also of the profit, that shall any way accrue 
unto him thereby Wherefore his pleasure* is, that 
you shall, with all convenient speed, call unto you the 
lord chief justice of the King's Bench, (e)the attorney- 
general, (f) and the solicitor ; (g) and consider with 

(a) William Cavendish, son and heir of William, created baron 
Cavendish of Hardwicke in Derbyshire, in May 1605, and earl of, 
Devonshire, July 12, 1618. 

(b) Arthur Wake, rector of Billing in Northamptonshire, master 
of the hospital of St. John in Northampton, and canon of Christ- 
Church, Oxford. 

(c) He had been created lord Verulam on the 12th of July, 1618, 

(d) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

(e) Sir Henry Montagu. 

(f) Sir Henry Yelverton. 

(g) Sir Thomas Coventry. 

204 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

them of every of the said particulars, and return them 
to his majesty, that thereupon he may resolve what 
present course to take for the advancement of the exe- 
cution thereof. And so I rest 

Your Lordship's faithful servant, 
Theobalds, the 4th of Octob. 1618. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My honourable Lord, 

I have been desired by some friends of mine, in the 
behalf of Sir Francis Englefyld, to recommend his 
cause so far unto your lordship, that a peremptory 
day being given by your lordship's order for the per- 
fecting of his account, and for the assignment of the 
trust, your lordship would take such course therein, 
that the gentleman's estate may be redeemed from 
farther trouble, and secured from all danger, by en- 
gaging those, to whom the trust is now transferred by 
your lordship's order, to the performance of that, 
whereunto he was tied. And so not doubting but 
your lordship will do him what lawful favour you 
may herein, I rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 


Received October 14, 1618. 

To the King, concerningthe form and manner of 
proceeding against SirWALTER Ralegh, (b) 

May it please your most excellent Majesty, 

According to your commandment given unto us, 
we have, upon divers meetings and conferences, 
considered what form and manner of proceeding 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

(b) He was beheaded October 29, 1618, the day of the inaugura- 
tion of the lord mayor of Loudon. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 205 

against Sir Walter Ralegh might best stand with 
your majesty's justice and honour, if you shall be 
pleased, that the law shall pass upon him. 

And, first, we are of opinion, that Sir Walter Ra- 
legh being attainted of high-treason, which is the 
highest and last work of law, he cannot be drawn in 
question judicially for any crime or offence since 
committed. And therefore we humbly present two 
forms of proceeding to your majesty : the one, that 
together with the warrant to the lieutenant of the 
Tower, if your majesty shall so please, for his execu- 
tion, to publish a narrative in print of his late crimes 
and offences : which, albeit your majesty is not bound 
to give an account of your actions in these cases to 
any but only to God alone, we humbly offer to your 
majesty's consideration, as well in respect of the great 
effluxion of time since his attainder, and of his em- 
ployment by your majesty's commission, as for that 
his late crimes and offences are not yet publicly 
known. The other form, whereunto, if your majesty 
so please, we rather incline, is, that where your ma- 
jesty is so renowned for your justice, it may have such 
a proceeding, as is nearest to legal proceeding ; which 
is, that he be called before the whole body of your 
council of state, and your principal judges, in your 
council-chamber ; and that some of the nobility and 
gentlemen of quality be admitted to be present to 
hear the whole proceeding, as in like cases hath been 
used. And after the assembly of all these, that some 
of your majesty's counsellors of state, that are best 
acquainted with the case, should openly declare, that 
this form of proceeding against Sir Walter is holden, 
for tha the is civilly dead. After this your majesty's 
council learned to charge his acts of hostility, depre- 
dation, abuse as well of your majesty's commission, 
as of your subjects under his charge, impostures, at- 
tempt of escape, and other his misdemeanors. But 
for that which concerns the French, wherein he was 
rather passive than active, and without which the 
charge is complete, we humbly refer, to your majesty's 
consideration, how far that shall be touched. After 

206 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

which charge so given, the examinations read, and 
Sir Walter heard, and some to be confronted against 
him, if need be, then he is to be withdrawn and sent 
back ; for that no sentence is, or can be, given against 
him. And after he is gone, then the lords of the 
council and judges to give their advice to your ma- 
jesty, whether in respect of these subsequent offences 
upon the whole matter, your majesty, if you so please, 
may not with justice and honour give warrant for his 
execution upon his attainder. And of this whole pro- 
ceeding we are of opinion, that a solemn act of coun- 
cil should be made, with a memorial of the whole 
presence. But before this be done, that your ma- 
jesty may be pleased to signify your gracious direction 
herein to your council of state ; and that your coun- 
cil learned, before the calling of Sir Walter, should 
deliver the heads of the matter, together with the 
principal examinations touching the same, wherewith 
Sir Walter is to be charged, unto them, that they 
may be perfectly informed of the true state of the 
case, and give their advice accordingly All which 
nevertheless we, in all humbleness, present and sub- 
mit to your princely wisdom and judgment, and shall 
follow whatsoever it shall please your majesty to 
direct us herein, with all dutiful readiness. 

Your Majesty's most humble 

and faithful servants, 8$c. 
York-house, this 18th of October, 1618. 


My honourable Lord, 

Whereas there is a cause depending in the court 
of chancery between one Mr Francis Foliambe and 
Francis Hornsby, the which already hath received a 
decree, and is now to have another hearing before 
yourself ; I have thought fit to desire you to shew so 
much favour therein, seeing it concerns the gentle- 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 207 

man s whole estate, as to make a full arbitration and 
final end, either by taking the pains in ending it your- 
self, or preferring it to some other, whom your lord- 
ship shall think fit : which I shall acknowledge as a 
courtesy from your lordship ; and ever rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

Hinchinbroke, the 22d of October, 1618. 


My very good Lord, 

I send the commission for making Lincoln's Inn- 
Fields into walks for his majesty's signature. It is 
without charge to his majesty 

We have had my lord of Ormonde (a) before us. 
We could not yet get him to answer directly, whether 
he would obey the king's award or no. After we 
had endured his importunity and impertinences, and 
yet let him down to this, that his majesty's award 
was not only just and within his submission, but in 
his favour; we concluded in few words, that the 
award must be obeyed, and if he did refuse or impugn 
the execution of it in Ireland, he was to be punished 
by the justice of Ireland : if he did murmur or scan- 
dalize it here, or trouble his majesty any more, he was 
to be punished in England. Then he asked, whether 
he might be gone. For that, we told him, his ma- 
jesty's pleasure was to be known. 

(a) Walter, earl of Ormonde, grandfather of James, the first duke 
of Ormonde. This earl, upon the death of Thomas, earl of Or- 
monde and Ossory, succeeding to those honours, should have in- 
herited likewise the greatest part of the estate : but his right was 
contested by Sir Richard Preston lord Dingwell, supported by the 
favour of king James I. who made an award, which Walter, earl of 
Ormonde, conceiving to be unjust, refused to submit to, and was, 
by the king's order, committed to the Fleet, where he remained 
eight years before the death of that king ; but in 1625 recovered his 

208 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

Sir. Robert Mansell hath promised to bring his 
summer account this day seven-night. God preserve 
and prosper you.- 

Your Lordships most obliged friend, 

and faithful servant, 
November 12, 1618. FR< VERULAM, Cane. 


My honourable Lord, 

I send your lordship the commission signed by his 
majesty, which he was very willing to dispatch as a 
business very commendable and worthy to be taken 
in hand. 

For the earl of Ormonde, his majesty made no 
other answer, but that he hopeth he is not so unman- 
nerly, as to go away without taking leave of his 

For Sir Robert ManselTs account, his majesty saith 
he is very slow, especially being but a summary ac- 
count, and that he promised to bring it in before : 
and therefore would have him tied to the day he hath 
now set, without any farther delay. 

This last his majesty commanded me to put in 
after I had written and signed my letter. 

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

Royston, the 13th of November, 1618. 


My honourable Lord, 

Having formerly moved your lordship in the busi- 
ness of this bearer, Mr. Wyche, of whom, as I un- 
derstand, your lordship hath had a special care to do 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. (b) Ibid. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 209 

him favour, according to the equity of his cause ; now- 
seeing that the cause is shortly to be heard, I have 
thought fit to continue my recommendation of the 
business unto you, desiring your lordship to shew 
what favour you lawfully may unto Mr. Wyche, ac- 
cording as the justness of the cause shall require : 
which I will acknowledge as a courtesy from your 
lordship, and ever rest 

Your Lordship s faithful friend and servant, 

Newmarket, the 18th of November, 1618. 


My honourable Lord, 

I send your lordship the bill of the sheriff of Here- 
ford and Leicester, pricked and signed by his majesty, 
who hath likewise commanded me to send unto your 
lordship these additions of instructions, sent unto him 
by the surveyor and receiver of the court of wards ; 
wherein, because he knoweth not what to prescribe ; 
without understanding what objections can be made, 
his pleasure is, that your lordship advise and consider 
of them, and send him your opinion of them, that he 
may then take such course therein as shall be fit. 

His majesty commanded me to give you thanks 
for your care of his service ; and so I rest 

Your Lordship s faithful serva7it, 

Newmarket, the 22d of November. G. BUCKINGHAM. 

Indorsed, 1618, 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

VOL. \ I. 

2 1 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My very good Lord, 

We have put the Declaration (a) touching Ralegh to 
the press with his majesty's additions, which were 
very material, and fit to proceed from his majesty. 

For the prisoners, we have taken an account, given 
a charge, and put some particulars in examination 
for punishment and example. 

For the pursuivants, we staid a good while for Sir 
Edward Coke's health ; but he being not yet come 
abroad, we have entered into it ; and we find faults, 
and mean to select cases for example : but in this 
swarm of priests and recusants we are careful not to 
discourage in general. But the punishment of some, 
that are notoriously corrupt, concerned not the good, 
and will keep in awe those that are but indifferent. 

The balance of the king's estate is in hand, whereof 
I have great care, but no great help. 

The sub-committees for the several branches of 
treasure are well chosen and charged. 

This matter of the king's estate for means is like a 
quarry, which digs and works hard ; but then, when I 
consider it buildeth, I think no pains too much ; and 
after term it shall be my chief care. 

For the mint, by my next I will give account; 
forour day is Wednesday 

God ever preserve and prosper you. 

Your Lordships 
November 22, 1618. FR. VERULAM, CatlC. 

Of council-business 

(a) Declaration of the Demeanor and Carriage of Sir Walter Ralegh, 
Knight, as well in his Voyage, as in and since his return, fyc. printed 
at London, 1618, in quarto. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 2 1 1 


My honourable Lord, 

I having understood by Dr. Steward, that your lord- 
ship hath made a decree against him in the chancery, 
which he thinks very hard for him to perform ; al- 
though I know it is unusual to your lordship to make 
any alterations, when things are so far past ; yet in 
regard I owe him a good turn, which I know not how 
to perform but this way, I desire your lordship, if 
there be any place left for mitigation, your lordship 
would shew him what favour you may, for my sake, 
in his desires, which I shall be ready to acknowledge 
as a great courtesy done unto myself; and will ever rest 

Your Lordship s faithful friend and servant, 

Newmarket, the 2d of December, 1618. 


My honourable Lord, 

I have written a letter unto your lordship, which 
will be delivered unto you in behalf of Dr. Steward ; 
and besides, have thought fit to use all freedom with 
you in that, as in other things ; and therefore have 
thought fit to tell you, that he being a man of very 
good reputation, and a stout man, that will not yield 
to any thing, wherein he conceiveth any hard Course 
against him, I should be sorry he should make any 
complaint against you. And therefore, if you can 
advise of any course, how you may be eased of that 
burden, and freed from his complaint, without shew 
of any fear of him, or any thing he can say, I will be 
ready to join with you for the accomplishment there- 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. (b) Ibid. 

p 2 

212 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

of: and so desiring you to excuse the long stay of 
your man, I rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

From Newmarket, 3d of December, 1618. 


My very good Lord, 

Yesternight we dispatched the lord Ridgeway's ac- 
count. Good service is done. Seven or eight thou- 
sand pounds are corning to the king, and a good pre- 
cedent set for accounts. 

There came to the seal about a fortnight since a 
strange book, passed by Mr. Attorney to one Mr. 
Hall ; and it is to make subjects, for so is denization, 
and this to go to a private use, till some thousand 
pounds be made of it. The number one hundred 
denizens. And whereas all books of that nature had 
an exception of merchants, which importeth the king 
not much in his customs only, for that is provided for 
in the book, but many other ways, this takes in mer- 
chants and all. I acquainted the commissioners with 
it, and by one consent it is stayed. But let me counsel 
his majesty to grant forth a commission of this nature, 
so to raise money for himself, being a flower of the 
crown : and Hall may be rewarded out of it ; and it 
would be to principal persons, that it may be carried 
with election and discretion, whom to admit to deni- 
zation, and whom not. 

Gpd ever bless and prosper you. 

Your Lordships most faithful 
and obliged friend and servant, 
December 8, 1618. FR. VERULAM. Cane. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 2 1 3 


My honourable Lord, 

I thank your lordship for the favour, which, I un- 
derstand, Sir Francis Englefyld hath received from 
your lordship upon my last letter, whereunto I desire 
your lordship to add this one favour more, which is 
the same, that I understand your lordship granted 
him at Christmas last, to give him liberty, for the 
space of a fortnight, to follow his business in his own 
person ; whereby he may bring it to the more speedy 
end, putting in security, according to the ordinary 
course, to render himself prisoner again, as soon as 
that time is expired : which is all that I desire for 
him, and in which I will acknowledge your lordship's 
favour towards him ; and ever rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 


Newmarket, the 10th of Decemb. 1618. 


My very good Lord, 

I send you herewith the copy of a letter, which we, 
the commissioners for Ormonde's cause, have written 
to the deputy of Ireland, according to his majesty's 
pleasure signified by Sir Francis Blundell ; which I 
humbly desire his majesty would peruse, that if it do 
not attain his meaning, as we conveyed it, we may 
second it with a new letter. 

We have appointed Monday morning for these 
mint businesses, referred by his majesty to certain 
commissioners, and we will carry it sine strepitu. 

The patent touching Guinea and Bynny for the 
trade of gold, staid first by myself, and after by his 
majesty's commandment, we have now settled by 
consent of all parties. 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. (b) Ibid. 

214 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

Mr. Attorney, by my direction, hath made, upon 
his information exhibited into the Star-Chamber, a 
thundering motion against the transportation of gold 
by the Dutch, which all the town is glad of; and I 
have granted divers writs of we exeat regnum, accord- 
ing to his majesty's warrant. 

Sir Edward Coke keeps in still, and we have miss 
of him ; but I supply it as I may by my farther dili- 
gence. God ever bless you and keep you. 

Your Lordships most faithful and 

bounden friend and servant, 

Dec. 11, 1618. F r. verulam, Cane. 

I forget not your doctor's (a) matter. I shall speak 
with him to-day, having received your lordship's let- 
ter ; and what is possible, shall be done. I pray 
pardon my scribbling in haste. 


My honourable Lord, 

I have acquainted his majesty with your letters, 
who is very well pleased with your care of his service, 
in making stay of the grant of denizens upon the rea- 
son you alledge, whereof his majesty will speak far- 
ther with you at his return. 

The letter, which you sent me about my lord of 
Ormonde's son, is not according to his majesty's 
meaning ; but I would have you frame another to my 
lord deputy to this purpose : " That his majesty hav- 
" ing seen a letter of his to Sir Francis Blundell, 
" advertising, that the earl of Ormonde's son, and 
" some other of his kindred, did victual and fortify 
" their houses ; his majesty hath thereupon com- 
" manded you to write unto him, that if the ground 
" of his information be true, which he may best 

(a) Steward's. See above, p. 211. 
(A) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 215 

" know, that then he send for the said earl's son, and 
" the principal of his kindred, to appear before him; 
" and if they appear, and give him satisfaction, it is 
" well ; but if they refuse to appear, or give him not 
" satisfaction, though they appear ; that then he 
" assemble what forces he can, be they never so few, 
" and go against them, that he may crush the rebel- 
" lion in the egg." 

I have remembered his majesty, as I promised 
your lord.ship, about the naming you for a commis- 
sioner to treat with the Hollanders : but, besides that, 
you have so many businesses, both of the Star- 
Chamber, and others in the term-time, when this must 
be attended as well as in the vacation, whereby this 
would be either too great a toil to you, or a hindrance 
to his majesty's service ; he thinketh it could not 
stand with the honour of your place to be balanced 
with those that are sent from the state, so far unequal 
to his majesty, and being themselves none of the 
greatest of the state. Therefore his majesty holdeth 
it not fit or worthy of you to put you into such an 
employment, in which none of your predecessors, or 
any of the chief counsellors, have been ever used in 
this kind, but only in a treaty of marriage or conclu- 
sion of a peace ; as when the constable of Castile was 
here, when the commissioners on both sides had their 
authority under the great seal of either kingdom, with 
direct relation to their sovereigns, far differing from 
this commission, which is now given to these men, 
and whereunto his majesty is to frame the course of 
his. As for the part which concerneth Scotland, the 
choice hath not been made of the chancellor or arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews, but of men nearer the rank of 
those, that come hither to treat. As yet his majesty 
delayeth to give any commission at all, because he 
would first be informed from the lords, both of the 
points and form of their commission, which his ma- 
jesty hitherto understandeth to be, with authority to 
over-rule and direct their merchants in what they 
shall think fit ; which if it be so, then his majesty 
holdeth it fit, for his part, to appoint the whole body 

2 1 6 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

of the council with like power over his merchants. 
As for me, I shall be ever ready upon any occasion 
to shew myself 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

Newmarket, the 14th of December, 1618. 


My good Lady and Cousin, 

I shall not be wanting in any thing, that may ex- 
press my good affection and wishes towards your 
ladyship, being so near unto me, and the daughter 
of a father, to whom I was in the passages of my 
fortune much obliged. So with my loving commen- 
dations, in the midst of business, I rest 

Your affectioitate kinsman and assured friend, 

York-house, this 25th of January, 1618. 


My honourable Lord, 

Lest my often writing may make your lordship con- 
ceive, that this letter hath been drawn from you by 
importunity, I have thought fit, for preventing of any 
such conceit, to let your lordship know, that Sir 
John Wentworth, whose business 1 now recommend, 
is a gentleman, whom I esteem in more than an ordi- 
nary degree. And there r ore I desire your lordship 
to shew him what favour you can for my sake in his 
suit, which his majesty hath referred to your lord- 
ship : which I will acknowledge as a courtesy unto 
me, and rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 
Newmarket, January 26th, 1618. G< BUCKINGHAM. 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 217 


Mi/ honourable Lord, 

I being desired by a special friend of mine to re- 
commend unto your lordship's favour the case of this 
petitioner, have thought fit to desire you, for my sake, 
to shew him all the favour you may in this his de- 
sire, as you shall find it in reason to deserve ; which 
I shall take as a courtesy from your lordship, and 
ever rest 

Your Lordship s faithful friend and servant, 


I thank your lordship for your favour to Sir John 
Wentworth, in the dispatch of his business. 

Newmarket, March 15, 1618. 


Most honourable Lord, 

It may please your lordship, there was with me this 
day one Mr. Richard White, who hath spent some 
little time at Florence, and is now gone into Eng- 
land. He tells me, that Galileo had answered your 
discourse concerning the flux and reflux of the sea, 
and was sending it unto me; but that Mr. White 
hindered him, because his answer was grounded upon 
a false supposition, namely, that there was in the 
ocean a full sea but once in twenty-four hours. But 
now I will call upon Galileo again. This Mr. White 
is a discreet and understanding gentleman, though he 
seem a little soft, if not slow ; and he hath in his 
hands all the works, as I take it, of Galileo, some 
printed, and some imprinted. He hath his discourse 
of the flux and reflux of the sea, which was never 
printed ; as also a discourse of the mixture of metals. 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. (b) Ibid. 

218 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

Those which are printed in his hand are these ; the 
Nuncius sidersus ; the Macchie solan, and a third Belle 
Cose, che stanno su Vaqua, by occasion of a disputation, 
that was amongst learned men in Florence about that, 
which Archimedes wrote, de insidentibus humido. 

I have conceived, that your lordship would not be 
sorry to see these discourses of that man ; and there- 
fore I have thought it belonging to my service to 
your lordship to give him a letter of this date, though 
it will not be there so soon as this. The gentleman 
hath no pretence or business before your lordship, 
but is willing to do your lordship all humble service ; 
and therefore, both for this reason, as also upon my 
humble request, I beseech your lordship to bestow a 
countenance of grace upon him. I am beholden to 
this gentleman; and, if your lordship shall vouchsafe 
to ask him of me, I shall receive honour by it. And 
I most humbly do your lordship reverence. 

Your Lordship's most obliged servant, 

Brussels, from my bed, the 14th of April, 1619. 


My honourable Lord, 

His majesty hath commanded me to signify unto 
your lordship, that it is his pleasure you put off the 
hearing of the cause between Sir Arthur Manwaring 
and Gabriel Dennis till toward the end of the term ; 
because his majesty is graciously pleased to be at the 
hearing thereof himself. And so I rest 

Your Lordship 's faithful friend and servant, 

Royston, April 13, 1619. G. BUCKINGHAM. 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 219 

To the Lord Chancellor, and Sir Lionel 
Tan fie lb, Lord Chief Baron of the Ex- 
chequer (a) 

My Lords, 

His majesty having been moved by the duke of Sa- 
voy's ambassador in the behalf of Philip Bernardi, 
whom he is to send about some special employment 
over the seas to the duke of Savoy, that before his go- 
ing, the business mentioned in this petition may be 
ended, hath commanded me to recommend the same 
unto your lordship's care, that with all expedition the 
cause may be heard and ended by your lordships, ac- 
cording to his majesty's reference ; or left to the de- 
termination of the court of chancery, where it is de- 
pending, and where the party assureth himself of a 
speedy end. And so I rest 

Your Lordship's very assured friend at command,, 

Royston, the 19th of April, 1619. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My very good Lord, 

I think fit to let your lordship understand what 
passed yesterday in the Star-Chamber touching Suf- 
folk s (c) business. 

There came to me the clerk of the court in the 
inner chamber, and told me, that my lord of Suffolk 
desired to be heard by his council at the* sitting of 
the court, because it was pen # * * him. 

I marvelled I heard not of it by Mr. Attorney, 
who should have let me know as much, that I might 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. (b) Ibid. 

(c) Thomas Howard, earl of Suffolk, who had been made lord 
treasurer in 1614. He was accused of several misdemeanors in 
that office, together with his lady, and Sir John Bingley, her lady- 
ship's agent ; and an information preferred against them all in the 

220 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon, 

not be taken on the sudden in a cause of that 

I called presently Mr. Attorney to me, and asked 
him, whether he knew of the motion, and what it 
was, and how he was provided to answer it. He 
signified to me, that my lord would desire to have the 
commission for examinations in Ireland to be re- 
turnable in Michaelmas term. I said, it might not be, 
and presently drew the council, then present, to me, 
and made Mr. Attorney repeat to them the passages 
past, and settled it, that the commission should be 
returnable the first day of the next term, and then 
republication granted, that it might, if accidents of 
wind and weather permit, come to hearing in the 
term. And upon motion in open court it was or- 
dered accordingly 

God ever preserve and prosper you. I pray God 
this great easterly wind agree well with his majesty 

Your Lordship's most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 

May 6, 1619. FR. VERULAM, Cane. 


Sent by Sir Gilbert Houghton. 


My very good Lord, 

I am much bounden to his majesty, and likewise to 
your lordship. I see, by the late accesses I have 
had with his majesty, and now by his royal and real 
favour, (a) that he loveth me, and acknowledged me 
for the servant I am, or desire to be. This in me 
must turn to a great alacrity to honour and serve him 
with a mind less troubled and divided. And for your 
lordship, my affection may and doth daily receive 
addition, but cannot, nor never could, receive altera- 
tion. I pray present my humble thanks to his ma- 
jesty ; and I am very glad his health confirmeth ; and 

(a) Probably the grant made to him about this time of 1200/. 
a year. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 221 

I hope to see him this summer at Gorhambury : 
there is sweet air as any is. God preserve and pros- 
per you both. I ever rest 

Your Lordship's most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 

May 9, 1619. FR. VERULAM, Cane. 



Je me tiens a grand honneur, qu'il plaise a vostre 
altesse de me cognoistre pour tel, que je suis, ou 
pour le moins voudrois 6stre, envers vous et vostre 
service : et m'estimeray heureux, si par mes conseils 
aupres du roy, ou autre devoir, je pourroy contribuer 
a vostre grandeur, dont il semble que Dieu vous a 
basti de belles occasions, ayant en contemplation 
vostre tres-illustre personne, non seulement comme 
tres cher allie de mon maistre, mais aussi, comme le 
meilleur appui, apres les roys de Grande Bretagne, 
de la plus saine partie de la Chrestienet6. 

Je ne puis aussi passer sous silence la grande 
raison, que vostre altesse fait a vostre propre hon- 
neur en choissisant tels conseilleurs et ministres d'es- 
tat, comme se monstre tres-bien estre monsieur le 
baron de Dhona et Monsieur de Plessen, estants per- 
sonages si graves, discretes et habiles ; en quoy vos- 
tre jugement reluict assez. 

Vostre altesse de vostre grace excusera la faulte 
de mon language Francois, ayant este tant vers6 es 
vielles loix de Normandie : mais le coeur supplera la 
plume, en priant Dieu de vous tenir en sa digne et 
saincte garde, 


De vostre altesse le plus humble 

et plus affectionne" serviteur. 
Indorsed, May 13, 1619. 

222 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My honourable Lord, 

His majesty was pleased, at the suit of some who 
have near relation unto me, to grant a licence for 
transportation of butter out of Wales unto one Lewis 
and Williams ; who, in consideration that the patent 
should be passed in their names, entered into articles 
for the performance of certain conditions agreed upon 
between them, which, now that the patent is under 
the great seal, they utterly refuse to perform. My 
desire therefore to your lordship is, that you would 
call the said Lewis and Williams before you, with 
the other parties, or some of them, who shall be 
ready at all times to attend your lordship ; and out 
of your consideration of the matter, according to 
equity to take such course therein, that either the 
said agreement may be performed, or that they 
which refuse it may receive no benefit of the patent ; 
which upon reason thereof was passed in their names. 
And herein I desire your lordship to make what ex- 
pedition you can ; because now is the season to make 
provision of the butter, that for this year is to be 
transported, whereof they take advantage to stand 
out. And so I rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 
Greenwich, May 14, 1619. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My very good Lord, 

Though it be nothing, and all is but duty; yet I 
pray shew his majesty the paper inclosed, that his 
majesty may see how careful his poor servant is, upon 
every emergent occasion, to do him what honour he 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 223 

can. The motion made in court by the king's Serjeant, 
Crew, (a) that the declaration might be made parcel 
of the record, and that I hear otherwise of the great 
satisfaction abroad, encourageth me to let his majesty 
know what passed. 

God ever preserve and prosper you both. 

Your Lordships obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 


Indorsed, June 29, 1619. 

My lord to my lord marquis, inclosing the form of a 
declaration used in point of acknowledgment in the 
lady Exeter's (b) cause. 


My very good Lord, 

I purposed to have seen you to-day, and receive 
your commandments before the progress. But I 
came not to London till it was late, and found you 
were gone before I came. Nevertheless, I would not 
fail to let your lordship understand, that as I find every 
day more and more occasions, whereby you bind me 
to you ; so this morning the king of himself did tell 
me some testimony, that your lordship gave of me to 
his majesty even now, when you went from him, of so 
great affection and commendation, for I must ascribe 
your commendation to affection, being above my me- 
rit, as I must do contrary to that that painters do ; for 
they desire to make the picture to the life, and I must 
endeavour to make the life to the picture, it hath 
pleased you to make so honourable a description of 
me. I can be but yours, and desire to better myself, 
that I may be of more worth to such an owner. 

(a) Sir Randolph Crew, made chief justice of the King's Bench, 
January 26, 1624. 

(b) Countess of Exeter, accused of incest and other crimes by the 
lady Lake, wife of secretary Lake, and their daughter the lady Roos. 

224 .Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

I hope to give the king a good account of my time 
this vacation. 

If your lordship pass back by London, I desire to 
wait on you, and discourse a little with you ; if not, 
my prayers shall go progress with you, and my letters 
attend you, as occasion serveth. 

God ever preserve and prosper you. 

Your Lordship's most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 

July 19, 1619. FR- verulam, Cane. 


My very good Lord, 

This day, according to the first appointment, I 
thought to have waited upon his majesty, and to have 
given him an account of my cares and preparations for 
his service, which is my progress. And therefore, 
since his coming to Windsor is prolonged, I thought 
to keep day by letter, praying your lordship to com- 
mend my most humble service to his majesty, and to 
let him know, that since I see his majesty doth me the 
honour, as to rely upon my care and service, I lose 
no time in that which may pertain thereunto. I see 
the straits, and I see the way out ; and what lieth in 
one man, whom he hath made great, and trained, 
shall not be wanting. And I hope, if God give me 
life for a year or two, to give his majesty cause to 
think of me seven years after I am dead. 

I am glad the time approacheth, when I shall have 
the happiness to kiss his majesty's hands, and to em- 
brace your lordship, ever resting 

Your Lordships most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 

York-house, August 28, 1619. FR. VERULAM, CanC. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 225 


My honourable Lord, 

His majesty, upon a petition delivered by Mr. Tho- 
mas Digby, wherein he complaineth of great wrongs 
done unto him, hath been pleased, for his more 
speedy relief and redress, if it prove as he alledgeth, 
to refer the consideration thereof unto your lordship. 
And because he is a gentleman, whom I have long 
known and loved, I could not but add my desire to 
your lordship, that if you find he hath been wronged, 
you would do him so much favour, as to give him 
such remedy, as the equity of his case may require, 
For which I will ever rest 

Your Lordship 's faithful friend and servant, 

Royston, Octob. 8, 1619. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My honourable Lord, 

I have acquainted his majesty with your letter, who 
hath given order to Mr. Secretary Calvert, to sig- 
nify his pleasure for the proceeding in that business, 
whereof you write, without any farther delay, as 
your lordship will more fully understand by Mr. Se- 
cretary, who for that purpose is to return to London 
against the day of hearing. 

I have no answer to make to your former letter ; 
and will add no more to this, but that his majesty 
hath a great confidence in your care of his service. 
And so I rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

Royston, Oct. 10, 1619. G . BUCKINGHAM. 

Shewing his majesty's acceptation of your lordship's 
care, in particular in the business against the earl 
of Suffolk. 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. (b) Ibid. 


226 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My very good Lord, 

After my last letter yesterday, we entered into 
conference, touching the Suffolk cause, myself, and 
the commissioners, and the two chief justices, (a) 
The fruit of this conference is, that we all conceive 
the proceedings against my lord himself to be not 
only just and honourable, but in some principal parts 
plausible in regard of the public ; as namely, those 
three points, which touch upon the ordnance, the 
army of Ireland, and the money of the cautionary 
towns ; and the two chief justices are firm in it. 

I did also, in this cause, by the assent of my lords, 
remove a pari ; for Mr. Attorney had laid it upon 
Serjeant Davies (b) to open the information, which 
is that which gives much life or coldness to the cause. 
But I will have none but trained men in this cause ; 
and I cannot forget, that the allotting of the opening 
of the information in this cause of the Dutch, I mean 
the main cause, to a mean fellow, one Hughes, did 
hurt, and was never well recovered. 

By my next I will write of the king's estate : and 
I ever rest 

Your Lordship's most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 

October 14, 1619. fr. verulam, Cane. 

(a) Sir Henry Montagu of the King's Bench, and Sir Henry 
Hobart, of the Common Pleas. 

(b) Sir John Davies, author of Nosce teipsum, knighted in Febru- 
ary, 1607-8, and made serjeant at law in 1612. He had been at- 
torney-general of Ireland. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 22? 


My very good Lord, 

This morning the duke (a) came to me, and told me 
the king's cause was yesterday left fair ; and if ever 
there were a time for my lord of Suffolk's submis- 
sion, it was now ; and that, if my lord of Suffolk 
should come into the court, and openly acknow- 
ledge his delinquency, he thought it was a thing 
considerable. My answer was, I would not meddle 
in it ; and, if I did, it must be to dissuade any such 
course ; for that all would be but a play upon the 
stage, if justice went not on in the right course. This 
I thought it my duty to let the king know by your 

I cannot express the care I have had of this cause 
in a number of circumstances and discretions, which, 
though they may seem but small matters, yet they 
do the business, and guide it right. 

God ever keep your lordship. 

Your Lordships most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 
October 21, 1619. FR . VERULAM, Cane. 


My very good Lord, 
I am doubly bounden to the king, for his majesty's 
trust and acceptation ; whereof the one I will never 
deceive; the other, though I cannot deserve, yet 
I will do my best, and perhaps as much as another 

This day the evidence went well ; for the solicitor 
(b) did his part substantially : and, a little to warm 

(a) Lodowick, duke of Lenox. He was created duke of Rich- 
mond, May 17, 1623; and died February 11, 162f . 

(b) Sir Thomas Coventry, afterward lord keeper of the great 

Q 2 

228 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

the business, when the misemployraent of treasure, 
which had relation to the army of Ireland, was han- 
dled, I spake a word, that he, that did draw or milk 
treasure from Ireland, did not emulgere, milk money, 
but blood. But this is but one of the little things, 
that I wrote of before. 

The king, under pardon, must come hither with 
two resolutions : the one, to remit all importunity, 
touching this cause, to the lords in court of justice; 
the other, to pursue the designs first taken at Wind- 
sor, and then at Hampton-Court, for his commission 
of treasury : wherein I do my part, and it is reason- 
ably well ; but better would it be, if instruments 
were not impediments. I ever rest 

Your Lordship's most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 

October 27, Wednesday. fb. VERULAM, Cane. 

Friday will not end the business; for to-morrow 
will but go through with the king's evidence. 


My honourable Lord, 

This bearer, a Frenchman belonging to the ambas- 
sador, having put an Englishman in suit for some 
matters between them, is much hindered and mo- 
lested by often removing of the cause from one court 
to another. Your lordship knows, that the French 
are not acquainted with our manner of proceedings in 
the law, and must therefore be ignorant of the remedy 
in such a case. His course was to his majesty; but I 
thought it more proper, that your lordship would be 
pleased to hear and understand this case from himself, 
and then to advise and take order for his relief, as your 

(«) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 229 

lordship in your wisdom shall think fit. So com- 
mending him to your honourable favour, I rest 

Your Lordship s faithful friend and servant, 

Royston, 27th of October, 1619. G. BUCKINGHAM. 

Your lordship shall do well to be informed of every 
particular, because his majesty will have account of 
it at his coming. 


Mi/ honourable Lord, 

I have acquainted his majesty with your letter, who 
commanded me to give your lordship thanks for 
your speed in advertising those things that pass, and 
for the great care he seeth you ever have of his ser- 

I send your lordship back the bill of sheriffs for 
Sussex, wherein his majesty hath pricked the first, as 
your lordship wished. 

His majesty would not have you omit this opportu- 
nity of so gross an oversight in the judges, to admonish 
them of their negligence in suffering such a thing to 
come to his majesty, which needed his amending af- 
terward : and withal, to let them know, that his ma- 
jesty observeth, that every year they grow more and 
more careless of presenting fit men unto him for that 
place ; and that you advise them to be more wary 
hereafter, that they may give his majesty better satis- 
faction. And so I rest 

Your Lordship s faithful friend and servant, 
Royston, November 14, 1619. G . BUCKINGHAM. 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

230 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My very good Lord, 

This day afternoon, upon our meeting in council, 
we have planed those rubs and knots, which were 
mentioned in my last, whereof I thought good pre- 
sently to advertise his majesty. The days hold with- 
out all question, and all delays diverted and quieted. 

Sir Edward Coke was at Friday's hearing, but in 
his night- cap ; and complained to me, he was ambu- 
lant, and not current. I would be sorry he should 
fail us in this cause. Therefore I desired his majesty 
to signify to him by your lordship, taking knowledge 
of some light indisposition of his, how much he 
should think his service disadvantaged in this cause, 
if he should be at any day away ; for then he cannot 

By my next I will give his majesty some account of 
the tobacco and the currants. I ever rest 

Your Lordship's most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 

November 20, at evening, 1619. FR. VEKULAM, CatlC. 


My very good Lord, 

I know well his majesty taketh to heart this business 
of the Dutch, (a) as he hath great reason, in respect 
both of honour and profit. And because my first 
letter was written in the epitasis, or trouble of the 
business ; and my second in the beginning of the ca- 
tastrophe, or calming thereof, wherein nevertheless I 
was fain to bear up strongly into the weather before 
the calm followed ; and since every day hath been 

(a) Merchants, accused in the Star Chamber for exporting the 
gold and silver coin. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 231 

better and better, I thought good to signify so much, 
that his majesty may be less in suspense. 

The great labour was to get entrance into the bu- 
siness; but now the portcullis is drawn up. And 
though, I must say, there were some blots in the 
tables, yet, by well playing, the game is good. 

Rowland is passing well justified; for both his 
credit is, by very constant and weighty testimony, 
proved; and those vast quantities, which were 
thought incredible, or at least improbable, are now 
made manifest truth. 

Yet I find a little of the old leaven towards the first 
defendants, carried in this stile and character : " I 
" would this, that appears now, had appeared at first. 
" But this cometh of haste and precipitation;" and 
the like. But yet, I hope, the corruption and practice 
upon the ore tenus, and the rectifying of Rowland's 
credit, will satisfy my lords upon the former proofs. 
For I would be very sorry, that these new defendants, 
which, except one or two, are the smaller flies, should 
be in the net ; and the old defendants, which are the 
greater flies, should get through. God preserve you. 

Your Lordship's most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 

This November 26, 1619. FB. VERULAM, Cane. 

Touching the Dutch business. 


My honourable Lord, 

I do, from time to time, acquaint his majesty with 
your letters, wherein he ever perceiveth your vigilant 
care in any thing that concerneth his service ; and 
hath commanded me to give you thanks in his name, 
who is sure your endeavours will never be wanting, 

(«) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

232 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

when any thing- is to be done for the advancement of 
his affairs. 

According to your lordship's advice, his majesty 
hath written to the commissioners of the treasury, 
both touching the currants and the tobacco, (a) the 
plantation whereof his majesty is fully resolved to re- 
strain ; and hath given them order forthwith to set 
out a proclamation to that effect ; not intending in 
that point to stand upon any doubt of law, nor to 
expect the judges' interpretation ; nor to allow any 
freehold in that case ; but holding this the safest rule, 
Salus reipublicce suprema lex esto. And so 1 rest 

Your Lordship s faithful friend and servant, 

Newmarket, Nov. 27, 1619. G. BUCKINGHAM 


My honourable Lord, 

I have presented both the submissions to his ma- 
jesty. His answer is, he cannot alter that, which 
was allowed of by the lords of the last Star-Cham- 
ber day, except first they be acquainted with it, and 
the consent of the lady Exeter be likewise had ; be- 
cause the decree doth necessarily require it. So I 

Your Lordship's humble servant, 

Touching the submissions of Sir Thomas Lake and 

his lady 

(a) Lord Bacon, in his letter of November 22, 1619, mentions, 
that there was offered 2000/.- increase yearly for the tobacco, to be- 
gin at Michaelmas, as it now is, and 3000/. increase, if the planta- 
tions here within land be restrained. 

(b) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 233 


My very good Lord, 
I acquainted this day the bearer with his majesty's 
pleasure touching Lake's (a) submission ; which, whe- 
ther it should be done in person, or in writing, his 
majesty signified his will thus, that it should be spared 
in open court, if my lady of Exeter should consent, 
and the board think fit. The board liked it well, and 
appointed my lord Digby and secretary Calvert to 
speak with my lady ; who returned her answer in 
substance, that she would, in this and all things, be 
commanded by his majesty : but if his majesty left 
it to her liberty and election, she humbly prayed to 
be excused. And though it was told her, that this 
answer would be cause, that it could not be per- 
formed this term ; yet she seemed willing rather it 
should be delayed, than dispensed with. 

This day also Traske, (b) in open court, made a 
retractation of his wicked opinions in writing. The 
form was as good as may be. I declared to him, 

(a) Sir Thomas Lake's. 

(6) John Traske, a minister, who was prosecuted in the Star- 
Chamber for maintaining, as we find mentioned in the Reports of the 
lord chief justice Hobart, p. 236, that the Jewish Sabbath ought to 
be observed, and not ours ; and that we ought to abstain from all 
manner of swine's flesh, and those meats which the Jews were for- 
bidden in Leviticus, according to bishop Andrews, in his speech, in 
the Star-Chamber, on that occasion, printed among his lordship's 
works. Mr. Traske being examined in that court, confessed, that 
he had divulged those opinions, and had laboured to bring as many 
to them as he could ; and had also written a letter to the king, 
wherein he seemed to tax his majesty with hypocrisy, and expressly 
inveighed against the bishops, high commissioners, as bloody and 
cruel in their proceedings against him, and a papal clergy. He was 
sentenced to fine and imprisonment, not for holding those opinions, 
for those were examinable in the Ecclesiastical court, and not there; 
but for making of conventicles and commotions, and for scanda- 
lizing the king, the bishops, and clergy. Dr. Fuller, in his Church 
History of Britain, Book X. p. 77, § 64, mentions his having heard 
Mr. Traske preach, and remarks, that his voice hadmore strength than 
any thing else he delivered ; and that after his recantation he relapsed, 
not into the same, but other opinions, rather humorous than hurtful; 
and died obscurely, at Lambeth, in the reign of king Charles I. 

234 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon, 

that this court was the judgment-seat ; the mercy- 
seat was his majesty : but the court would commend 
him to his majesty- And I humbly pray his majesty 
to signify his pleasure speedily, because of the misery 
of the man ; and it is a rare thing for a sectary, that 
hath once suffered smart and shame, to turn so un- 
feignedly, as he seemed to do. 
God ever bless and keep you. 

Your most obliged friend and faithful servant, 

December 1, 1619. FK. VERULAM, Cane. 


My very good Lord, 

On Friday I left London, to hide myself at Kew ; 
for two months and a half together to be strong-bent 
is too much for my bow And yet, that the king 
may perceive, that in my times of leisure I am not 
idle, I took down with me Sir Giles Mompesson, (a) 
and with him I have quietly conferred of that pro- 
position which was given me in charge by his ma- 
jesty, and after seconded by your lordship. Wherein 
I find some things I like very well, and some other 
that I would set by. And one thing is much to my 
liking, that the proposition for bringing in his ma- 
jesty's revenue with small charge, is no invention; but 
was on foot heretofore in king Philip's and queen 
Mary's time, and had a grave and mighty opinion 
for it. The rest I leave to his relation, and mine 
own attendance. 

I hope his majesty will look to it, that the fines 
now to come in may do him most good. Both causes 
produce fines of one hundred and fourscore thousand 

(a) Who in the parliament, which began January 30, 1620-1, 
was sentenced to be degraded and rendered incapable -of bearing 
any office, for practising several abuses, in setting up new inns and 
ale-houses, and exacting great sums of money of the people, by 
pretence of letters patent granted him for that purpose. But he fled 
into foreign parts, finding himself abandoned by the marquis of 
Buckingham, on whom he had depended for protection. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 235 

pounds, whereof one hundred thousand may clear 
the anticipations, and then the assignations may pass 
under the great seal, to be inrollable; so as Ave shall 
need to think of nothing but the arrears in a manner, 
of which I wish the 20,000/. to the strangers, with 
the interest, be presently satisfied. The remain may 
serve for the king's present and urgent occasions. 
And if the king intend any gifts, let them stay for 
the second course, for all is not yet done; but nothing 
out of these, except the king should give me the 
20,000/. I owe Peter Vanlore out of his fine, which 
is the chief debt I owe. But this I speak merrily. 
I ever rest. 

Your Lordships most obliged friend, 

and faithful servant, 
Kew, Decemb. 12, 1619. J<R . vERULAM, Cane. 

After I had written this letter, I received from your 
lordship, by my servant, his majesty's acceptation 
of my poor services ; for which I pray your lordship 
to present to his majesty my most humble thanks. I 
have now other things in my mind for his majesty's 
service, that no time be lost. 


My honourable Lord, 

His majesty hath been pleased, out of his gracious 
care of Sir Robert Killigrew, to refer a suit of his, 
for certain concealed lands, to your lordship and the 
rest of the commissioners for the treasury ; the like 
whereof hath been heretofore granted to many others. 
My desire to your lordship is, that he being a gen- 
tleman, whom I love and wish very well unto, your 
lordship would shew him, for my sake, all the favour 
you can, in furthering his suit. Wherein your lord- 
ship shall do me a courtesy, for which I will ever rest 

Your Lordship 's faithful friend and servant, 
Roy ston, December 25, 1619. <,. BUCKINGHAM. 

(«; Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

236 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My honourable Lord, 

I have acquainted his majesty with your letter, who 
for that business, whereof Mr. Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer brought the message to his majesty at Theo- 
balds, returned the answer by him. 

As for that, whereof Sir Giles Mompesson spake 
to your lordship, his majesty liketh very well, and so 
do all others, with whom his majesty hath spoken of 
it ; and therefore he recommendeth it to your care, 
not doubting but your lordship will give all your fur- 
therance to it, being your own work, and so much 
concerning his majesty's honour and profit ; and will 
speak farther with your lordship of it at his return 
to London. 

For those other businesses of the Star-Chamber, 
which his majesty hath recommended to your lord- 
ship, he hopeth you will keep the clock still going, 
his profit being so much interested therein; especially 
seeing Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer {b) hath pro- 
mised his majesty, that he will be no more sick : 
whereby you shall have this comfort, that the bur- 
then will not lie upon your lordship alone. 

The little leisure I had at Theobalds made me bring 
your man down hither for this answer, which I hope 
your lordship will excuse ; and ever hold me for 

Your Lordships faithful friend and servant, 

Royston, Jan, 19. G> BUCKINGHAM. 

Indorsed, 1619. 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

(b) Sir Fulke Greville, who surrendered that office in September, 
1621, being succeeded in it by Sir Richard Weston. He had been 
created lord Broke of Beauchamp's Court, Jan. 9, 1620- 1 . 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 237 


My very good Lord, 

In the midst of business, as in the midst of a way, 
one should not stay long, especially when I crave no 
direction, but only advertise. 

This day we met about the commission, the com- 
monwealth's commission, for the poor and vagabonds, 
&c. We have put it into an exceeding good way, 
and have appointed meetings once in fourteen days, 
because it shall not be a-slack. I was glad to hear 
from the two chief justices, that whatsoever appears 
in the country to come from primum mobile, that is, 
the king's care, works better than if it came from the 
law Therefore we have ordered, that this commis- 
sion shall be published in the several circuits in the 
charges of the judges. For the rest hereafter. 

For the proposition of Sir Giles Mompesson, we 
have met once. Exchequer-men will be exchequer- 
men still : but we shall do good. 

For the account, or rather imparting, of the com- 
missioners of treasury to the council, I think it will 
but end in a compliment. But the real care, and I 
hope good purpose, I will not give over, the better 
because I am not alone. 

For the Star-Chamber business, I shall, as you 
write, keep the clock on going, which is hard to do, 
when sometimes the wheels are too many, and some- 
times too few But we shall do well, especially if 
those, whom the king hath hitherto made bond-men 
(I mean, which have given bonds for their fines), he 
do not hereafter make free-men. 

For Suffolk's business, it is a little strange that the 
attorney made it a question to the commissioners of 
treasury, whether Suffolk should not be admitted to 
the lease of the extent of his own land, which is 
the way to encourage him not to pay his fine. But 
when it was told him, that the contrary course was 
held with the earl of Northumberland, and that 

238 Letters etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

thereby he was brought to agree for his fine ; then he 
turned, as his manner is. 

For the errors, we have yet so much use of the 
service of Sir Henry Britten in bringing in the fines, 
indeed more than of the attorney, as we cannot, 
without prejudice to his majesty's service, enter yet 
into them ; and besides, Sir Edward Coke comes not 

Mr. Kirkham hath communicated with me, as 
matter of profit to his majesty, upon the coals referred 
by his majesty to us of the treasury, wherein I hope 
we shall do good, the rather, because I am not 

The proclamation for light gold, Mr. Secretary 
Calvert, I know, hath sent to his majesty ; and there- 
fore of that I say no more. 

For the raising of silver by ordinance, and not by 
proclamation, and that for the time to come, we have 
given order to finish it. I hear a whispering, that 
thereupon the commissioners of the navy, the officers 
of the household, the wardrobe, may take occasion to 
break the book and the undertakings, because the 
prices may rise, which I thought good to signify to 
his majesty. And to speak plainly, I fear more the 
pretence, than the natural effect. God evermore pre- 
serve your lordship. I rest 

Your Lordship's most obliged friend, 

and faithful servant, 

Jan. 20, 1619. FR. VERULAM, CanC. 


My honourable Lord, 

I have acquainted his majesty with your letter, who 
is very well pleased therewith, finding in you a con- 
tinual care of his service. In that point of the Star- 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 239 

Chamber business, his majesty saith, there is a mis- 
taking; for he meant not the Dutchmen's business, 
but that motion, which your lordship made unto him, 
of sitting in the S tar-Chamber about the commissions, 
which he had not leisure to read till he came down 
to Royston, and hath reason to give you thanks for 
it, desiring you to prepare it, and study the point, of 
which he will speak more with you at his return to 
London, being a matter worthy your thinking on, 
and his majesty's practice. 

For the last point of your letter, his majesty saith, 
it cannot but proceed of malice, that there should be 
any such plot, which he will not endure, but he will 
account those, that whisper of it in that sort, ene- 
mies of his service ; and will put them out of their 
places that practise it. And so 1 rest 

Your Lordship s faithful friend and servant, 

Newmarket, Jan. 22, 1619. &■ BUCKINGHAM. 


Mr. Secretary, 

I have received your letter of the 3d of this pre- 
sent, signifying his majesty's pleasure touching Pea- 
cock's (b) examinations, of which I will have special 

My lord Coke is come to town, and hath sent 
me word, he will be with me on Monday, though he 
be somewhat lame. Howsoever, the service shall be 

I was made acquainted, by your letter to secretary 
Naunton, with his majesty's dislike of the sending to 
him of the jolly letter from Zealand. I will now 
speak for myself, that, when it was received, I turned 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

(b) He was a minister of the University of Cambridge. He was 
committed to the Tower, for pretending that he had, by sorcery, in- 
fatuated the king's judgment in the cause of Sir Thomas Lake. 
Camd. Annal. Regis Jacobi I. p. 54. 

240 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

to the master of the Wards (a) and said, "Well, I 
" think you and I shall ever advise the king to do 
" more for a Burlamachi, when he seeketh to his ma- 
" jesty by supplication and supplying the king at the 
" first word, than for all the rest upon any bravados 
" from the Burgomasters of Holland and Zealand ;" 
who answered very honestly, that it was in the 
king's power to make them alter their style when he 
would. But when another of us said, we could not 
but in our own discharge send the king the letter, 
scilicit negandum non fuit ; though indeed my way is 

I have at last recovered from these companions, 
Harrison and Dale, a copy of my lord of Bangor's 
(b) book, the great one, and will presently set in hand 
the examinations. God keep you. 

Your assured friend, 

Feb. 5, 1619. FR. verulam, Cane. 


May it please your Majesty, 

Sir Edward Coke is now a-foot, and, according 
to your command, signified by Mr. Secretary Cal- 
vert, we proceed in Peacock's examinations. For 
although there have been very good diligence used, 
yet certainly we are not at the bottom; and he 
that would not use the utmost of his line to sound 
such a business as this, should not have due regard, 
neither to your majesty's honour nor safety 

(a) Sir Lionel Cranfield. 

(b) Dr. Lewis Bayly, born at Caermarthen, in Wales, and edu- 
cated in Exeter College, Oxford. He had been minister of Evesham, 
in Worcestershire, and chaplain to prince Henry, and rector of 
St. Matthew's, Friday Street, in London. He was promoted to the 
bishoprick of Bangor in 1616. On the 15th of July, 1621, he was 
committed to the Fleet, but on what account is not related by 
Camden, Annates Regis Jacobi I. p. 72, who mentions the circum- 
stance of the bishop's imprisonment; but that he was soon after set 
at liberty. He was the author of the well-known book, the Practice 
of Piety. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 241 

A man would think he were in Luke Hutton's 
case again ; for as my lady Roos personated Luke 
Hutton, so, it seemeth, Peacock personateth Atkins. 
But I make no judgment yet, but will go on with all 
diligence : and, if it may not be done otherwise, it is 
fit Peacock be put to torture. He deserveth it as 
well as Peacham did. 

I beseech your majesty not to think I am more bit- 
ter, because my name is in it : for, besides that I 
always make my particular a cypher, when there is 
question of your majesty's honour and service ; I think 
myself honoured for being brought into so good com- 
pany And as, without flattery, I think your majesty 
the best of kings, and my noble lord of Buckingham 
the best of persons favoured ; so I hope, without pre- 
sumption, for my honest and true intentions to state 
and justice, and my love to my master, I am not the 
worst of chancellors. 

God ever preserve your majesty 

Your Majesty's most obliged 
and most obedient servant, 

Feb. 10, 1619. FR . VERULAM, CanC, 


Most honoured Lord, 

I presume, now after term, if there be any such 
thing as an after term with your lordship, to offer 
this inclosed paper (a) to your sight, concerning 
the duke of Lerma ; which, if your lordship have 
not already read, will not, I think, be altogether 
unpleasing, because it is full of particular circum- 
stances. I know not how commonly it passeth up 
and down more or less. My friend, Mr. Gage, sent 
it me lately out of Spain. But howsoever I build upon 

(a) I have, out of a ragged hand in Spanish, translated it, and 
accompanied it with some marginal notes, for your lordship's greater 
ease. Note of Mr. Matthew. 


242 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

a sure ground ; for though it should be vulgar, yet for 
my desire to serve your lordship, I cannot demerit so 
much, as not to deserve a pardon at your lordship's 

most noble hand. 

Before the departure of the duke of Lerma from that 
court, there was written upon the gate for a pas- 
quinade, that the house was governed por el Padre,y el 
Hijo, y un Santo ; as in Paris about the same time was 
written upon the Louvre-Gate, C'est icy V hostel des 
troys Roys ; for Luynes's brother is almost as great as 
himself. But the while there is good store of kings 
now in Chistendom, though there be one fewer than 
there was. 

In Spain there are very extraordinary prepara- 
tions for a great armada. Here is lately in this 
court a current speech, as that the enterprise, 
whatsoever it .should have been, is laid wholly aside : 
but that were strange. Yet this is certain, that the 
forces of men, to the number of almost two thousand, 
which were to have gone into Spain from hence, are 
discharged, together with some munition, which was 
also upon the point of being sent. Another thing is 
also certain, that both in the court of Spain and this, 
there is at this time a strange straitness of money ; 
which I do not conceive, for my part, to proceed so 
much from want, as design to employ it. The ren- 
dezvous, where the forces were to meet, was at Ma- 
laga within the Straits ; which makes the enterprise 
upon Algiers most likely to be intended. For I take 
that to be a wild conceit, which thinks of going by 
the Adriatic per far in un viaggio duoi servitii ; as 
the giving a blow to Venice, and the landing of 
forces in aid of the king of Bohemia about Trieste. 

Perhaps the king of Spain would be glad to let the 
world see, that now he is hors de paye ; and by shew- 
ing himself in some action, to intitle the duke of Ler- 
ma to all his former sloth ; or perhaps he now makes 
a great preparation, upon the pretence of some enter- 
prise, that he will let fall, that so he may with the 
less noise assemble great forces some other year, for 
some other attempt not spoken of now. 

Letter's, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 243 

My lord Compton (a) is in this court, and goes 
shortly towards Italy. His fashion is sweet, and his 
disposition noble, and his conversation fair and ho- 

Diego, my lord Roos's man, is come hither. I 
pray God it be to do me any good towards the re- 
covery of the debt his lord owes me. 

Most honoured lord, I am here at good leisure to 
look back upon your lordship's great and noble good- 
ness towards me, which may go for a great example 
in this age ; and so it doth. That which I am sure 
of is, that my poor heart, such as it is, doth not only 
beat, but even boil in the desires it hath to do your 
lordship all humble service. 

I crave leave, though it be against good manners, 
that I may ever present my humblest service to my 
most honoured lady, my lady Verulam, and lady 
Constable, with my best respects to my dear friend, 
Sir John Constable ; who, if your lordship want the 
leisure, would perhaps cast an eye upon the inclosed 

I do, with more confidence, presume to address 
this other letter to Mr. Meautys, because the con- 
tents thereof concern your lordship's service. 

I beseech sweet Jesus to make and keep your lord- 
ship intirely happy. So I humbly do you reverence, 
remaining ever 

Your Lordship's most obliged servant, 


Post I should be glad to receive some of your 
lordship's philosophical labours, if your lordship 
could so think fit. I do now receive a letter from the 
Conde de Gondomar, who, thinking that it should 
find me in England, saith thus : Beso las manos mil vezes 
a mi sennor, el sennor Gran Chancilor, con my coracon ; 

(a) Spencer, lord Compton, only son of William, earl of Nor- 
thampton. This nobleman, who succeeded his father in his title and 
estate, in June 1630, was killed at Hopton-Heath, near Stafford, on 
Sunday, March 19, 1642-3, fighting for King Charles I. 


244 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

como estoy en su buena gracia. The empress is dead 
long since, and the emperor is so sickly, or rather so 
sick, that they forbear to bury her with solemnity, as 
conceiving, that he will save charge by dying shortly 
They say here, that the business of Bohemia is grow- 
ing towards an end by composition. 

Brussels, this 14th of Feb. 1619. 


My very good Lord, 

For the services committed to Sir Lionel Cranfield, 
after his majesty hath spoken with him, I shall at- 
tend and follow his majesty's pleasure and directions, 
and yield my best care, advice, and endeavour for 

In the pretermitted duty I have some profit, and 
more was to have had if queen Anne had lived. 
Wherefore I shall become an humble suitor to his 
majesty, that I may become no loser, specially seeing 
the business had been many a time and oft quite 
overthrown, if it had not been upheld only, or chiefly, 
by myself; so that whatsoever service hath been 
since done, is upon my foundation. 

Mr. Attorney (a) groweth pretty pert with me of 
late ; and I see well who they are that maintain him. 
But be they flies, or be they wasps, I neither care for 
buzzies nor stings, most especially in any thing, that 
concerneth my duty to his majesty, or my love to 
your lordship. 

I forgot not, in my public charge, the last Star- 
Chamber day, to publish his majesty's honour for his 
late commission for the relief of the poor, and sup- 
pressing vagabonds; as also his gracious intention 
touching informers, which, I perceive, was received 
with much applause. That of projectors I spake not 
of, because it is not yet ripe, neither doth it concern 

(a) Sir Henry Yelverton. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 245 

the execution of any law, for which my speech was 
proper. God ever preserve and prosper you. 

Your Lordship's most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 

February 17, 1619. FR. VERULAM, Cam. 


My very good Lord, 

I send, by post, this sealed packet, containing my 
lord of Suffolk's answer in the Star-Chamber. I re- 
ceived it this evening at six of the clock, by the 
hands of the master of the Rolls, (a) sealed as it is 
with my lord of Suffolk's seal, and the master's of the 
Rolls. But neither I, nor the master of the Rolls, 
know what is in it ; but it cometh first to his ma- 
jesty's sight. Only I did direct, that because the 
authentic copy, unto which my lord is sworn, ac- 
cording to the course of the court, is not so fit for 
his majesty's reading, my lord of Suffolk should send 
withal a paper copy, which his majesty might read 
with less trouble. 

My lady Suffolk is so ill of the small-pox, as she 
is not yet fit to make any answer. 

Bingley's (7>) answer is come in, a long one ; and, 
as I perceive, with some things impertinent, yea, and 
unfit. Of that I confer with Mr. Solicitor (c) to mor- 
row ; and then I will farther advertise your lordship. 

God ever preserve and prosper you. 

Your Lordship's most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 

York-house, this 23d of Feb. 1619, FR. VERULAM, CanC. 

at nine of the clock [1619-20.] 

(a) Sir Julius Caesar. (b) Sir John Bingley's. 

(c) Sir Thomas Coventry. 

246 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


Most honoured Lord, 

I do even now receive this letter from the Conde de 
Gondomar, with direction I should send it, since I 
am not there to deliver it, to Mr. Wyche, that so he 
may present it to your lordship's hand at such time, 
as it may be of most use to hirn. He commands me 
besides, that for his sake I should become a humble 
solicitor to your lordship for this friend of his ; which 
I presume to do the more willingly, because this party 
is a great friend of mine, and so are also many of his 
friends my friends. Besides he wills me to represent 
his great thanks to your lordship, for the just favours 
you have been pleased to vouchsafe to Mr. Wyche 
already, the rather in contemplation of the Conde, 
as he hath been informed. And if in the company, 
or rather in the attendance of so great an intercessor, 
it be not an unpardonable kind of ill manners to in- 
trude myself, I presume to cast myself at your lord- 
ship's feet, with protestation, that I shall be very 
particularly bound to your lordship's goodness for 
any favour, with justice, that he shall obtain. 

I beseech Jesus keep your lordship ever intirely 
happy ; and so doing all humble reverence, I take 

Your Lordship's most humble 

and most obliged servant, 
this 26th of Feb. 1619. tobie matthew. 


My honourable Lord, 

Understanding, that there hath been #, long and 
tedious suit depending in the chancery between 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 247 

Robert D'Oyley and his wife, plaintiffs, and Leonard 
Lovace, defendant ; which cause hath been hereto- 
fore ended by award, but is now revived again, and 
was, in Michaelmas term last, fully heard before your 
lordship ; at which hearing your lordship did not 
give your opinion thereof, but were pleased to defer 
it, until breviats were delivered on both sides ; which, 
as I am informed, hath been done accordingly : now 
my desire unto your lordship is, that you will be 
pleased to take some time, as speedily as your lord- 
ship may, to give your opinion thereof, and so make 
a final end, as your lordship shall find the same in 
equity to deserve. For which I will ever rest 

Your Lordship s faithful friend and servant, 

Windsor, May 18, 1620. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My very good Lord, 

I went to Kew for pleasure, but I met with pain. 
But neither pleasure nor pain can withdraw my mind 
from thinking of his majesty's service. And because 
his majesty shall see how I was occupied at Kew, I 
send him these papers of rules for the Star-Chamber, 
wherein his majesty shall erect one of the noblest and 
durablest pillars for the justice of this kingdom in 
perpetuity, that can be, after, by his own wisdom and 
the advice of his lords, he shall have revised them, and 
established them. The manner and circumstances I 
refer to my attending his majesty The rules are not 
all set down ; but I will do the rest within two or three 
days. I ever remain 

Your Lordship's most obliged friend 
and faithful servant, 
June 9, 1620. FR. VERULAM, Cam. 

248 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My very good Lord, 
Such is my haste at this time, that I cannot write 
so largely to yourself, as I would, in the business of 
the steel, in which once already I sent to your lord- 
ship, and in which I only desire the good of the com- 
monwealth, and the service of my master. I there- 
fore have sent this bearer, my servant, unto you, and 
committed the relation of the business to him. And 
I do intreat your lordship to give credit to what he 
shall deliver your lordship therein, with your lawful 
assistance of my desires ; wherein I doubt not but you 
shall do a very good office. And I shall rest ready to 
requite your courtesy ; and, with my best wishes 

Your very loving friend, 

Egham, July 6, 1620. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My Lord Marquis in the behalf of his servant, Mr. 
Porter, and Mr. Dallington. 


My honourable Lord, 

His majesty having made a reference of business to 
your lordship, concerning Sir Robert Douglas and 
Mr. David Ramsey, two of his highness's servants, 
whom he loveth, and whom I wish very well unto ; 
I have thought fit to desire you to shew them all the 
favour your lordship may therein : which I will ac- 
knowledge, and ever rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

Farnham, G. BUCKINGHAM, 

the last of August, 1620. 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7000. (b) Ibid. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 249 

The reference comes in the name of my brother 
Christopher, because they thought it would succeed 
the better : but the prince wisheth well to it. 


Touching the business of wills. 


Amongst the counsels, which, since the time I had 
the honour to be first of your learned, and after of 
your privy council, I have given your majesty faith- 
fully, according to my small ability ; I do take com- 
fort in none more, than that I was the first, that 
advised you to come in person into the Star-Cham- 
ber; knowing very well, that those virtues of your 
majesty, which I saw near hand, would out of that 
throne, both as out of a sphere, illustrate your own 
honour, and, as out of a fountain, water and refresh 
your whole land. And because your majesty, in that 
you have already done, hath so well effected that, 
which I foresaw and desired, even beyond my expec- 
tation ; it is no marvel, if I resort still to the branches 
of that counsel, that hath borne so good fruit. 

The Star-Chamber, in the institution thereof, hath 
two uses ; the one as a supreme court of judicature ; 
the other as an open council. In the first kind, your 
majesty hath sat there now twice : the first time, in a 
cause of force, concerning the duels : the second time, 
in a cause of fraud, concerning the forgeries and 
conspiracies against the lady of Exeter ; which two 
natures of crimes, force and fraud, are the proper ob- 
jects of that court. 

In the second kind, your majesty came the first 
time of all, when you did set in frame and fabric the 

(a) This letter appears to have been written after the proceed- 
ings against Sir Thomas Lake, and his lady and daughter, in the 
Star-Chamber, in January 1619-20, and before the resolution of 
calling the parliament, which met January 30, 1620-1. 

250 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

several jurisdictions of your courts. There wants a 
Fourth part of the square to make all complete, which 
is, if your majesty will be pleased to publish certain 
commonwealth commissions ; which, as your majesty 
hath well begun to do in some things, and to speak 
of in some others; so, if your majesty will be pleased 
to make a solemn declaration of them in that place, 
this will follow : 

First, that your majesty shall do yourself an infinite 
honour, and win the hearts of your people to acknow- 
ledge you, as well the most politic king, as the most 

J ust 

Secondly, it will oblige your commissioners to a 

more strict account, when they shall be engaged by 
such a public charge and commandment. And, 
thirdly, it will invite and direct any man, that finds 
himself to know any thing concerning those commis- 
sions, to bring in their informations. So as I am 
persuaded it will eternise your name and merit, and 
that king James's commissions will be spoken of, and 
put in ure, as long as Britain lasts ; at the least, in 
the reign of all good kings. 

For the particulars, besides the two commissions of 
the navy, and the buildings about London, wherein 
your majesty may consider, whether you will have 
any thing altered or supplied, I wish these following 
to be added. 

Commission for advancing the clothing of England, 
as well the old drapery as the new, and all the inci- 
dents thereunto. 

Commission for staying treasure within the realm, 
and the reiglement of monies. 

Commission for the provision of the realm with 
corn and grain, and the government of the exporta- 
tion and importation thereof ; and directing of public 
granaries, if cause be. 

Commission for introducing and nourishing manu- 
factures within the realm, for the setting people 
a-work, and the considering of all grants and privi- 
leges of that nature. 

Commission to prevent the depopulation of town& 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 251 

and houses of husbandry, and for nuisances and high- 

Commission for the recovery of drowned lands. 

Commission for the suppression of the grievances 
of informers. 

Commission for the better proceedings in the plan- 
tations of Ireland. 

Commission for the provision of the realm with all 
kind of warlike defence, ordnance, powder, muni- 
tion, and armour. 

Of these you may take and leave, as it shall please 
you : and I wish the articles concerning every one 
of them, first allowed by your council, to be read 
openly, and the commissioners' names. 

For the good, that comes of particular and select 
committees and commissions, I need not common 
place, for your majesty hath found the good of them ; 
but nothing to that, that will be, when such things 
are published ; because it will vindicate them from 
neglect, and make many good spirits, that we little 
think of, co-operate in them. 

I know very well, that the world, that commonly 
is apt to think, that the care of the commonwealth 
is but a pretext in matters of state, will perhaps con- 
ceive, that this is but a preparative to a parliament. 
But let not that hinder your majesty's magnanimity, 
in opere operato, that is so good ; and besides that 
opinion, for many respects, will do no hurt to your 


My very good Lord, 

By his majesty's directions. Sir Francis Blundell will 
deliver you a petition of Sir Francis Annesly, his ma- 
jesty's secretary of Ireland, with his majesty's plea- 
sure thereupon. To the gentleman I wish very well, 

(«) Harl. MSS. toI. 7006. 

252 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

and do therefore recommend him and his cause to 
your lordship's good favour ; and your respect of him, 
in his absence, I will thankfully acknowledge. So I 
take my leave. 

Your Lordships very loving friend, 

Theobalds, the 2d of Oct. 1620. 


It may please your most excellent Majesty, 

It being a thing to speak or write, specially to a king, 
in public, another in private, although I have dedi- 
cated a work, (a) or rather a portion of a work, which, 
at last, I have overcome, to your majesty by a public 
epistle, where I speak to you in the hearing of others ; 
yet I thought fit also humbly to seek access for the 
same, not so much to your person as to your judg- 
ment, by these private lines. 

The work, in what colours soever it may be set 

(a) Novum Organum. In the library of the late Thomas, earl of 
Leicester, the descendant of Sir Edward Coke, at Holkham, in Nor- 
folk, is a copy of this work, intitled Instauratio Magna, printed by 
John Bill, in 1620, presented to Sir Edward, who at the top of the 
title page has written, Edw. C. ex dono auctoris. 
Auctori Consilium. 
Instaurare paras veterum documenta sophorum : 
Instaura Leges Justitiamq; prius. 
And over the device of the ship passing between Hercules's pillars, 
Sir Edward has written the two following verses : 
" It deserveth not to be read in Schooles, 
" But to be freighted in the Ship of Fools." 
Alluding to a famous book of Sebastian Brand, born at Strasburgh, 
about 1460, written in Latin and High Dutch verse, and translated 
into English in 1 508, by Alexander Barklay, and printed at London 
the year following, by Richard Pynson, printer to Henry VII. and 
Henry VIII. in folio, with the following title : " The Shyp of Folys 
" of the World : Translated in the Coll. of Saynt Mary Otery, in 
" the counteof Devonshyre, oute of Latin, Frenche, and Doche, into 
" Englesshe tongue, by Alex. Barklay, preste and chaplen in the 
" sayd College, M,CCCCC, VIII." It was dedicated by the trans- 
lator to Thomas Cornish, bishop of Tine, and suffragan bishop of 
Wells, and adorned with great variety of wooden cuts. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 253 

forth, is no more but a new logic, teaching to invent 
and judge by induction, as finding syllogism incompe- 
tent for sciences of nature ; and thereby to make phi- 
losophy and sciences both more true and more active. 

This tending to enlarge the bounds of reason, and 
to endow man's estate with new value, was no im- 
proper oblation to your majesty, who, of men, is the 
greatest master of reason, and author of beneficence. 

There be two of your council, and one other bishop 
(a) of this land, that know I have been about some 
such work near thirty years : (b) so as I made no 
haste. And the reason why I have published it now, 
specially being unperfect, is, to speak plainly, be- 
cause I number my days, and would have it saved. 
There is another reason of my so doing, which is to 
try whether I can get help in one intended part of 
this work, namely, the compiling of a natural and 
experimental history, which must be the main foun- 
dation of a true and active philosophy- 

This work is but a new body of clay, whereinto 
your majesty, by your countenance and protection, 
may breathe life. And, to tell your majesty truly what 
I think, I account your favour may be to this work 
as much as an hundred years time : for I am persuaded 
the work will gain upon men's minds in ages, but 
your gracing it may make it take hold more swiftly ; 
which I would be very glad of, it being a work 
meant not for praise or glory, but for practice, and 
the good of men. One thing, I confess, I am ambi- 
tious of, with hope, which is, that after these begin- 
nings, and the wheel once set on going, men shall 

(a) Dr. Lancelot Andrews, bishop of Winchester. 

(b) Mr. Chamberlain, in a letter to Sir Dudley Carleton, ambassa- 
dor at Holland, dated at London, October 28, 1620, mentions, that 
Mr. Henry Cuffe, who had been secretary to Robert, earl of Essex, 
and executed for being concerned in his treasons, having long since 
perused this work, gave this censure, that a fool could not have written 
such a work, and a wise man would not. And, in another letter, 
dated Feb. 3, 1620-1, Mr. Chamberlain takes notice, that the king 
could not forbear sometimes, in reading that book, to say, that it was 
like the peace of God, that passeth all understanding. 

254 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

seek more truth out of Christian pens, than hitherto 
they have done out of heathen. I say with hope ; 
because I hear my former book of the Advancement of 
Learning, is well tasted in the universities here, and 
the English colleges abroad ; and this is the same ar- 
gument sunk deeper. 

And so I ever numbly rest in prayers, and all other 

Your Majesty's most bounden 

and devoted servant, 
York-house, this 12th of Oct. 1620. Fit. verulam. Cane. 


My honourable Lord, 

There is a business in your lordship's hands, with 
which Sir Robert Lloyd did acquaint your lordship ; 
whereof the prince hath demanded of me what ac- 
count is given. And because I cannot inform his 
highness of any proceeding therein, I desire your 
lordship to use all expedition that may be, in making 
your answer tome, that I may give his highness some 
satisfaction, who is very desirous thereof. And so I 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

Royston, 14th of October, 1620. G# BUCKINGHAM. 


Touching the register of wills. 


My honourable Lord, 

I desire your lordship to continue your favour to 
Sir Thomas Gerrard, in the business concerning him, 
wherein I signified his majesty's pleasure to your lord- 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7000. (b) Ibid. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 255 

ship. And one favour more I am to intreat of your 
lordship in his behalf, that you will be pleased to 
speak to one of the assistants of the chancellor of the 
duchy, in whose court he hath a cause depending, as 
he will more fully inform your lordship himself, to see 
that he may have a fair proceeding, according to jus- 
tice : for which I will ever rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

Royston, 15th of October, 1620. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My very good Lord, 

Your lordship desiring to understand what cometh of 
the business, after which the prince hearkeneth, I was 
in doubt which of the two businesses you meant ; that 
of the Duchy or that of the Prerogative-Court for 
wills ; for both are recommended from the prince. But 
be it one, or be it the other, no time hath been lost in 
either ; for Mr. Secretary Naunton and I have entered 
into both. For the Duchy, we have already stayed all 
proceeding to the king's disservice for those manors, 
which are not already passed under seal. For that 
which is passed, we have heard the Attorney (a) with 
none or little satisfaction hitherto. The Chancellor 
(Jb) is not yet come, though sent for. For the other, 
we have heard Sir John Bennet, (c) and given him 
leave to acquaint my lord of Canterbury ; and have 
required the Solicitor (d) to come well prepared for the 
king. So that in neither we can certify yet ; and to 

(a) Sir Henry Yelverton. 

(b) Sir Humphrey May, made chancellor of the duchy, March 
9, 1617-8. 

(c) Judge of the Prerogative -Court of Canterbury. In 1621 he 
was fined. 20,000/. for bribery, corruption, and exaction in that office. 
He died in 1627. 

(d) Sir Thomas Coventry. 

256 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

trouble your lordship, while business is but in passage, 
were time lost. I ever rest 

Your Lordship's most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 

October 16, 1620. FR. VERULAM. Cam. 


May it please your Majesty, 

I cannot express, how much comfort I received by 
your last letter of your own royal hand, (a) I see 
your majesty is a star, that hath benevolent aspect 
and gracious influence upon all things that tend to a 
general good. 

Daphni, quid antiquos signorum suspicis ortus? 
Ecce Dioncei processit Ciesaris astrum; 
Astrum, quo segetes gauderent frugibus, et quo 
Ducerit apricis in collibus uva color em. (b) 

This work, which is for the bettering of men's bread 
and wine, which are the characters of temporal bless- 
ings and sacraments of eternal, I hope, by God's holy 
providence, will be ripened by Caesar's star. 

Your majesty shall not only do to myself a singular 
favour, but to your business a material help, if you 
will be graciously pleased to open yourself to me in 
those things wherein you may be unsatisfied. For 
though this work, as by position and principle, doth 
disclaim to be tried by any thing but by experience, 
and the results of experience in a true way ; yet the 
sharpness and profoundness of your majesty's judg- 
ment ought to be an exception to this general rule ; 
and your questions, observations, and admonish- 
ments, may do infinite good. 

(a) Of the 16th of October, 1620, printed in Lord Bacon's 

(b) Virgil, Eclog. IX. xers. 46—50. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor- Bacon* 257 

This comfortable beginning makes me hope far- 
ther, that your majesty will be aiding to me, in set- 
ting men on work for the collecting of a natural and 
experimental history ; which is basis totius negotii, a 
thing which I assure myself will be, from time to 
time, an excellent recreation unto you ; I say, to that 
admirable spirit of yours, that delighteth in light : 
and I hope well, that even in your times many noble 
inventions may be discovered for man's use. For 
who can tell, now this mine of truth is opened, how 
the veins go ; and what lieth higher, and what lieth 
lower? But let me trouble your majesty no farther 
at this time. God ever preserve and prosper your 

[October 19, 1620.] 


My very good Lord, 

I send now only to give his majesty thanks for the 
singular comfort which I received by his majesty's 
letter of his own hand, touching my book. And I 
must also give your lordship of my best thanks, for 
your letter so kindly and affectionately written. 

I did even now receive your lordship's letter touch- 
ing the proclamation, and do approve his majesty's 
judgment and foresight about mine own. Neither 
would I have thought of inserting matter of state for 
the vulgar, but that now-a-days there is no vulgar, 
but all statesmen. But, as his majesty doth excel- 
lently consider, the time of it is not yet proper. I 
ever rest 

Your Lordship's most obliged friend 

and fait hfal servant, 

October 19, 1620. FR . verulam, Carte. 


In answer to his majesty's directions touching the 
proclamation for a parliament. 

VOL. VI. s 

258 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

Notes of a Speech of the Lord Chancellor 
in the Star-Chamber, in the cause of Sir 
Henry Yelverton, Attorney-General, (a) 

Sorry for the person, being a gentleman that Hived 
with in Gray's-Inn ; served with him when I was 
attorney ; joined with him in many services, and one, 
that ever gave me more attributes in public, than I 
deserved • and, besides, a man of very good parts, 
which with me is friendship at first sight; much more, 
joined with so ancient an acquaintance. 

But, as a judge, I hold the offence very great, and 
that without pressing measure ; upon which I will 
only make a few observations, and so leave it. 

1. First I observe the danger and consequence of 
the offence : for if it be suffered, that the learned 
council shall practise the art of multiplication upon 
their warrants, the crown will be destroyed in small 
time. The great seal, the privy seal, signet, are 
solemn things ; but they follow the king's hand. It 
is the bill drawn by the learned council and the doc- 
quet, that leads the king's hand. 

2. Next I note the nature of the defence. As first, 
that it was error in judgment : for this surely, if the 
offence were small, though clear, or great, but doubt- 
ful, I should hardly sentence it. For it is hard to 
draw a straight line by steadiness of hand ; but it 
could not be the swerving of the hand. And herein 
I note the wisdom of the law of England, which term- 
eth the highest contempts and excesses of authority, 
misprisions ; which, if you take the sound and deriva- 
tion of the words, is but mistaken : but if you take the 
use and acceptation of the word, it is high and hainous 
contempts and usurpations of authority ; whereof the 

(a) He was prosecuted in the Star-Chamber, for having passed 
certain clauses in a charter, lately granted to the city of London, 
not agreeable to his majesty's warrant, and derogatory to his honour. 
But the chief reason of the severity against him was thought to 
be the marquis of Buckingham's resentment against him, for having 
opposed, according to the duty of his office, some oppressive, if 
not illegal, patents, which the projectors of those times were busy 
in preparing. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 259 

reason I take to be, and the name excellently im- 
posed ; for that main mistaking, it is ever joined with 
contempt ; for he that reveres, will not easily mis- 
take; but he that slights, and thinks more of the 
greatness of his place than of the duty of his place, 
will soon commit misprisions. 

Star-Chamber, October 24, 1G20. Notes upon Mr. 
Attorney's cause. 


My very good Lord, 

It may be, your lordship will expect to hear from me 
what passed yesterday in the Star-Chamber, touch- 
ing Yelverton's cause, though we desired secretary 
Calvert to acquaint his majesty therewith. 

To make short, at the motion of the attorney, in 
person at the bar, and at the motion of my lord 
Steward (a) in court, the day of proceeding is deferred 
till the king's pleasure is known. This was against 
my opinion then declared plain enough ; but put to 
votes, and ruled by the major part, though some con- 
curred with me. 

I do not like of this course, in respect that it puts 
the king in a strait ; for either the note of severity 
must rest upon his majesty, if he go on ; or the 
thanks of clemency is in some part taken away, if 
his majesty go not on. 

I have cor unum et via una ; and therefore did my 
part as a judge and the king's chancellor. What is 
farther to be done, I will advise the king faithfully, 
when I see his majesty and your lordship. But, before 
I give advice, I must ask a question first. 

God ever preserve and prosper you. 

Your Lordships most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 

October 28, 1620. FR . VERULAM, Cane. 

(a) The duke of Lenox. 


260 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 



the collec- -. _ i t J 

tions of the My very good Lord, 

Stetens"' Yesternight we made an end of Sir Henry Yel- 
Esq. ' verton's cause. I have almost killed myself with 
sitting almost eight hours. But I was resolved to sit 
it through. He is sentenced to imprisonment in the 
Tower during the king's pleasure. The fine of 4000/. 
and discharge of his place, by way of opinion of the 
court, referring it to the king's pleasure. How I 
stirred the court, I leave it to others to speak ; but 
things passed to his majesty's great honour. I would 
not for any thing but he had made his defence ; for 
many chief points of the charge were deeper printed 
by the defence. But yet I like it not in him ; the less 
because he retained Holt, who is ever retained but 
to play the fool. God ever prosper you. 

Your Lordships most obliged friend, 

and faithful servant, 
11 Nov. 1620. j R , verulam, Cane. 

to the king. 

Lt may please your most excellent Majesty, 

In performance of your royal pleasure, signified by 
Sir John Suckling, (a) we have at several times con- 
sidered of the petition of Mr. Christopher Villiers, (b) 
and have heard, as well the registers and ministers 
of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, and their 
council, as also the council of the lord archbishop of 
Canterbury And setting aside such other points, 
as are desired by the petition, we do think, that your 
majesty may bylaw, and without inconvenience, ap- 
point an officer, that shall have the ingrossing of the 

(a) He was afterward comptroller of the household to king 
Charles I. and father of the poet of the same name. 

(b) Youngest brother to the marquis of Buckingham. He was 
created, April 23, 1623, baron of Daventry and earl of Anglesey. 
He died September 24, 1624. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 261 

transcripts of all wills to be sealed with the seal of 
either of the Prerogative Courts, which shall be 
proved in commani forma ; and likewise of all inven- 
tories, to be exhibited in the same courts. 

We see it necessary, that all wills, which are not 
judicially controverted, be ingrossed before the pro- 
bate. Yet, as the law now stands, no officer of those 
courts can lawfully take any fee or reward for in- 
grossing the said wills and inventories, the statute of 
the 21st of king Henry the Vlllth restraining them. 
Wherefore we hold it much more convenient, that it 
should be done by a lawful officer, to be appointed 
by your majesty, than in a cause not warrantable by 
law Yet our humble opinion and advice is, that 
good consideration be had in passing this book, as 
well touching a moderate proportion of fees to be 
allowed for the pains and travel of the officer, as for 
the expedition of the suitor, in such sort, that the 
subject may find himself in better case than he is 
now, and not in worse. 

But however we conceive this may be conve- 
nient in the two courts of prerogative, where there is 
much business, yet in the ordinary course of the 
bishops diocesans, we hold the same will be incon- 
venient, in regard of the small employment. 
Your Majesty s most faithful 

and obedieiit servants, 
November 15. 1620. FR . VERULAM, Cam. 



After my very hearty commendations, I have ac- 
quainted his majesty with your letter, who com- 
manded me to tell you, that he had been thinking 
upon the same point, whereof you write, three or four 

(a) Lord chief justice of the King's Bench, who, on the 3d of 
December following, was advanced to the post of lord high trea- 

(b) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7000. 

262 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

days ago, being so far from making any question of 
it, that he every day expected when a writ should 
come down. For at the creation of prince Henry, 
the lords of the council and judges assured his ma- 
jesty of as much, as the precedents, mentioned in 
your letter, speak of. And so I rest 

Your Lordship's very loving friend at command, 

Newmarket, the 24th of Novemb. 1620. 


Shewing his majesty is satisfied with precedents, 
touching the prince's summons to parliament. 


My very good Lord, 

Your lordship may find that in the.number of pa- 
tents, which we have represented to his majesty, as 
like to be stirred in by the lower house of parliament, 
we have set down three, which may concern some 
of your lordship's special friends, which I account as 
mine own friends, and so shewed myself, when they 
were in suit. The one, that to Sir Giles Mompesson, 
touching the inns ; the second, to Mr. Christopher 
Villiers and Mr Maule, touching the recognizances 
for ale-houses ; the third, to Mr. Lieutenant of the 
Tower, touching the cask. These in duty could not 
be omitted, for that, specially the two first of them, 
are more rumoured, both by the vulgar, and by the 
gentlemen, yea, and by the judges themselves, than 
any other patents at this day- Therefore I thought 
it appertained to the singular love and affection, 
which I bear you upon so many obligations, to wish 
and advise, that your lordship, whom God hath 
made in all things so fit to be beloved, would put 
off the envy of these things, which I'think in them- 
selves bear no great fruit; and rather take the thanks 
for ceasing them, than the note for maintaining 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 263 

them. But howsoever, let me know your mind, and 
your lordship shall find I will go your way 

I cannot express, how much comfort I take in the 
choice his majesty hath made of my lord chief justice 
to be lord treasurer ; not for his sake, nor for my sake, 
but for the king's sake ; hoping, that now a number 
of counsels, which I have given for the establishment 
of his majesty's estate, and have lain dead and deeper 
than this snow, may now spring up and bear fruit ; 
the rather, for that I persuade myself; he and I shall 
run one way And yet I know well, that in this 
doubling world cor unum et via ana is rare in one 
man, but more rare between two. And therefore, if 
it please his majesty, according to his prudent custom 
in such cases, to cast out, now at his coming down, 
some words which may the better knit us in conjunc- 
tion to do him service, 1 suppose it will be to no idle 

And as an old truant in the commission of the 
treasury, let me put his majest3r in remembrance of 
three things now upon his entrance, which he is pre- 
sently to go in hand with : the first, to make Ireland 
to bear the charge thereof; the second, to bring all 
accounts to one purse in the exchequer ; the third, 
by all possible means to endeavour the taking off of 
the anticipations. There be a thousand things more ; 
but these being his majesty's last commands to the 
commissioners of the treasury, with such as in his 
majesty's princely judgment shall occur, will do well 
to season his place. 

Your Lordship's most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 

November '29, 1620. FR. VEltULAM, Cane. 

As soon as I had written this letter, I received your 
lordship's letter, touching my lord chief justice, which 
redoubled my comfort, to see how his majesty's 
thoughts and mine, his poor servant's, and your lord- 
ship's meet. 

1 send inclosed names for the speaker; and if his 
majesty, or your lordship, demand our opinion, which 

264 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

of them, my lord chief justice will tell you. It were 
well it were dispatched ; for else I will not dine with 
the speaker ; for his drink will not be laid in time 

I beseech your lordship, care may be taken, that 
our general letter may be kept secret, whereof my 
lord chief justice will tell you the reason. 


It may please your most excellent Majesty, 

According to your commandment, we have heard 
once more the proctors of the Prerogative Court, 
what they could say ; and find no reason to alter, in 
any part, our former certificate. Thus much withal 
we think fit to note to your majesty, that our former 
certificate, which we now ratify, is principally ground- 
ed upon a point'in law, upon the statute of 21 Henry 
VIII. wherein we the chancellor and treasurer, for 
our own opinions, do conceive the law is clear ; and 
your solicitor-general (a) concurs. 

Now whether your majesty will be pleased to rest 
in our opinions, and so to pass the patents ; or give 
us leave to assist ourselves with the opinion of some 
principal judges now in town, whereby the law may 
be the better resolved, to avoid farther question here- 
after ; we leave it to your majesty's royal pleasure. 
This we represent the rather, because we discern such 
a confidence ia the proctors, and those upon whom 
they depend, as, it is not unlike, they will bring it to 
a legal question. 

And so we humbly kiss your majesty's hands, pray- 
ing for your preservation. 

Your Jlfajesty's most humble 

and obedient servants, 
York-house, December 12, 1620. FR. VERULAM, Cane. 


(a) Sir Thomas Coventry, who was made attornev-general, 
January 14, 1620-1. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 265 

The Lord Chancellor and two Chief Jus- 
tices (a) to the Marquis of Buckingham. 

Our very good Lord, 

It may please his majesty to call to mind, that when 
we gave his majesty our last account of parliament 
business in his presence, we went over the griev- 
ances of the last parliament in 7mo, (b) with our 
opinion by way of probable conjecture, which of them 
are like to fall off, and which may perchance stick and 
be renewed. And we did also then acquaint his ma- 
jesty, that we thought it no less fit to take into con- 
sideration grievances of like nature,which have sprung 
up since the said last session, which are the more like 
to be called upon, by how much they are the more 
fresh, signifying withal, that they were of two kinds ; 
some proclamations and commissions, and many pa- 
tents ; which, nevertheless, we did not trouble, his 
majesty withal in particular: partly, for that we were 
not then fully prepared, as being a work of some 
length ; and partly, for that we then desired and ob- 
tained leave of his majesty to communicate them with 
the council-table. But now since I, the chancellor, 
received his majesty's pleasure by secretary Calvert, 
that we should first present them to his majesty with 
some advice thereupon provisionally, and as we are 
capable, and thereupon know his majesty's pleasure 
before they be brought to the table, which is the 
work of this dispatch. 

And hereupon his majesty may be likewise pleased 
to call to mind, that we then said, and do now also 
humbly make remonstrance to his majesty, that in 
this we do not so much express the sense of our own 
minds or judgments upon the particulars, as we do 
personate the lower house, and cast with ourselves 

(a) Sir Henry Montagu of the King's Bench, and Sir Henry 
Hobart of the Common Pleas. 

(b) That which began February 9, 1609; and was prorogued 
July 23, 1610. 

26G Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

what is like to be stirred there. And therefore if 
there be any thing, either in respect of the matter, or 
the persons, that stands not so well with his majesty's 
good liking, that his majesty would be graciously 
pleased not to impute it unto us ; and withal to con- 
sider, that it is to this good end, that his majesty may 
either remove such of them, as in his own princely 
judgment, or with the advice of his council, he shall 
think fit to be removed ; or be the better provided to 
carry through such of them, as he shall think fit to 
be maintained, in case they should be moved ; and 
so the less surprised. 

First, therefore, to begin with the patents, we find 
three sorts of patents, and those somewhat frequent, 
since the session of 7mo, which in genere we conceive 
may be most subject to exception of grievance ; pa- 
tents of old debts, patents of concealments, and pa- 
tents of monopolies, and forfeitures for dispensations 
of penal laws, together with some other particulars, 
which fall not so properly under any one head, 

In these three heads, we do humbly advise several 
courses to be taken for the first two, of old debts and 
concealments, for that they are in a sort legal, though 
there may be found out some point in law to over- 
throw them ; yet it would be a long business by course 
of law, and a matter unusual by act of council, to call 
them in. But that, that moves us chiefly, to avoid the 
questioning them at the council-table, is, because if 
they shall be taken away by the king's act, it may let in 
upon him a flood of suitors for recompence ; whereas, 
if they be taken away at the suit of the parliament, 
and a law thereupou made, it frees the king, and leaves 
him to give recompence only where he shall be pleas- 
ed to intend grace. Wherefore we conceive the most 
convenient way will be, if some grave and discreet 
gentleman of the country, such as have lost relation 
to the court, make, at fit times, some modest motion 
touching the same ; and that his majesty would be 
graciously pleased to permit some law to pass, for the 
time past only, no ways touching his majesty's regal 
power, to free the subjects from the same ; and so 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 2G7 

his majesty, after due consultation, to give way 
unto it. 

For the third, we do humbly advise, that such of 
them, as his majesty shall give way to have called in, 
may be questioned before the council-table, either as 
granted contrary to his majesty's book of bounty, 
or found since to have been abused in the execution, 
or otherwise by experience discovered to be burden- 
some to the country- But herein we shall add this 
farther humble advice, that it be not done as matter 
of preparation to a parliament ; but that occasion be 
taken, partly upon revising of the book of bounty, and 
partly upon the fresh examples in Sir Henry Y elver- 
ton's case of abuse and surreption in obtaining of pa- 
tents ; and likewise, that it be but as a continuance 
in conformity of the council's former diligence and 
vigilancy, which hath already stayed and revoked di- 
vers patents of like nature, whereof we are ready to 
shew the examples. Thus, we conceive, his majesty 
shall keep his greatness, and somewhat shall be done 
in parliament, and somewhat out of parliament, as the 
nature of the subject and business require. 

We have sent his majesty herewith a schedule of 
the particulars of these three kinds ; wherein, for the 
first two, we have set down all that we could at this 
time discover : but in'the latter, we have chosen out 
but some, that are most in speech, and do most tend, 
either to the vexation of the common people, or the 
discountenancing of our gentlemen and justices, the 
one being the original, the other the representative 
of the commons. 

There being many more of like nature, but not of 
like weight, nor so much rumoured, which, to take 
away now in a blaze, will give more scandal, that 
such things were granted, than thanks, that they be 
now revoked. 

And because all things may appear to his majesty 
in the true light, we have set down, as well the 
suitors as the grants, and not only those, in whose 
names the patents were taken, but those, whom they 
concern, as far as comes to our knowledge. 

268 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

For proclamations and commissions, they are ten- 
der things ; and we are willing to meddle with them 
sparingly. For as for such, as do but wait upon pa- 
tents, wherein his majesty, as we conceived, gave 
some approbation to have them taken away, it is 
better they fall away, by taking away the patent 
itself, than otherwise ; for a proclamation cannot be 
revoked but by proclamation, which we avoid. 

For those commonwealth bills, which his majesty 
approved to be put in readiness, and some other 
things, there will be time enough hereafter to give 
his majesty account, and amongst them, of the extent 
of his majesty s pardon, which, if his subjects do 
their part, as we hope they will, we do wish may be 
more liberal than of later times, a pardon being the 
ancient remuneration in parliament. 

Thus hoping .his majesty, out of his gracious and 
accustomed benignity, will accept of our faithful en- 
deavours, and supply the rest by his own princely 
wisdom and direction ; and also humbly praying his 
majesty, that when he hath himself considered of our 
humble propositions, he will give us leave to impart 
them all, or as much as he shall think fit, to the lords 
of his council, for the better strength of his service ; 
we conclude with our prayers for his majesty's happy 
preservation, and always rest, &c. 


The lord chancellor and the two chief justices to the 
king, concerning parliament business. 

To the Lord Chancellor, and the Lord 
Mandeville, Lord Treasurer of Eng- 
land, (a) 

My honourable Lords, 

His majesty is pleased, according to your lordships' 
certificate, to rely upon your judgments, and hath 
made choice of Sir Robert Lloyd, knight, to be pa- 

(«) Had. MSS. Vol. 7000. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 269 

tentee and master of the office of ingrossing the 
transcripts of all wills and inventories in the Pre- 
rogative Courts, during his highness's pleasure, and 
to be accountable unto his majesty for such profits as 
shall arise out of the same office. And his majesty's 
farther pleasure is, that your lordship forthwith pro- 
portion and set down, as well a reasonable rate of 
fees for the subject to pay for ingrossing the said 
transcripts, as also such fees, as your lordship shall 
conceive fit to be allowed to the said patentee for the 
charge of clerks and ministers for execution of the 
said office. And to this effect his majesty hath com- 
manded me to signify his pleasure to his solicitor- 
general^) to prepare a book for his majesty's signa- 
ture. And so I bid your lordship heartily well to 
fare, and remain 

Your Lordship's very loving friend, 

Royston, December 17, 1620. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My very good Lord, 

I was so full of cold, as I could not attend his ma- 
jesty to-day. Yesterday I dispatched the proclama- 
tion with the council. There was a motion to have 
sharpened it : but better none, than over sharp at 
first. I moved the council also for supplying the 
committee for drawing of bills and some other mat- 
ters, in regard of my lord Hobart s (c) sickness, who, 
I think, will hardly escape : which, though it be hap- 
piness for him, yet it is loss for us. 

Meanwhile, as I propounded to the king, which he 
allowed well, I have broken the main of the parlia- 
ment into questions and parts, which I send. It 
may be, it is an over-diligence ; but still methinks 
there is a middle thing between art and chance : I 
think they call it providence, or some such thing, 

(b) Sir Thomas Coventry. 

(c) Lord chief justice of the Common Pleas. 

270 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

which good servants owe to their sovereign, specially 
in cases of importance and straits of occasions. And 
those huffing elections, and general licence of speech, 
ought to make us the better provided. The way will 
be, if his majesty will be pleased to peruse these 
questions advisedly, and give me leave to wait on 
him ; and then refer it to some few of the council, a 
little to advise upon it. I ever rest 

Your Ijordships most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 

December 23, 1620. FR. verulam, Cane. 


My honourable Lord, 

His majesty hath commanded me to signify his 
pleasure unto your lordship, that Sir Thomas Co- 
ventry, now his solicitor-general, be forthwith made 
his attorney-general : and that your lordship give 
order to the clerk of the crown to draw up a grant 
of the said place unto him accordingly And so 
I rest 

Your Lordship s faithful friend and servant, 
Whitehall, 9th of January, 1620. O. BUCKINGHAM. 


My honourable Lord, 

I have been intreated to recommend unto your 
lordship the distressed case of the lady Martin, widow 
of Sir Richard Martin, deceased, who hath a cause to 
be heard before your lordship in the chancery, at 
your first sitting in the next term, between her and 
one Archer, and others, upon an ancient statute, due 
long since unto her husband ; which cause, I am in- 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7000. (6) Ibid. 

Letter a, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 27 1 

formed, hath received three verdicts for her in the 
common law, a decree in the Exchequer Chamber, 
and a dismission before your lordship : which I was 
the more willing to do, because I have seen a letter 
of his majesty to the said Sir Richard Martin, ac- 
knowledging the good service that he did him in this 
kingdom, at the time of his majesty's being in Scot- 
land. And therefore 1 desire your lordship, that you 
would give her a full and fair hearing of her cause, 
and a speedy dispatch thereof, her poverty being 
such, that having nothing to live on but her husband's 
debts, if her suit long depend, she shall be inforced 
to lose her cause for want of means to follow it : 
wherein I will acknowledge your lordship's favour, 
and rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

Whitehall, the 13th of January, 1620. G. BUCKINGHAM. 

My honourable L,ord, 

His majesty hath commanded me to signify his plea- 
sure unto you, that you give present order to the 
clerk of the crown to draw a bill to be signed by his 
majesty for Robert Heath, late recorder of London, 
to be his majesty's solicitor-general. So I rest 

Your Lordship 's faithful friend and servant, 
Theobald's, 20th of January, 1620. G. BUCKINGHAM. 


May is please your Majesty, 

I thank God I number days, both in thankfulness 
to him, and in warning to myself. 1 should like- 
wise number your majesty's benefits, which, as to 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7000. 

\b) This seems to have been written by lord St. Albans, just after 
he was created a viscount by that title, January 27, 1620. 

272 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

take them in all kinds, they are without number ; so 
even in this kind of steps and degrees of advance- 
ment, they are in greater number, than scarcely any 
other of your subjects can say For this is now the 
eighth time that your majesty hath raised me. 

You formed me of the learned council extraordi- 
nary, without patent or fee, a kind of individuum 
vagitm. You established me, and brought me into 
ordinary. Soon after you placed me solicitor, where 
I served seven years. Then your majesty made me 
your attorney, or procurator general ; then privy 
counsellor, while I was attorney ; a kind of miracle of 
your favour, that had not been in many ages ; thence 
keeper of your seal ; and, because that was a kind of 
planet, and not fixed, chancellor : and, when your 
majesty could raise me no higher, it was your grace 
to illustrate me, with beams of honour, first making 
me baron Verulam, and now viscount St. Alban. So 
this is the eighth rise or reach, a diapason in music, 
even a good number, and accord for a close. And so 
I may, without superstition, be buried in St. Alban's 
habit or vestment. 

Besides the number, the obligation is increased by 
three notes or marks : first, that they proceed from 
such a king ; for honours from some kings are but 
great chancels, or counters, set high ; but from your 
majesty, they are indeed dignities, by the co-opera- 
tion of your grace. Secondly, in respect of the con- 
tinuance of your majesty's favour, which proceedeth, 
as the divine favour, from grace to grace. And, 
thirdly, these splendors of honour are like your freest 
patents, absque aliquid hide reddendo. Offices have 
burdens of cares and labours ; but honours have no 
burden but thankfulness, which doth rather raise 
men's spirits, than accable them, or press them down. 

Then I must say, quid retribuam ? I have nothing 
of mine own. That, that God hath given me, I shall 
present unto your majesty : which is care and dili-. 
gence, and assiduous endeavour, and that, which is 
the chief, cor unum et viam unam ; hoping, that your 
majesty will do as your superior doth ; that is, finding 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 273 

my heart upright, you will bear with my other im- 
perfections. And lastly, your majesty shall have the 
best of my time, which, I assure myself, I shall con- 
clude in your favour, and survive in your remem- 
brance. And that is my prayer for myself. The rest 
shall be in prayers for your majesty 


My noble Lord, 

I have shewed your letter of thanks to his majesty, 
who saith there are too many thanks in it for so small 
a favour ; which he holdeth too little to encourage so 
well a deserving servant. For myself, I shall ever 
rejoice at the manifestation of his majesty's favour 
toward you, and will contribute all, that is in me, to 
the increasing of his good opinion ; ever resting 

Your Lordship s faithful friend and servant, 


Speech of the Lord Viscount St. Alban, Lord 
Chancellor, to the Parliament, January 30, 

My Lords and Masters, 

You have heard the king's speech ; and it makes me 
call to mind what Solomon saith, who was also a 
king: The words of the wise are as nails and pins, 
driven in and fastened by the masters of assemblies. The 
king is the master of this assembly ; and though his 
words, in regard of the sweetness of them, do not 
prick ; yet, in regard of the weight and wisdom of 
them, I know they pierce through and through : that 
is, both into your memories, and into your affections ; 
and there I leave them. 

(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7000. 

274 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

As the king himself hath declared unto you the 
causes of the convoking of this parliament; so he 
hath commanded me to set before you the true insti- 
tution and use of a parliament, that thereby you may 
take your aim, and govern yourselves the better in 
parliament matters : for then are all things in best 
state, when they are" preserved in their primitive in- 
stitution ; for otherwise ye know the principle of phi- 
losophy to be, that the corruption or degeneration of 
the best things is the worst. 

The kings of this realm have used to summon their 
parliaments or estates for three ends or purposes ; for 
advice, for assent, and for aid. 

For advice, it is no doubt great surety for kings to 
take advice and information from their parliament. 
It is advice, that proceedeth out of experience ; it is 
not speculative or abstract. It is a well-tried advice, 
and that passeth many revenues, and hath Argus's 
eyes. It is an advice, that commonly is free from pri- 
vate and particular ends, which is the bane of coun- 
sel. For although some particular members of par- 
liament may have their private ends ; yet one man 
sets another upright ; so that the resultate of their 
counsels is, for the most part, direct and sincere. 
But this advice is to be given with distinction of the 
subjects : they are to tender and offer their advice by 
bill or petition, as the case requires. But in those 
things, that are Arcana Imperii, and reserved points 
of sovereignty, as making of war or peace, or the 
like, there they are to apply their advice to that 
which shall be communicated unto them by the king, 
without pressing farther within the vail, or reaching 
forth to the forbidden fruit of knowledge. In these 
things the rule holds, tantum permissum quantum com- 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 27 



My very good Lord, 

With due thanks for your last visit, this day is aplay- 
day for me. But I will wait on your lordship, if it 
be necessary. 

I do hear from divers of judgment, that to-morrow's 
conference (a) is like to pass in a calm, as to the 
referees, (b) Sir Lionel Cranfield, who hath been for- 
merly the trumpet, said yesterday, that he did now 
incline to Sir John Walter's opinion and motion, not to 
have the referees meddled with otherwise than to dis- 
count it from the king ; and so not to look back, but 
to the future. And I do hear almost all men of judg- 
ment in the house wish now that way. I woo nobody : 
I do but listen, and I have doubt only of Sir Edward 
Coke, who, I wish, had some round caveat given him 
from the king ; for your lordship hath no great power 
with him: but I think a word from the king mates him. 

If things be carried fair by the committees of the 
lower house, I am in some doubt, whether there will 
be occasion for your lordship to speak to-morrow ; 
though, I confess, I incline to wish you did, chiefly be- 
cause you are fortunate in that kind; and, to be plain 
also, for our better countenance, when your lordship, 
according to your noble proposition, shall shew more 
regard of the fraternity you have with great counsel- 
lors, than of the interest of your natural brother. 

Always, good my lord, let us think of times out of 
parliament, as well as the present time in parliament, 

(a) On Monday the 5th of March, 1620-1, the house of lords re- 
ceived message from the commons, desiring a conference touching 
certain grievances, principally concerning Sir Giles Mompesson. See 
Journal of the house of lords. 

(b) Those to whom the king referred the petitions, to consider, 
whether they were fa to be granted or no. This explanation of the 
word referees, I owe to a note in a MS. letter, written to the cele- 
brated Mr. Joseph Mead, of Christ's College, Cambridge. 

T 2 

276 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

and let us not all be put es pourpoint. Fair and mo- 
derate courses are ever best in causes of estate : the 
rather, because I wish this parliament, by the sweet 
and united passages thereof, may increase the kings 
reputation with foreigners, who may make a far other 
judgment than we mean, of a beginning to question 
great counsellors and officers of the crown, by courts, 
or assemblies of estates. But the reflection upon my 
particular in this makes me more sparing, than per- 
haps, as a counsellor, I ought to be. 
God ever preserve and prosper you. 

Your Lordship's true servant all and ever, 

March 7, the day I received c 

the seal, 1620. ' 


It may please your Majesty, 

I received your majesty's letter about midnight : 
and because it was stronger than the ancient sum- 
mons of the exchequer, which is sicut teipsum et 
omnia tua diligis ; whereas this was sicut me diligis ; 

(a) The date of this letter is determined to be the 8th of March, 
1620-1, from the circumstance of its being mentioned to have been 
written on that Thursday, on which the house of lords adjourned to 
the Saturday following. It appears from the journal of that house, 
that on the 8th of March, 1620, the said house, at which were pre- 
sent the prince of Wales and marquis of Buckingham, was adjourned 
to Saturday the 10th, on which day a conference of both houses was 
held relating to the complaint of that of the commons against Sir 
Giles Mompesson. Of this conference the lord chancellor made re- 
port on Monday, March 12, to the house of lords, remarking, that 
" the inducement to this conference was to clear the king's honour, 
"touching grants to Sir Giles, and the passages in procuring the 
" same." After this report of the conference, the lord Chamberlain, 
William, earl of Pembroke, complained to the house, that two great 
lords, meaning the lord chancellor, and the lord treasurer, the lord 
viscount Mandeville, had, in that conference, spake in their oxen de- 
fence, not being allowed to do so when the committees were named. Upon 
which both the lords acknowledged their error, and begged pardon 
of the house. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 211 

I used all possible care to effect your majesty's good 
will and pleasure. 

I sent early to the prince, and to my lord treasurer : 
and we attended his highness soon after seven of the 
clock, at Whitehall, to avoid farther note. We agreed, 
that, if the message came, we would put the lords 
into this way, that the answer should be, that we 
understood they came prepared both with examina- 
tion and precedent ; and we likewise desired to be 
alike prepared, that the conference might be with 
more fruit. 

I did farther speak with my lord of Canterbury, 
when I came to the house, not letting him know any 
part of the business, that he would go on with a 
motion, which he had told me of the day before, that 
the lords house might not sit Wednesday and Fri- 
day, because they were convocation-days ; and so 
was the former custom of parliament. 

As good luck was, the house read two bills, and had 
no other business at all : whereupon my lord of Can- 
terbury made his motion ; and I adjourned the house 
till Saturday It was no sooner done, but came the 
message from the lower house. But the consummatum- 
est was past, though I perceived a great willingness, 
in many of the lords, to have recalled it, if it might 
have been. 

So with my best prayers for your majesty's preser- 
vation, I rest 

Your Majesty's most bounden 

and most devoted servant, 

Thursday, at eleven of our forenoon [March 8, 1620.] 


My very good Lord, 
Your lordship spoke of purgatory I am now in it ; 
but my mind is in a calm ; for my fortune is not my 

a) This letter seems to have been written soon after lord St. 
Alban began to be accused of abuses in his office of chancellor. 

278 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

felicity. I know I have clean hands, and a clean 
heart, and, I hope, a clean house for friends or ser- 
vants. But Job himself, or whosoever was the justest 
judge, by such hunting for matters against him, as 
hath been used against me, may for a time seem foul, 
especially in a time, when greatness is the mark, and 
accusation is the game. And if this be to be a chan- 
cellor, I think, if the great seal lay upon Hounslow 
Heath, no body would take it up. But the king and 
your lordship will, I hope, put an end to these my 
straits one way or other. And in troth, that which I 
fear most, is, lest continual attendance and business, 
together with these cares, and want of time to do my 
weak body right this spring by diet and physic, will 
cast me down ; and that it will be thought feigning, 
or fainting. But I hope in God I shall hold out. God 
prosper you. 


Good Mr. Chancellor, 

There will come, upon Friday, before you a patent 
(a) of his majesty's for the separation of the com- 
pany of apothecaries from the company of grocers, 
and their survey, and the erecting them into a corpo- 
ration of themselves under the survey of the physi- 
cians. It is, as I conceive, a fair business both for 
law and conveniency, and a work, which the king 
made his own, and did, and, as I hear, doth take 
much to heart. It is hifavorem vita, where the other 
part is in favorem lucri. You may perhaps think me 
partial to apothecaries, that have been ever puddering 
in physic all my life. But there is a circumstance, 
that touches upon me hxxi post diem, for it is compre- 

(«) The patent for incorporating the apothecaries by themselves, 
by the appellation of The masters, wardens, and society of the art and 
mystery of apothecaries of London, was dated December 6, 1617 
They had been incorporated with the company of grocers, April 9, 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 279 

hended in the charge and sentence passed upon me. 
It is true, that after I had put the seal to the patent, 
the apothecaries (b) presented me with an hundred 
pounds. It was no judicial affair. But howsoever, as 
it may not be defended, so I would be glad it were 
not raked up more than needs. I doubt only the chair 
(c) because I hear he useth names sharply ; and be- 
sides, it may be, he hath a tooth at me yet, which is 
not fallen out with age. But the best is, as one saith, 
satis est lapsos non erigere ; urgere vero jacentes, aut 
prtecipitantes impellere, certe estinhumanum. Mr. Chan- 
cellor, if you will be nobly pleased to grace me upon 
this occasion, by shewing tenderness of my name, 
and commisseration of my fortune, there is no man 
in that assembly from whose mouth I had rather it 
should come. I hope it will be no dishonour to you. 
It will oblige me much, and be a worthy fruit of our 
last reintegration of friendship. I rest 

Your faithful friend to do you service. 

(b) His lordship being charged by the house of commons, that he 
had received 100/. of the new company of apothecaries, that stood 
against the grocers, as likewise a taster of gold worth between 400 
and 500/. with a present of ambergrise, from the apothecaries that 
stood with the grocers, and 200/. of the grocers ; he admits the several 
sums to have been received of the three parties, but alledges, 
" that he considered those presents as no judicial business, but a 
" concord of composition between the parties : and as he thought 
" they had all three received good, and they were all common 
" purses, he thought it the less matter to receive what they volun- 
" tarily presented ; for if he had taken it in the nature of a bribe, he 
" knew it could not be concealed, because it must be put to the ac- 
" count of the three several companies." 

(c) Sir Robert Philips was chairman of the committee of the 
house of commons for inquiring into the abuses of the courts of jus- 
tice. He was son of Sir Edward Philips, master of the Rolls, who 
died September 11, 1614, being succeeded by Sir Julius Caesar, to 
whom the king had given, January 16, 1610-11, under the great 
seal, the reversion of that post. 

280 Letters^ etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

Memoranda of what the Lord Chancellor 
intended to deliver to the King, April 16, 
1621, (a) upon his first access to his Majesty- 
after his troubles. 

That howsoever it goeth with me, I think myself 
infinitely bound to his majesty for admitting me to 
touch the hem of his garment ; and that, according to 
my faith, so be it unto me. 

(a) A committee of the house of commons had been appointed 
about the 12th of March, 1620-1, to inspect the abuses of the courts 
of justice, of which Sir Edward Sackville was named the chairman, 
but by reason of some indisposition, Sir Robert Philips was chosen 
in his room. The first thing they fell upon was bribery and cor- 
ruption, of which the lord chancellor was accused by Mr. Christopher 
Aubrey and Mr. Edward Egerton ; who affirmed, that they had pro- 
cured money to be given to his lordship to promote their causes de- 
pending before him. This charge being corroborated by some cir- 
cumstances, a report of it was made from the committee to the house, 
on Thursday, the 15th of March ; and a second on the 17th, of other 
matters of the same nature, charged upon his lordship. The heads 
of the accusation having been drawn up, were presented by the com- 
mons to the lords, in a conference, on Monday, the 19th of the same 
month. The subject of this conference being reported, the next day, 
to the house of lords, by the lord treasurer, the marquis of Bucking- 
ham presented to their lordships a letter to them from the lord chan- 
cellor, dated that day. Upon this letter, answer was sent from the 
lords to the lord chancellor, on the 20th, that they had received his 
letter, and intended to proceed in his cause, now before them, ac- 
cording to the rule of justice, desiring his lordship to provide for his 
just defence. The next day, March 21, the commons sent to the 
lords a farther charge against the lord chancellor ; and their lordships, 
in the mean time, examined the complaints against him, and witnes- 
ses in the house, and appointed a select committee of themselves to 
take examinations likewise. Towards the latter end of March the 
session was discontinued for some time, in hopes, as it was imagined, 
of softening the lord chancellor's fall ; but, upon the re-assembling 
of the parliament, more complaints being daily represented, on Wed- 
nesday, April 24, the prince signified unto the lords, that his lordship 
had sent a submission, dated the 22d. Which the lords having con- 
sidered, and heard the collection of corruptions charged on him, and 
the proofs read, they sent a copy of the same, without the proofs, to 
him, by baron Denham and Mr. Attorney General, with this message, 
that his lordship's confession was not fully set down by him ; and that 
they had therefore sent him the particular charge, and expected his 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 281 

That I ought also humbly to thank his majesty for 
that, in that excellent speech of his, which is printed, 
that speech of so great maturity, wherein the ele- 
ments are so well mingled, by kindling affection, by 
washing away aspersion, by establishing of opinion, 
and yet giving way to opinion, I do find some pas- 
sages, which I do construe to my advantage. 

And lastly, I have heard from my friends, that, 
notwithstanding these waves of information, his ma- 
jesty mentions my name with grace and favour. 

In the next place, I am to make an oblation of 
myself into his majesty's hands, that, as I wrote to 
him, I am as clay in his hands, his majesty may make 
a vessel of honour or dishonour of me, as I find fa- 
vour in his eyes ; and that I submit myself wholly to 
his grace and mercy, and to be governed both in my 
cause and fortunes by his direction, knowing that his 
heart is inscrutable for good. Only I may express 
myself thus far, that my desire is, that the thread, or 
line, of my life, may be no longer than the thread, or 
line, of my service : I mean, that I may be of use to 
your majesty in one kind or other. 

Now for any farther speech, I would humbly pray 

answer to it with all convenient expedition. To which he answered, 
that he would return their lordships an answer with speed. On the 
25th of April, the lords considered of his said answer, and sent a se- 
cond message by the same persons, that having received a doubtful 
answer to their message, sent him the day before, they now sent to 
him again, to know directly and presently, whether his lordship 
would make his confession, or stand upon his defence. His answer, 
returned by the same messengers, was, that he would make no man- 
ner of defence, but meant to acknowledge corruption, and to make 
a particular confession to every point, and after that an humble sub- 
mission ; but humbly craved liberty, that where the charge was more 
full than he finds the truth of the fact, he may make declaration of 
the truth in such particulars, the charge being brief, and containing 
not all circumstances. The lords sent the same messengers, to let 
him know, that they granted him time to do this till the Monday 
following; when he sent his confession and submission; which 
being avowed by him to several lords, sent to him, the lords resolved, 
on the 2d of May, to proceed to sentence him the next morning, 
and summoned him to attend ; which he excusing, on account of 
being confined to his bed by sickness, they gave judgment accord- 
ingly on the 3d of May, 1621. 

282 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

his majesty, that whatsoever the law of nature shall 
teach me to speak for my own preservation, your ma- 
jesty will understand it to be in such sort, as I do 
nevertheless depend wholly upon your will and plea- 
sure. And under this submission, if your majesty 
will graciously give me the hearing, I will open my 
heart unto you, both touching my fault, and fortune. 

For the former of these, I shall deal ingenuously 
with your majesty, without seeking fig-leaves or sub- 

There be three degrees, or cases, as I conceive, of 
gifts and rewards given to a judge : 

The first is of bargain, contract, or promise of 
reward, pendente lite. And this is properly called 
venalis sententia, or baratria, or corruptelce munerum. 
And of this, my heart tells me, I am innocent ; that 
I had no bribe or reward in my eye or thought, when 
I pronounced any sentence or order. 

The second is a neglect in the judge to inform 
himself, whether the cause be fully at an end, or no, 
what time he receives the gift ; but takes it upon the 
credit of the party, that all is done ; or otherwise 
omits to inquire. 

And the third is, when it is received sine fraude, 
after the cause ended ; which, it seems by the opi- 
nion of the civilians, is no offence. Look into the 
case of simony, &c. 

Draught of another paper to the same purpose. 

There be three degrees, or cases, of bribery, charged, 
or supposed, in a judge : 

The first, of bargain, or contract, for reward to 
pervert justice. 

The second, where the judge conceives the cause 
to be at an end, by the information of the party, or 
otherwise, useth not such diligence, as he ought, to 
inquire of it. And the third, when the cause is really 
ended, and it is sine fraude, without relation to any 
precedent promise. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 283 

Now if I might see the particulars of my charge, 
I should deal plainly with your majesty, in whether 
of these degrees every particular case falls. 

But for the first of them, I take myself to be as in- 
nocent as any born upon St. Innocent's day, in my 

For the second, I doubt, in some particulars I may 
be faulty. 

And for the last, I conceived it to be no fault ; 
but therein I desire to be better informed, that I may 
be twice penitent, once for the fact, and again for 
the error For I had rather be a briber, than a de- 
fender of bribes. 

I must likewise confess to your majesty, that at 
new-year's tides, and likewise at my first coming in, 
which was, as it were, my wedding, I did not so pre- 
cisely, as perhaps I ought, examine whether those 
that presented me, had causes before me, yea or no. 

And this is simply all that I can say for the pre- 
sent, concerning my charge, until I may receive it 
more particularly And all this while, I do not fly 
to that, as to say, that these things are vitia temporis, 
and not vitia hominis. 

For my fortune, summa summorum with me is, that 
I may not be made altogether unprofitable to do your 
majesty service, or honour. If your majesty con- 
tinue me as I am, I hope I shall be a new man, and 
shall reform things out of feeling, more than another 
can do out of example. If I cast part of my burden, 
I shall be more strong and deli v re to bear the rest. 
And, to tell your majesty what my thoughts run 
upon, I think of writing a story of England, and of 
recompiling of your laws into abetter digest. 

But to conclude, I most humbly pray your ma- 
jesty's directions and advice. For as your majesty 
hath used to give me the attribute of care of your 
business, so I must now cast the care of myself upon 
God and you. 

284 Letters, etc, of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

Notes upon Michael de la Pole's Case, (a) 

10 Rich. 2. The offences were of three natures : 

1. Deceits to the king. 

2. Misgovernance in point of estate, whereby the 
ordinances made by ten commissioners for reforma- 
tion of the state were frustrated, and the city of 
Ghent, in foreign parts, lost. 

3. And his setting the seal to pardons for murders, 
and other enormous crimes. 

The judgment was imprisonment, fine, and ran- 
som, and restitution to the king, but no disablement, 
nor making him uncapable, no degrading in honour 
mentioned in the judgment: but contrariwise, in the 
clause, that restitution should be made and levied out 
of his lands and goods, it is expressly said, that 
because his honour of earl was not taken from him, 
therefore his 20/. per annum creation money should 
not be meddled with. 

Observations upon Thorpe's Case. 

24 Edw. 3. His offence was taking of money from 
five several persons, that were felons, for staying 
their process of exigent ; for that it made him a kind 
of accessary of felony, and touched upon matter 

The judgment was the judgment of felony : but the 
proceeding had many things strong and new ; first, 
the proceeding was by commission of oyer and ter- 
miner, and by j ury ; and not by parliament. 

The judgment is recited to be given in the king's 
high and sovereign power 

It is recited likewise, that the king, when he made 
him chief justice, and increased his wages, did ore 

(a) This paper was probably drawn up on occasion of the proceed- 
ings and judgment passed upon the lord viscount St. Alban by the 
house of lords, May 3, 1621. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 285 

tenus say to him, in the presence of his council, th^t 
now if he bribed he would hang him : unto which 
penance, for so the record called it, he submitted h m- 
self. So it was a judgment by a contract. 

His oath likewise, which was devised some few 
years before, which is very strict in words, that he 
shall take no reward, neither before nor after, is chiefly 
insisted upon. And that, which is more to be ob- 
served, there is a precise proviso, that the judgment 
and proceeding shall not be drawn into example 
against any, and specially not against any who have 
not taken the like oath : which the lord chancellor, 
lord treasurer, master of the wards, &c. take not, but 
only the judges of both benches, and baron of the 

The king pardoned him presently after, doubting, 
as it seems, that the judgment was erroneous, both in 
matter and form of proceeding ; brought it before 
the lords of parliament, who affirmed the judgment, 
and gave authority to the king in the like cases, for 
the time to come, to call to him what lords it pleased 
him, and to adjudge them. 


44 Edw. 3. His offences were, great oppressions in 
usurpation of authority, in attacking and imprisoning 
in the Tower, and other prisons, numbers of the king's 
subjects, for causes no ways appertaining to his juris- 
diction ; and for discharging an appellant of felony 
without warrant, and for deceit of the king, and ex- 

His judgment was only imprisonment in the Tower, 
until he had made a fine and ransom at the king's 
will ; and no more. 

286 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


50 Ediv. 3. His offences were very high and hainous, 
drawing upon high treason : as the extortious taking 
of victuals in Bretagne, to a great value, without pay- 
ing any thing; and for ransoming divers parishes 
thereto the sum of 83,000/. contrary to the articles of 
truce proclaimed by the king ; for suffering his depu- 
ties and lieutenants in Bretagne to exact, upon the 
towns and countries there, divers sums of money, to 
the sum of 150,000 crowns; for sharing with Richard 
Lyons in his deceit of the king; for enlarging, by his 
own authority, divers felons : and divers other exor- 
bitant offences. 

Notwithstanding all this, his judgment was only to 
be committed to the Marshalsea, and to make fine 
and ransom at the king's will. 

But after, at the suit of the commons, in regard of 
those horrible and treasonable offences, he was dis- 
placed from his office, and disabled to be of the king's 
council ; but his honours not touched, and he was 
presently bailed by some of the lords, and suffered 
to go at large. 


50 Edw. 3. His offences were, the not supplying 
the full number of the soldiers in Bretagne, according 
to the allowance of the king's pay And the second 
was for buying certain debts, due from the king, to his 
own lucre, and giving the parties small recompence, 
and specially in a case of the lady Ravensholme. 

And it was prayed by the commons, that he might 
be put out of office about the king : but there was no 
judgment given upon that prayer, but only of restitu- 
tion to the lady, and a general clause of being pu- 
nished according to his demerits. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon, 287 


Illustrisslme Domine Legate, 

Amorem illustrissimee Dominationis tuse erga me, 
ejusque et fervorem et candorem, tam in prosperis 
rebus, quam in adversis, sequabili tenore constantem 
perspexi. Quo nomine tibi meritas et debitas gra- 
tias ago. Me vero jam vocat et eetas, et fortuna, at- 
que etiam genius meus, cui adhuc satis morose satis- 
feci, ut excedens e theatro rerum civilium Uteris me 
dedam, et ipsos actores instruam, et posteritati ser» 
viam. Id mihi fortasse honori erit, et degam tan- 
quam in atriis vitse melioris. 

Deus illustrissimam Dominationem tuam incolu- 
mem servet et prosperam. 

Servus tuus, 

Junii 6, 1621. FR. ST. ALBAN. 


Illustrisslme et excellentissime Domine, 

Perspexi et agnosco providentiam divinam, quod in 
tanta solitudine mihi tanquam coelitus suscitaverit 
talem amicum, qui tantis implicatus negotiis, et in 
tantis temporis angustiis, curam mei habuerit, idque 
pro me effecerit, quod alii amici mei aut non ausi 
sint tentare, aut obtinere non potuerint. Atque il- 
lustrissimee Dominationi tuse reddent fructum pro- 
prium et perpetuum mores tui tam generosi, et erga 
omnia officia humanitatis et honoris propensi ; neque 
erit fortasse inter opera tua hoc minimum, quod me, 
qui et aliquis fui apud vivos, neque omnino intermo- 

(«) In the letters, memoirs, fyc. of the lord chancellor Bacon, pub- 
lished by Mr. Stephenson 1736, p. 517, is a Spanish letter to him 
from count Gondomar, dated at London, June 14, 1621. 

288 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

riar apud posteros, ope et gratia tua erexeris, confir- 
maris. Ego quid possum ? Ero tandem tuus, si mi- 
nus usufructu, at saltern affectu, voto. Sub cineribus 
fortunee vivi erunt semper ignes amoris. Te igitur 
humillime saluto, tibi valedico, omnia prospera ex- 
opto, gratitudinem testor, observantiam polliceor. 

Illustrissimo et excellentissimo Do. Do. Didaco Sarmi- 
ento de Acunna, Comiti de Gondomar, Legato Regis 
Hispaniarum extraordinario in Anglia. 


My very good Lord, 

I humbly thank your lordship for the grace and fa- 
vour which you did both to the message and mes- 
senger, in bringing Mr. Meautys to kiss his majesty's 
hands, and to receive his pleasure. My riches in my 
adversity hath been, that I have had a good master, 
a good friend, and a good servant. 

Perceiving, by Mr. Meautys, his majesty's inclina- 
tion, it shall be, as it hath ever used to be to me, in- 
stead of a direction ; and therefore I purpose to go 
forthwith to Gorhambury, humbly thanking his ma- 
jesty nevertheless, that he was graciously pleased to 
have acquainted my lords with my desire, if it had 
stood me so much upon. But his majesty knoweth 
best the times and seasons ; and to his grace I submit 
myself, desiring his majesty and your lordship to take 
my letters from the Tower, as written de profundis, 
and those I continue to write to be ex aquis salsis. 

[June 22, 1621.] 


To lord Buckingham, upon bringing Mr. Meautys to 
kiss the king's hands. 

(a) This letter is reprinted here, because it differs, in some re- 
spects, from that published in letters, memoirs, parliamentary affairs, 
state papers. $c. by Robert Stephens, esq. p. 151. Edit. London, 
1736, 4to. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 289 


My very good Lord, 

I have written, as I thought it decent in me to do, 
to his majesty, the letter I send inclosed. I have 
great faith, that your lordship, now nobly and like 
yourself, will effect with his majesty In this the king 
is of himself, and it hath no relation to parliament. I 
have written also, as your lordship advised me, only 
touching that point of means. I have lived hitherto 
upon the scraps of my former fortunes ; and I shall 
not be able to hold out longer. Therefore I hope 
your lordship will now, according to the loving pro- 
mises and hopes given, settle my poor fortunes, or ra- 
ther my being. I am much fallen in love with a pri- 
vate life ; but yet I shall so spend my time, as shall 
not decay my abilities for use. 

God preserve and prosper your lordship. 

[Sept. 5, 1621.] 


May it please your Highness, 

I cannot too oft acknowledge your highness's favour 
in my troubles ; but acknowledgment now is but 
begging of new favour. Yet even that is not incon- 
venient ; for thanksgiving and petition go well toge- 
ther, even to God himself. My humble suit to your 
highness, that I may be thought on for means to sub- 
sist ; and to that purpose, that your highness will 
join with my noble friend to the king. That done, I 
shall ever be ready, either at God's call, or his ma- 
jesty's, and as happy, to my thinking, as a man can 
be, that must leave to serve such a king. 
God preserve and prosper your highness. 

vol. vr. u 

290 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

On the back of the draughts of the three preceding let- 
ters were written the following memoranda. 

Bishops Winchester, (a) Durham, (b) London, (c) 

Lord Duke, (d) Lord Hunsdon. 

Lord Chamberlain, (e) to thank him for his kind 
remembrance by you ; and though in this private for- 
tune I shall have use of few friends, yet I cannot but 
acknowledge the moderation and affection his lord- 
ship shewed in my business, and desire, that of those 
few his lordship will still be one for my comfort, in 
whatsoever may cross his way, for the furtherance of 
my private life and fortune. 

Mr. John Murray. If there be any thing that 
may concern me, that is fit for him to speak, and me 
to know, that I may receive it by you. 

Mr. Maxwell. That I am sorry, that so soon as I 
came to know him, and to be beholding to him, I 
wanted power to be of use to him. 

Lord of Kelly ; and to acquaint him with that part 
touching the confinement. 


It may please your Majesty, 

Now that your majesty hath passed the recreation 
of your progress, there is nevertheless one kind of re- 
creation, which, I know, remaineth with your majesty 
all the year ; which is to do good, and to exercise 
your clemency and beneficence. I shall never mea- 
sure my poor service by the merit, which perhaps is 
small, but by the acceptation, which hath been al- 
ways favourably great. I have served your majesty 
now seventeen years ; and since my first service, which 
was in the commission of the union, I received from 
your majesty never chiding or rebuke, but always 

(a) Dr. Andrews. (6) Dr. Richard Neile. 

(c) Dr. George Mountain. (d) Lenox. 

(e) William, earl of Pembroke. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 291 

sweetness and thanks. Neither was I, in these seven- 
teen years, ever chargeable to your majesty, but got 
my means in an honourable sweat of my labour, save 
that of late your majesty was graciously pleased to 
bestow upon me the pension of twelve hundred 
pounds for a few years. For in that other poor prop 
of my estate, which is the farming of the petty writs, 
I improved your majesty's revenue by four hundred 
pounds the year. And likewise, when I received the 
seal, I left both the Attorney's place, which was a 
gainful place, and the clerkship of the Star-Chamber, 
which was queen Elizabeth's favour, and was worth 
twelve hundred pounds by the year, which would 
have been a good commendam. The honours which 
your majesty hath done me, have put me above the 
means to get my living ; and the misery I am fallen 
into hath put me below the means to subsist as I am. 
I hope my courses shall be such, for this little end of 
my thread which remaineth, as your majesty, in doing 
me good, may do good to many, both that live now, 
and shall be born hereafter. I have been the keeper 
of your seal, and now am your beadsman. Let your 
own royal heart, and my noble friend, speak the rest. 

God preserve and prosper your majesty 
Your Majesty's faithful 

poor servant and beadsman, 

September 5, 1621. FR. ST. ALBAN. 

Cardinal Wolsey said, that if he had pleased God 
as he pleased the king, he had not been ruined. My 
conscience saith no such thing ; for I know not but 
in serving you I have served God in one. But it may 
be, if I had pleased God, as I had pleased you, it 
would have been better with me. 


It may please your most excellent Majesty, 
I do very humbly thank your majesty for your gra- 
cious remission of my fine. I can now, I thank God 
and you, die and make a will. 


292 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

I desire to do, for the little time God shall send me 
life, like the merchants of London, which, when they 
give over trade, lay out their money upon land. So, 
being freed from civil business, I lay forth my poor 
talent upon those things which may be perpetual, still 
having relation to do you honour with those powers I 
have left. 

I have therefore chosen to write the reign of king 
Henry the Vllth, who was in a sort your forerunner, 
and whose spirit, as well as his blood, is doubled upon 
your majesty 

I durst not have presumed to intreat your majesty 
to look over the book, and correct it, or at least to sig- 
nify what you would have amended. But since you 
are pleased to send for the book, I will hope for it. 

[(a) God knoweth, whether ever I shall see you 
again ; but I will pray for you to the last gasp, 

The same, your true beadsman, 

October 8, 1621. FR. ST ALBAN. 


A special pardon granted unto Francis, viscount 
St. Alban, for all felonies done and committed against 
the common laws and statutes of this realm ; and for 
all offences of praemunire ; and for all misprisions, 
riots, &c. with the restitution of all his lands and 
goods forfeited by reason of any of the premises ; ex- 
cept out of the same pardon all treasons, murders, 
rapes, incest; and except also all fines, imprison- 
ments, penalties, and forfeitures, adjudged against the 
said viscount St. Alban, by a sentence lately made 
in the parliament. Teste Rege apud Westm. 17 die 
Octob. anno Regni sui 19. 
Per lettre de privato sigillo. 

(a) This passage has a line drawn over it. 

(b) Cotton Library, Titus Book VII. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 293 

Dr Williams, Bishop of Lincoln elect, and 
Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, to the Vis- 
count St. Alban 

My very good Lord, 

Having perused a privy seal, containing a pardon 
for your lordship, and thought seriously thereupon, 
I find, that the passing of the same, the assembly in 
parliament so near approaching, (a) cannot but be 
much prejudicial to the service of the king, to the 
honour of my lord of Buckingham, to that commise- 
ration which otherwise would be had of your lord- 
ship's present estate, and especially to my judgment 
and fidelity I have ever affectionately loved your 
lordship's many and most excellent good parts and 
endowments ; nor had ever cause to disaffect your 
lordship's person. So as no respect in the world, 
beside the former considerations, could have drawn 
me to add the least affliction, or discontentment, unto 
your lordship's present fortune. May it therefore 
please your lordship to suspend the passing of this 
pardon, until the next assembly be over and dis- 
solved ; and I will be then as ready to seal it as your 
lordship to accept of it ; and, in the mean time, un- 
dertake, that the king and my lord admiral shall in- 
terpret this short delay as a service and respect 
issuing wholly from your lordship ; and rest, in all 
other offices whatsoever, 

Your Lordships faithful servant, 

jo. Lincoln, elect. Custos Sigilli- 

Westminster-College, October 18, 1621. 

To the right honourable his very good lord, the lord vis- 
count St. Alban. 

(a) It met November 24, 1621 ; and was dissolved February 8, 

294 Letters, tie. tf Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My very good Lord, 

I ksow the reasons must appear to your lordship 
many and weighty, which should move you to stop 
the king's grace, or to dissuade it; and somewhat 
the more in respect of my person, being, I hope, no 
unfit subject for noble dealing. The message I re- 
ceived by Mr. Meautys did import inconvenience, in 
the form of the pardon ; your lordship s last letter, in 
the time : for, as for the matter, it lay so fair for his 
majesty's and my lord of Buckingham's own know- 
ledge, as I conceive your lordship doth not aim at 
that. My affliction hath made me understand myself 
better, and not worse ; yet loving advice, I know, 
helps well. TKerefore I send Mr. Meautys to your 
lordship, that I might reap so much fruit of your 
lordship's professed good affection, as to know in 
some more particular fashion, what it is that your 
lordship doubteth, or dislike th, (a) that I may the 
better endeavour your satisfaction, or acquiescence, 
if there be cause. So I rest 

Your Lordship's to do you service, 
October 18, 1621. FK. ST. ALBAJT. 

Petition of the Lord Viscount St. Alb an, in- 
tended for the House of Lords. 

My right honourable very good Lords, 

In all humbleness, acknowledging your lordships jus- 
tice, I do now in like manner crave and implore your 
grace and compassion. I am old, weak, ruined, in 
want, a very subject of pity My only suit to your 
lordships is, to shew me your noble favour towards 

(a) The lord keeper, in a letter to the marquis of Buckingham, 
dated October 27, 1621, printed in the Cabala, p. 60. Edit. London, 
1664, gives his reasons, why he hesitated to seal that pardon. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 295 

the release of my confinement, so every confinement 
is, and to me, I protest, worse than the Tower, («) 
There I could have had company, physicians, con- 
ference with my creditors and friends about my debts, 
and the necessities of my estate, helps for my studies 
and the writings I have in hand. Here I live upon 
the sword- point of a sharp air, endangered if I go 
abroad, dulled if stay within, solitary and comfortless 
without company, banished from all opportunities to 
treat with any to do myself good, and to help out any 
wrecks : and that, which is one of my greatest griefs, 
my wife, that hath been no partaker of my offending, 
must be partaker of this misery of my restraint. 

May it please your lordships, therefore, since there 
is a time for justice, and a time for mercy, to think 
with compassion upon that which I have already suf- 
fered, which is not little : and to recommend this my 
humble, and, as I hope, modest suit to his most ex- 
cellent majesty, the fountain of grace, of whose mercy, 
for so much as concerns himself merely, I have al- 
ready tasted, and likewise of his favour of this very 
kind, by some small temporary dispensations. 

Herein your lordships shall do a work of charity 
and nobility : vou shall do me good ; you shall do 
my creditors good : and, it may be, you shall do pos- 
terity good, if out of the carcase of dead and rotten 
greatness, as out of Samson's lion, there may be 
honey gathered for the use of future times. 

God bless your persons and counsels. 

Your Lordships* supplicant and servant, 


Copy of the petition intended for the house of par- 

(a) He had been committed to the Tower, in May, 1621, and 
discharged after two days' confinement there, according to Camden, 
Annate* Regit Jacob Z. p. 7 1. There is a letter of his lordship to 
the marquis of Buckingham, dated from the Tower, May 31,. 1621, 
desiring his lordship to procure his discharge that day. 

296 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My eery good Lord, 

Receiving, by Mr. Johnson, your loving saluta- 
tions, it made me call to mind many of your lord- 
ship's tokens, yea and pledges, of good and hearty 
affection in both my fortunes ; for which I shall be 
ever yours. I pray my lord, if occasion serve, give 
me your good word to the king, for the release of 
my confinement, which is to me a very strait kind of 
imprisonment. I am no Jesuit, nor no leper, but 
one that served his majesty these sixteen years, even 
from the commission of the union till this last parlia- 
ment, and ever had many thanks of his majesty, and 
was never chidden. This his majesty, I know, will 
remember, at one time or other ; for I am his man 

God keep your lordship. 

Your Lordship's most affectionate to do you service, 

Gorhambury, this last 
of December, 1621. FR - ST ALBAN. 


My honourable Lord, 

I have received your lordship's letter, and have 
been long thinking upon it, and the longer, the less 
able to make answer unto it. Therefore if your 
lordship will be pleased to send any understanding 
man unto me, to whom I may, in discourse, open my- 
self, I will, by that means, so discover my heart with 
all freedom, which were too long to do by letter, 

(a) Created so in November, 1618, and in September, 1622, earl 
of Bristol. 

(b) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7000. 

Letters etc. ofj^ord Chancellor Bacon. 297 

especially in this time of parliament business, that 
your lordship shall receive satisfaction. In the mean 
time I rest 

Your Lordship s faithful servant, 

Royston, Dec. 16, [1621.] G. BUCKINGHAM. 


My very good Lord, 

The reason why I was so desirous to have had con- 
ference with your lordship at London, was indeed to 
save you the trouble of writing; I mean, the rea- 
son in the second place ; for the chief was to see your 
lordship. But since you are pleased to give me the 
liberty to send to your lordship one, to whom you will 
deliver your mind, I take that in so good part, as I 
think myself tied the more to use that liberty modest- 
ly. Wherefore, if your lordship will vouchsafe to 
send to me one of your own, except I might have 
leave to come to London, either Mr. Packer, my an- 
cient friend, or Mr Aylesbury, fa) of whose good 
affection towards me I have heard report ; to me it 
shall be indifferent. But if your lordship will have 
one of my nomination, if I might presume so far, I 
would name before all others, my lord of Falkland. 
But because perhaps it may cost him a journey, which 
I may not in good manners desire, I have thought of 
Sir Edward Sackville, Sir Robert Mansel, my bro- 
ther, Mr. Solicitor-general, (b) who, though he be 
almost a stranger to me, yet, as my case now is, I had 
rather employ a man of good nature than a friend, and 
Sir Arthur Ingram, notwithstanding he be great with 
my lord treasurer. Of these, if your lordship will be 
pleased to prick one, I hope well I shall in treat him to 

(a) Thomas Aylesbury, esq. secretary to the marquis of Bucking- 
ham as lord high admiral. He was created a baronet in 1627. Lord 
chancellor Clarendon married his daughter Frances. 

(b) Sir Robert Heath, made solicitor in January, 1620-1. 

298 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

attend your lordship, and to be sorry never a whit of 
the employment. Your lordship may take your own 
time to signify your will, in regard of the present 
business of parliament. But my time was confined, 
by due respect to write a present answer to a letter, 
which I construed to be a kind letter, and such 
as giveth me yet hope to shew myself to your 

Your Lordships most obliged friend 

and faithful servant, 


To the lord of Buckingham, in answer to his of the 
16th of December. 

A Memorial of Conference, when the Lord 
Viscount St. A lb an expected the marquis of 

My Lord Marquis, 

Inducement.'] Afflictions are truly called trials; 
trials of a man's self, and trials of friends. For the 
first, I am not guilty to myself of any unworthiness, 
except perhaps too much softness in the beginning 
of my troubles. But since, I praise God, I have 
not lived like a drone, nor like a mal-content, nor 
like a man confused. But though the world hath 
taken her talent from me, yet God's talent I put 
to use. 

For trial of friends, he cannot have many friends, 
that hath chosen to rely upon one. So that is in a 
small room, ending in yourself. My suit therefore to 
you is, that you would now, upon this vouchsafed 
conference, open yourself to me, whether I stand in 
your favour and affection, as I have done ; and if 
there be an alteration, what is the cause; and, if none, 
what effects I may expect for the future of your friend- 
ship and favour, my state being not unknown to you. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 299 

Reasons of doubting.'] The reasons, why I should 
doubt of your lordship's coolness towards me, or fall- 
ing from me, are either out of judgment and discourse, 
or out of experience, and somewhat that I find. My 
judgment telleth, that when a man is out of sight and 
out of use, it is a nobleness somewhat above this age 
to continue a constant friend : that some, that are 
thought to have your ear, or more, love me not, and 
may either disvalue me, or distaste your lordship with 
me. Besides, your lordship hath now so many, either 
new-purchased friends, or reconciled enemies, as 
there is scarce room for an old friend specially set 
aside. And lastly, I may doubt, that that, for which 
I was fittest, which was to carry things suavibus modis, 
and not to bristle, or undertake, or give venturous 
counsels, is out of fashion and request. 

As for that, I find your lordship knoweth, as well 
as I, what promises you made me, and iterated them 
back by message, and from your mouth, consisting of 
three things : the pardon of the whole sentence ; some 
help for my debts ; and an annual pension, which 
your lordship did set at 2000/. as obtained, and 
3000/. in hope. Of these being promises undesired, 
as well as favours undeserved, there is effected only 
the remission of the fine, and the pardon now stayed. 
From me I know there hath proceeded nothing, that 
may cause the change. These I lay before you, de- 
siring to know, what I may hope for ; for hopes are 
racks, and your lordship, that would not condemn 
me to the Tower, I know will not condemn me to 
the rack. 

The pardon stayed.] I have, though it be a thing 
trivial, and that at a coronation one might have it for 
five marks, and after a parliament for nothing, yet 
have great reason to desire it, specially being now 
stirred ; chiefly, first, because I have been so sifted ; 
and now it is time there were an end. Secondly, be- 
cause I mean to live a retired life ; and so cannot be 
at hand to shake off any clamour, 

For any offence the parliament should take, it is ra- 
ther honour, that in a thing, wherein the king is ab- 

300 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

solute, yet he will not interpose in that, which the 
parliament hath handled ; and the king hath already 
restored judicature, after a long intermission : but for 
matter of his grace, his majesty shall have reason to 
keep it entire. 

I do not think any, except a Turk or Tartar, 
would wish to have another chop out of me. But the 
best is, it will be found there is a time for envy, and a 
time for pity ; and cold fragments will not serve, if the 
stomach be on edge. For me, if they judge by that, 
which is past, they judge of the weather of this year 
by an almanack of the old year ; they rather repent 
of that they have done, and think they have but served 
the turns of a few 


May it please your Lordship, 

As soon as 1 came to London, I repaired to Sir Ed- 
ward Sackville, (b) whom I find very "zealous, as I told 
your lordship. I left him to do you service, in any 
particular you shall command him, to my lord mar- 
quis, though it were with some adventure; and withal 
he imparted to me what advice he had given to my 
lady this afternoon, upon his visiting of her at York- 
house, when Mr. Packer also, as it fell out, was 
come, at the same time, to see my lady, and seemed 
to concur with Sir Edward Sackville in the same 
ways ; which were, for my lady to become a suitor to 

(a) He had been secretary to the lord viscount St. Alban, while his 
lordship had the great seal, and was afterward clerk of the council, 
and knighted. He succeeded his patron in the manor of Gorham- 
bury, which, after the death of Sir Thomas, came to his cousin and 
heir, Sir Thomas Meautys, who married Anne, daughter of Sir Na- 
thaniel Bacon of Culford Hall, in Suffolk, knight ; which lady mar- 
ried a second husband, Sir Harbottle Grimstone, baronet, and mas- 
ter of the rolls ; who purchased the reversion of Gorhambury, from 
Sir Hercules Meautys, nephew of the second Sir Thomas. 

(b) Afterward Earl of Dorset, well known for his duel in 1613, 
with the lord Kinloss, in which the latter was killed. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 301 

my lady Buckingham, (a) and my lady marchioness, 
(c) to work my lord marquis for obtaining of the 
king some bounty towards your lordship ;^and in par- 
ticular, that of the thousand pounds for the small 
writs. If I may speak my opinion to your lordship, it 
is not amiss to begin any way, or with any particular, 
though but small game at first, only to set a rusty 
clock a-going, and then haply it may go right for a 
time, enough to bring on the rest of your lordship's re- 
quests. Yet because your lordship directed me to wish 
my lady, from you, by no means, to act anything, but 
only to open her mind, in discourse, unto friends, un- 
til she should receive your farther direction ; it be- 
came not me to be too forward in putting it on too fast 
with Sir Edward ; and my lady was pleased to tell me 
since, that she hath written to your lordship at large. 

I inquired, even now, of Benbow, whether the pro- 
clamation for dissolving the parliament were coming 
forth. He tells me he knows no more certainty of it 
than that Mr Secretary commanded him yesterday to 
be ready for dispatching of the writs, when he should 
be called for ; but since then he hears it sticks, and 
endures some qualms ; but they speak it still aloud 
at court, that the king is resolved of it. 

Benbow tells me likewise, that he hath attended, 
these two days, upon a committee of the lords, with 
the book of the commission of peace ; and that their 
work is to empty the commission in some counties by 
the score, and many of them parliament-men : which 
course sure helps to ring the passing-bell to the par- 

. Mr Borough (c) tells me, he is at this present fain 
to attend some service for the king ; but about Sa- 

(a) Mary, countess of Buckingham, mother of the marquis. 

(6) Catharine, marchioness of Buckingham, wife of the marquis, 
and only daughter and heir of Francis, earl of Rutland. 

(c) John Borough, educated in common law at Gray's Inn, keeper 
of the records of the Tower of London, secretary to the earl marshal, 
in 1623 made Norroy ; in July the year following knighted, and on 
the 23d of December, the same year, made garter king at arms in 
the place of Sir William Segar. He died October 21, 1643. 

302 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

turday he hopes to be at liberty to wait upon your 
lordship. I humbly rest 

Your Lordships for ever to honour and serve, 
January 3, 1621. T. MEAUTYS. 

To the right honourable my most honoured lord, the 
lord viscount St. Alban. 


May it -please your Lordship, 

This afternoon my lady found access to my lord 
marquis, procured for her by my lord of Montgomery 
(a) and Sir Edward Sackville, who seemed to contend, 
which of theni should shew most patience in waiting, 
which they did a whole afternoon, the opportunity to 
bring my lord to his chamber, where my lady attend- 
ed him. But when he was come, she found time 
enough to speak at large : and though my lord spake 
so loud, as that what passed was no secret to me and 
some others, that were within hearing ; yet, because 
my lady told me she purposeth to write to your 
lordship the whole passage, it becomes not me to 
anticipate, by these, any part of her ladyship's re- 

I send your lordship herewith the proclamation 
for dissolving the parliament ; wherein there is no- 
thing forgotten, that we (b) have done amiss : but for 
most of those things, that we have well done, we 
must be fain, I see, to commend ourselves. 

I delivered your lordship's to my lord of Montgo- 
mery, and Mr. Matthew, who was even then come 
to York-house to visit my lady, when I received the 
letter ; and, as soon as he had read it, he said, that 
he had rather your lordship had sent him a challenge ; 

(a) Philip, afterward earl of Pembroke. 

(b) Mr, Meautys was member, in this parliament, for the town of 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 303 

and that it had been easier to answer, than so noble 
and kind a letter. He intends to see your lordship 
some time this week ; and so doth Sir Edward Sack- 
ville, who is forward to make my lady a way by the 
prince, if your lordship advise it. 

There are packets newly come out of Spain : and 
the king, they say, seems well pleased with the con- 
tents ; wherein there is an absolute promise, and un- 
dertaking, for restitution of the Palatinate ; the dis- 
pensation returned already from the pope, and the 
match hastened on their parts. My lord Digby goes 
shortly ; and Mr. Matthew tells me, he means, be- 
fore his going, to write by him to your lordship. 

The king goes not till Wednesday, and the prince 
certainly goes with him. My lord marquis, in person, 
christens my lord of Falkland's child to-morrow, at 
his house by Watford. 

Mr. Murray (a) tells me, the king hath given your 
book (b) to my lord Brooke, (c) and injoined him to 
read it, recommending it much to him ; and then my 
lord Brooke is to return it to your lordship; and so it 
may go to the press, when your lordship pleases, 
with such amendments, as the king hath made, which 
I have seen, and are very few, and those rather words, 
as epidemic, and mild instead of debonnaire, Sgc. Only 
that of persons attainted, enabled to serve in par- 
liament by a bare reversal of their attainder, the king 
by all means will have left out. I met with my lord 
Brooke, and told him, that Mr. Murray had directed 
me to wait upon him for the book, when he had 
done with it. He desired to be spared this week, 
as being to him a week of much business, and the 
next week I should have it : and he ended in a com- 
pliment, that care should be taken, by all means, 

(a) Either John Murray of the king's bed-chamber, mentioned 
above in the letter of 21 January, 1614, or Thomas Murray, tutor 
and secretary to the prince, made provost of Eton-College, in the 
room of Sir Henry Saville, who died February 19, 1621-2. Mr. 
Murray died likewise, April 1, 1623. 

(b) The History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh. 
\r) Fulk Grevile. 

304 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

for good ink and paper to print it in ; for that the 
book deserveth it. 

1 beg leave to kiss your lordship's hands. 

Your Lordship's in all humbleness 

to honour and serve, 

January 7, 1621-2. T. MEAUTYS. 

This proclamation is not yet sealed ; and therefore 
your lordship may please, as yet, to keep it in your 
own hands. 


]\Iy jnost hotioured Lord, 

I met, even now, with a piece of news so unex- 
pected, and yet so certainly true, as that, howsoever 
I had much ado, at first, to desire the relater to 
speak probably ; yet now I dare send it your lord- 
ship upon my credit. It is my lord of Somerset's 
and his lady's coming out of the Tower, on Sa- 
turday last, (a) fetched forth by my lord of Falkland, 
and without the usual degrees of confinement, at first 
to some one place (b) but absolute and free to go 
where they please. I know not how peradventure 
this might occasion you to cast your thoughts, touch- 
ing yourself, into some new mould, though not in the 
main, yet in something on the bye. 

I beg leave to kiss your lordship's hands. 

Your Lordship's in all humbleness, 
for ever to honour and serve you, 


(a) January 6, 1621-2. Camdeni Annales Regis Jacobi I. p. 77. 

(b) Camden ubi supra, says, " that the earl was ordered to confine 
himself to the lord viscount Wallingford's house or neighbourhood." 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 305 


My Lord, 

It is not unknown to your lordship, that in respect 
I am now a married man, I have more reason than be- 
fore to think of providing me some house in London, 
whereof I am yet destitute ; and for that purpose, I 
have resolved to intreat your lordship, that I may 
deal with you for York-house ; wherein I will not 
offer any conditions to your loss. And, in respect I 
have understood, that the consideration of your lady's 
wanting a house hath bred some difficulty in your 
lordship to part with it, I will for that make offer unto 
your lordship and your lady, to use the house in Can- 
non-row, late the earl of Hertford's, being a very 
commodious and capable house, wherein I and my 
wife have absolute power; and whereof your lordship 
shall have as long time as you can challenge or desire 
of York-house. In this I do freelier deal with your 
lordship, in respect I know you are well assured of 
my well -wishes to you in general ; and that in this 
particular, though I have not been without thoughts 
of this house before your lordship had it; yet I was 
willing to give way to your lordship's more pressing 
use thereof then. And as I do not doubt of your lord- 
ship's endeavour to gratify me in this ; so I shall 
esteem it as an extraordinary courtesy, which I will 
study to requite by all means. 

So, with my best wishes to your lordship, I rest 

Your Lordship's most loving friend, 


In respect my lord of Buckingham was once desi- 
rous to have had this house, I would not deal for it 
till now, that he is otherwise provided. 

Whitehall, the 29th of January, 1621. 
To the right honourable my very good lord, my lord 
viscount St. Alban. 

VOL. VI. x 

306 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My very good Lord, 
I am sorry to deny your grace any thing ; but in 
this you will pardon me. York-house is the house, 
wherein my father died, and wherein I first breathed ; 
and there will I yield my lastbreath, if so please God, 
and the king will give me leave ; though I be now 
by fortune, as the old proverb is, like a bear in a 
monk's hood. At least no money, no value, shall 
make me part with it. Besides, as I never denied it 
to my lord marquis, so yet the difficulty I made was 
so like a denial, as I owe unto my great love and re- 
spect to his lordship a denial to all my other friends ; 
among whom, in a very near place next his lordship, 
I ever account of your grace. So, not doubting, that 
you will continue me in your former love and good 
affection, I rest 

Your Grace's to do you humble service 

affectionate, &;c. 


My very good Lord, 

As my hopes, since my misfortunes, have proceeded 
of your lordship's mere motion, without any petition 
of mine ; so I leave the times and the ways to the 
same good mind of yours. True it is, a small mat- 
ter for my debts would do me more good now, 
than double a twelvemonth hence. I have lost six 
thousand pounds by year, besides caps and courtesies. 
But now a very moderate proportion would suffice ; 
for still I bear a little of the mind of a commissioner 
of the treasury, not to be over-chargeable to his ma- 
jesty ; and two things I may assure your lordship of; 
the one, that I shall lead such a course of life, as 
whatsoever the king doth for me, shall rather sort to 
his majesty's and your lordship's honour, than to 
envy : the other, that whatsoever men talk, I can play 
the good husband, and the king's bounty shall not be 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 307 

lost. If your lordship think good, the prince should 
come in to help ; I know his highness wisheth me 
well ; if you will let me know when, and how, he 
may be used. But the king is the fountain, who, 
I know, is good. 
God prosper you. 

Your Lordship's most bounden and faithful 
Gorhambury, January 30, 1621. FR- ST# ALBAN. 


Afy very good Lord, 
Your lordship dealeth honourably with me in giving 
me notice, that your lordship is provided of an house, 
(a) whereby you discontinue the treaty your lord- 
ship had with me for York-house, although I shall 
make no use of this notice, as to deal with any other. 
For I was ever resolved your lordship should have 
had it, or no man. But your lordship doth yet more 
nobly, in assuring me, you never meant it with any 
the least inconvenience to myself. May it please 
your lordship likewise to be assured from me, that I 
ever desired you should have it, and do still continue 
of the same mind. 

I humbly pray your lordship, to move his majesty 
to take some commiseration of my long imprisonment. 
When I was in the Tower, I was nearer help of phy- 
sic ; I could parly with my creditors ; I could deal 
with friends about my business ; I could have helps 
at hand for my writings and studies wherein I spend 
my time ; all which here fail me. Good my lord, 
deliver me out of this ; me, who am his majesty's 
devout beadsman, and 

Your Lordship's most obliged frknd 

and faithful servant, 
Gorhambury, this 3d of Feb. 1621. FR. ST, ALBAN. 

(a) Mr. Chamberlain, in a MS. letter to Sir Dudley Carleton, 
dated at London, January 19, 1621-2, mentions, that the marquis of 
Buckingham had contracted with the lord and lady Wallingford, for 
their house near Whitehall, for some money. 

x 2 

308 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My most honoured Lord, 
At your last going to Gorhambury, you were pleased 
to have speech with me about some passages of par- 
liament ; touching which, I conceived, by your lord- 
ship, that I should have had farther direction by a 
gentleman, to whom you committed some care and 
consideration of your lordship's intentions therein. I 
can only give this account of it, that never was any 
man more willing or ready to do your lordship ser- 
vice, than myself; and in that you then spake of, I 
had been most forward to have done whatsoever I 
had been, by farther direction, used in. But I under- 
stood, that your lordship's pleasure that way was 
changed. Since, my lord, I was advised with, touch- 
ing the judgments given in the late parliament. For 
them, if it please your lordship to hear my weak 
judgment expressed freely to you, I conceive thus. 
First, that admitting it were no session, but only a 
convention, as the proclamation calls it; yet the judg- 
ments given in the upper house, if no other reason be 
against them, are good ; for they are given by the 
lords, or the upper house, by virtue of that Ordinary 
authority, which they have as the supreme court of 
judicature ; which is easily to be conceived, without 
any relation to the matter of session, which consists 
only in the passing of acts, or not passing them, with 
the royal assent. And though no session of the three 
states together be without such acts so passed ; yet 
every part of the parliament severally did its own 
acts legally enough to continue, as the acts of other 
courts of justice are done. And why should any 
doubts be, but that a judgment out of the King's 
Bench, or Exchequer Chamber, reversed there, had 
been good, although no session? For there was truly 
a parliament, truly an upper house, which exercised 
by itself this power of judicature, although no session. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 309 

Yet withal, my lord, I doubt, it will fall out, upon 
fuller consideration, to be thought a session also. 
Were it not for the proclamation, I should be clearly 
of that mind ; neither doth the clause, in the act of 
subsidy, hinder it. For that only prevented the de- 
termination of the session at that instant ; but did not 
prevent the being of a session, whensoever the par- 
liament should be dissolved. But because that point 
was resolved in the proclamation, and also in the 
commission of dissolution on the 8th of February, I 
will rest satisfied. 

But there are also examples of former times, that 
may direct us in that point of the judgment, in re- 
gard there is store of judgments of parliament, espe- 
cially under Edward I. and Edward II. in such con- 
ventions, as never had, for aught appears, any act 
passed in them. 

Next, my lord, I conceive thus ; that by reason 
there is no record of those judgments, it may be justly 
thought, that they are of no force. For thus it stands. 
The lower house exhibited the declarations in paper; 
and the lords, receiving them, proceeded to judgment 
verbally; and the notes of their judgments are taken 
by the clerk, in the journal only ; which, as I think, 
is no record of itself; neither was it ever used as 
one. Now the record, that in former times was of 
the judgments and proceedings there, was in this 
form. The accusation was exhibited in parchment ; 
and being so received, and indorsed, was the first 
record ; and that remained filed among the bills of 
parliament, it being' of itself as the bills in the King's 
Bench. Then out of this there was a formal judg- 
ment, with the accusation entered into that roll, or 
second record, which the clerk transcribes by ancient 
use, and sends into the chancery. 

But in this case there are none of these : neither 
doth any thing seem to help to make a record of it, 
than only this, that the clerk may enter it, now after 
the parliament; which, I doubt, he cannot. Because, 
although in other courts the clerks enter all, and 
make their records after the term ; yet in this parlia- 

310 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

mentary proceeding it fells out, that the court being 
dissolved, the clerk cannot be said to have such a re- 
lation to the parliament, which is nof then at all in 
being, as the prothonotaries of the courts of West- 
minster hare to their courts, which stand only ad- 
journed. Besides, there cannot be an example found, 
by which it may appear, that ever any record of the 
first kind, where the transcript is into the chancery, 
was made in parliament ; but only sitting the house, 
and in their view But this I offer to your lordship's 
farther consideration, desiring your favourable cen- 
sure of my fancy herein; which, with whatsoever 
ability I may pretend to, shall ever be desirous to 
serve you, to whom I shall perpetually own myself 

Your Lordships most humble servant, 

From the Temple, February SFLDEX 

xry, ciddCxxi. " 

My Lord, 

If your lordship have done that with Mascardus de 
Interpretatione Statutorily, (a) I shall be glad, that you 
would give order that I might use it- And for that 
of 12 Hen. 7. touching the grand council in the ma- 
nuscript, I have since seen a privy seal of the time 
of Henry 7. (without a year) directed to borrow for 
the king ; and in it there is a recital of a grand coun- 
cil, which thought, that such a sum was fit to be 
levied ; whereof the Lords gave 40,000/. and the rest 
was to be gotten by privy seal upon loan. Doubt- 
less, my lord, this interprets that of the manuscript 

On the back of this letter are the following notes by the 
lord viscount St. Alban. 

" The case of the judgment in parliament, upon a 
" writ of error put by Just. Hu. (b) 

(a) Alderani Mascardi communes coitclvsiones utriusque juris ad 
generalem statutorily* interpretationem accommodates ; printed at Fer- 
rer», 1608. 

(h) Hutton. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 311 

" The case of no judgment entered into the court 
" of augmentations, or survey of first fruits ; which 
" are dissolved, where there may be an entry after, 
" out of a paper-book. 

" Mem. All the acts of my proceeding were after 
" the royal assent to the subsidy " 


Good Mr Matthew, 

In this solitude of friends, which is the base court (b) 
of adversity, where almost no body will be seen stir- 
ring, I have often remembered a saying of my lord 
ambassador of Spain, (c) Amor sin Jin no tiene Jin. (d) 
This moveth me to make choice of his excellent lord- 
ship for his noble succours towards not the aspiring 
but the respiring of my fortunes. 

I, that am a man of books, have observed his lord- 
ship to have the magnanimity of his own nation, and 
the cordiality of ours ; and, by this time, I think he 
hath the wit of both. Sure I am. that for myself I 
have found him, in both my fortunes, to esteem me 
so much above value, and to love me so much above 
possibility of deserving, or obliging on my part, as if 
he were a friend reserved for such a time as this. I 
have known his lordship likewise, while I stood in a 
stand where I might look about, a most faithful and 
respective friend to my lord marquis ; who, next the 
king and the prince, was my raiser, and must be, he 
or none, I do not say my restorer, but my reliever. 

I have, as I made you acquainted at your being 
with me, a purpose to present my lord marquis with 
an offer of my house and lands here at Gorhambury ; 

(a) This, and the following letter of March 5, 1 621-2, to the mar- 
quis of Buckingham, are inserted from the originals, much more 
complete and exact, than the copies of them printed in his works. 

(b) Basse cour. 

(c) Count Gondomar.who returned to Spain about March 1621-2. 

(d) Love without ends hath no end. 

312 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

a thing, which, as it is the best means I have now 
left to demonstrate my affection to his lordship, so 
I hope it will be acceptable to him. This proposi- 
tion I desire to put into no other hand but my lord 
ambassador's, as judging his hand to be the safest, 
the most honourable, and the most effectual for my 
good, if my lord will be pleased to deal in it. And 
when I had thus resolved, I never sought, nor thought 
of any mean but yourself, being so private, faithful, 
and discreet a friend to us both. I desire you there- 
fore, good Mr. Matthew, to acquaint my lord ambas- 
sador with this overture ; and both to use yourself, 
and desire at his lordship's hands secrecy therein ; 
and withal to let his lordship know, that in this 
business, whatsoever in particular you shall treat 
with him, I shall not fail, in all points, to make good 
and perform. 

Commend my humble service to his lordship. I 
ever rest 

Your most affectionate and assured friend, 

Gorhambury, Feb. 28, 1621. FR. ST ALBAN 


My very good Lord, 

Though I have returned answer to your lordship's 
last letter by the same way by which I received it ; 
yet I humbly pray your lordship to give me leave to 
add these few lines. 

My lord, as God above is witness, that I ever 
have loved and honoured your lordship, as much, I 
think, as any son of Adam can love or honour any 
subject, and continue in as hearty and strong wishes 
of felicity to be heaped and fixed upon you, as ever ; 
so, as low as I am, I had rather sojourn in a college 
in Cambridge, than recover a good fortune by any 
other but yourself. Marry, to recover yourself to 
me, if I have you not, or to ease your lordship in 
any thing, wherein your lordship would not so fully 
appear, or to be made participant of your favours in 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 313 

your own way, I would use any man, that were your 
lordship's friend; and therefore good my lord, in 
that let me not be mistaken. Secondly, if in any 
of my former letters I have given your lordship 
any distaste by the stile of them, or any particular 
passages, 1 humbly pray your lordship's benign con- 
struction and pardon. For, I confess, it is my fault, 
though it be some happiness to me withal, that I do 
most times forget my adversity But I shall never 
forget to be 

Your Lordships most obliged friend 
and faithful servant, 
March 5, 1621. FR. ST. ALBAN 


My meaning was, if my lord should obtain for me, 
by his noble mediation, in consideration of my ser- 
vices past, and other respects to do that, for my re- 
lief, which I was suitor for by my lord's noble medi- 
ation, and whereof I was in good hope, to have pre- 
sented my lord withGorhambury in possession, out of 
gratitude and love, for nothing. 

My meaning was, if my lord should prevail for me 
in my suit to the king for reward of services, and re- 
lief of my poor estate, to have presented him with 
Gorhambury, out of gratitude and love, for nothing, 
except some satisfaction to my wife, for her interest. 

If my lord like better to proceed by way of bargain, 
so I find that I may but subsist, 1 will deserve of his 
honour, and express my love in a friendly penny- 

The third point to be added : 

This as his work?\ The more for kissing the king's 
hands presently. 

The reasons, stalling my debts. 

Willingness in my friends to help me. 

None will be so bold as to oppress me. 

The pretence, that the king would give me direc- 
tion, in what nature of writings to expend my time. 

314 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

The letter to expect yet, and the manner of the de- 

That my lord do not impute it, if he hear I deal 
with others ; for he shall better perceive the value, 
and I shall make it good to his lordship, being my 
state requireth speed. 


May it please your Lordship, 

Remembering, that the letter your lordship put yes- 
terday into my hand was locked up under two or 
three seals, it ran in my head, that it might be busi- 
ness of importance, and require haste ; and not find- 
ing Mr. Matthew in town, nor any certainty of his re- 
turn till Monday or Tuesday, 1 thought it became me 
to let your lordship know it, that so I might receive 
your lordship's pleasure, if need were, to send it by 
as safe a hand, as if it had three seals more. 

My lord, I saw Sir Arthur Ingram, who let fall 
somewhat, as if he could have been contented to have 
received a letter by me from your lordship, with some- 
thing in it like an acknowledgment to my lord trea- 
surer, (a) that by his means you had received a kind 
letter from my lord marquis. But, in the close, he 
came about, and fell rather to excuse what was left 
out of the letter, than to please himself much with 
what was in it. Only indeed he looked upon me, as 
if he did a little distrust my good meaning in it. But 
that is all one to me ; for I have been used to it, of 
late, from others, as well as from him. But persons 
apt to be suspicious may well be borne with ; for cer- 
tainly they trouble themselves most, and lose most by 
it. For of such it is a hard question, whether those 
be fewest whom they trust, or those who trust them. 
But for him, and some others, I will end in a wish, 
that, as to your lordship's service, they might prove 

(«) Lionel, lord Cranfield, made lord treasurer in October, 1621. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 315 

but half so much honester, as they think themselves 
wiser, than other men. 

It is doubtful, whether the king will come to-mor- 
row or not ; for they say he is full of pain in his feet. 

My lord marquis came late to town last night, and 
goeth back this evening : and Sir Edward Sackville 
watcheth an opportunity to speak with him before 
he go. 

However, he wisheth that your lordship would lose 
no time in returning an answer, made all of sweet- 
meats, to my lord marquis's letter, which, he is con- 
fident, will be both tasted and digested by him. And 
Sir Edward wisheth, that the other letter to my lord 
marquis, for presenting your discourse of laws to his 
majesty, might follow the first. I humbly rest 

Your Lordship's for ever truly 

to honour and serve you, 
Martii 3, 1621. 



May it please your Lordship, 

I had not failed to appear this night, upon your 
lordship's summons, but that my stay till to-morrow, 
I knew would mend my welcome, by bringing Mr. 
Matthew, who means to dine with your lordship 
only, and so to rebound back to London, by reason 
my lord Digby's journey calls for him on the sudden. 
Neither yet was this all that stayed me ; for I hear 
somewhat, that I like reasonably well; and yet T 
hope it will mend too ; which is, that my lord mar- 
quis hath sent you a message by my lord of Falk- 
land, which is a far better hand than my lord trea- 
surer's, that gives you leave to come presently to 
Highgate : and Sir Edward Sackville, speaking for 
the other five miles, my lord commended his care 
and zeal for your lordship, but silenced him thus : 
" Let my lord be ruled by me : it will be never the 

316 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 
worse for him." But my lord marquis saying farther 
to him, " Sir Edward, however you play a good 
" friend's part for my lord St. Alban ; yet I must 
" tell you, I have not been well used by him." And 
Sir Edward desiring of him to open himself in what- 
soever he might take offence at ; and withal, taking 
upon him to have known so much from time to time, 
of your lordship's heart, and endeavours towards his 
lordship, as that he doubted not but he was able to 
clear any mist, that had been cast before his lord- 
ship's eyes by your enemies ; my lord marquis, by 
this time being ready to go to the Spanish ambas- 
sador's to dinner, broke off with Sir Edward, and 
told him, that after dinner he would be back at Wal- 
lingford-house, and then he would tell Sir Edward 
more of his mind ; with whom I have had newly con- 
ference at large, and traced out to him, as he desired 
me, some particulars of that, which they call a treaty 
with my lord treasurer about York-house, which Sir 
Edward Sackville knows how to put together, and 
make a smooth tale of it for your lordship ; and this 
night I shall know all from him, and to-morrow, by 
dinner, I shall not fail to attend your lordship : till 
when, and ever, I rest 

Your Lo7'dships in all truth 

to honour and serve you, 

Indorsed MEAUTYS. 

Received March 1 1 . 


My very good Lord, 

Your lordship's letter was the best letter I received 
this good while, except the last kind letter from my 
lord of Buckingham, which this confirmeth. It is the 
best accident, one of them, amongst men, when they 
hap to be obliged to those, whom naturally and per- 

(a) Appointed lord deputy of Ireland, September 8, 1622. 

Letters, etc, of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 317 

sonally they love, as I ever did your lordship ; in 
troth not many between my lord marquis and your- 
self; so that the sparks of my affection shall ever rest 
quick, under the ashes of my fortune, to do you ser- 
vice; and wishing to your fortune and family all 

Your Lordship's most affectionate, 

and much obliged, 8$c. 

I pray your lordship to present my humble service 
and thanks to my lord marquis, to whom, when I 
have a little paused, I purpose to write ; as likewise 
to his majesty, for whose health and happiness, as 
his true beadsman, I most frequently pray 


March 1 1 . Copy of my answer to Lord Falkland. 


My very good Lord, 

I have received, by my noble friend, my lord vis- 
count Falkland, advertisement, as from my lord mar- 
quis, of three things ; the one, that, upon his lord- 
ship's motion to his majesty, he is graciously pleased 
to grant some degree of release of my confinement. 
The second, that if I shall gratify your lordship, who, 
my lord understandeth, are desirous to treat with me 
about my house at London, with the same, his lord- 
ship will take it as well, as if it was done to himself. 
The third, that his majesty hath referred unto your 
lordship the consideration of the relief of my poor 
estate. 1 have it also from other part, yet by such, 
as have taken it immediately from my lord marquis, 
that your lordship hath done me to the king very 
good offices. My lord, I am much bounden to you : 
wherefore if you shall be pleased to send Sir Arthur 
Ingram, who formerly moved me in it for your lord- 

(«) Lionel, lord Cranfield. 

318 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

ship, to treat farther with me, I shall let your lord- 
ship see how affectionately I am desirous to pleasure 
your lordship after my lord of Buckingham. 

So wishing your lordship's weighty affairs, for his 
majesty's service, a happy return to his majesty's 
contentment, and your honour, I rest 

Your Lordship's very affectionate 

to do you service, 


March 12. To the lord treasurer. 


My very good Lord, 

The honourable correspondence, which your lord- 
ship hath been pleased to hold with my noble and 
constant friend, my lord marquis, in furthering his 
majesty's grace towards me, as well concerning my 
liberty, as the consideration of my poor estate, hath 
very much obliged me to your lordship, the more by 
how much the less likelihood there is, that I shall be 
able to merit it at your lordship's hands. Yet thus 
much I am glad of, that this course, your lordship 
holds with me, doth carry this much upon itself, that 
the world shall see in this, amongst other things, 
that you have a great and noble heart. 

For the particular business of York-house, Sir Ar- 
thur Ingram can bear me witness, that I was ready to 
leave the conditions to your lordship's own making 
but since he tells me plainly, that your lordship will 
by no means have to be so, you will give me leave 
to refer it to Sir Arthur Ingram, who is so much your 
lordship's servant, and no less faithful friend to me, 
and understands values well, to set a price between 

For the reference his majesty hath been graciously 
pleased, at my lord marquis's suit, to make unto your 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 319 

lordship, touching the relief of my poor estate, (a) 
which my lord of Falkland's letter hath signified, 
warranting me likewise to address myself to your 
lordship touching the same; I humbly pray your lord- 
ship to give it dispatch, my age, health, and fortunes, 
making time to me therein precious. Wherefore, if 
your lordship, who knoweth best what the king may 
best do, have thought of any particular, I would de- 
sire to know from your good lordship : otherwise I 
have fallen myself upon a particular, which I have re- 
lated to Sir Arthur, and, I hope, will seem modest, for 
my help to live and subsist. As for somewhat to- 
wards the paying off my debts, which are now my 
chief care, and without charge of the king's coffers, I 
will not now trouble your lordship ; but purposing to 
be at Chiswick, where I have taken a house, within 
this sevennight, I hope to wait upon your lordship, 
and to gather some violets in your garden, and will 
then impart unto you, if I have thought of any thing 
of that nature for my good. 

So I ever rest, &c. 



May it please your Lordship, 

I have been attending upon my lord marquis's mi- 
nutes for the signing of the warrant. This day he pur- 
posed in earnest to have done it : but it falls out unto- 
wardly, for the warrant was drawn, as your lordship 
remembers, in haste, at Gorhambury, and in as much 
haste delivered to Sir Edward Sackville, as soon as I 
alighted from my horse, who instantly put it into my 
lord marquis's hands, so that no copy could possibly 
be taken of it by me. Now his lordship hath searched 
much for it, and is yet at a loss, which I knew not 

(a) The lord viscount St. Alban, in a letter to the king, from Gor- 
hambury, 20th of March, 1621-2, thanks his majesty for referring 
the consideration of his broken estate to his good lord the lord treasurer. 

320 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

till six this evening : and because your lordship drew 
it with caution, I dare not venture it upon my me- 
mory to carry level what your lordship wrote, and 
therefore dispatched away this messenger, that so 
your lordship, by a fresh post, for this will hardly do 
it, may send a warrant to your mind, ready drawn, to 
be here to-morrow by seven o'clock, as Sir Arthur (a) 
tells me my lord marquis hath directed : for the king 
goes early to Hampton-Court, and will be here on 

Your books (b) are ready, and passing well bound 
up. If your lordship's letters to the king, prince, and 
my lord marquis were ready, I think it were good to 
lose no time in their delivery ; for the printers fin- 
gers itch to be selling. 

My lady hath seen the house at Chiswick, and may 
make a shift to like it : only she means to come to 
your lordship*thither, and not go first : and therefore 
your lordship may please to make the more haste, for 
the great lords long to be in York-house. 

Mr. Johnson will be with your lordship to-morrow ; 
and then I shall write the rest. 

Your Lordship's in all humbleness 

and honour to serve you. 


Good Mr. Meautys, 

For the difference of the warrant, it is not material 
at the first. But I may not stir till I have it ; and 
therefore I expect it to-morrow 

For my lord of London s(c) stay, there may be 
an error in my book ; (d) but I am sure there is none 
in me, since the king had it three months by him, 

(a) Ingram. 

(b) History of the Reign of King Henry VII. 

(c) Dr. George Mountain. 

(rf) His History of the Reign of King Henry VII. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 321 

and allowed it : if there be any thing to be mended, 
it is better to be espied now than hereafter. 

I send you the copies of the three letters, which 
you have ; and, in mine own opinion, this demur, as 
you term it, in my lord of London, maketh it more ne- 
cessary than before, that they were delivered, spe- 
cially in regard they contain withal my thanks. It 
may be signified they were sent before I knew of any 
stay ; and being but in those three hands, they are 
private enough. But this I leave merely at your dis- 
cretion, resting 

Your most affectionate and assured friend, 

March 21, 1621. FR. ST. alban. 


Good Mr, Matthew, 

I do make account, God willing, to be at Chiswick 
on Saturday ; or, because this weather is terrible to 
one, that hath kept much in, Monday. 

In my letter of thanks to my lord marquis, which 
is not yet delivered, but to be forthwith delivered, I 
have not forgotten to mention, that I have received 
signification of his noble favour and affection, amongst 
other ways, from yourself by name. If, upon your 
repair to the court, whereof I am right glad, you 
have any speech with the marquis of me, I pray 
place the alphabet, as you can do it right well, in 
a frame, to express my love faithful and ardent to- 
wards him. And for York- house, that whether in 
a straight line, or a compass line, I meant it his lord- 
ship in the way, which I thought might please him 
best. I ever rest 

Your most affectionate and assured friend, 

March 21, 1621. FR. ST. ALBAN. 

Though your journey to court be before your re- 
ceipt of this letter, yet it may serve for another 

vol. vr. Y 

322 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


It may please your Majesty, 
I fivd in books, and books I dare alledge to your 
majesty, in regard of your singular ability to read and 
judge of them even above your sex, that it is ac- 
counted a great bliss for a man to have leisure with 
honour. That was never my fortune, nor is. For 
time was, I had honour without leisure ; and now I 
have leisure without honour. And I cannot say so 
neither altogether, considering there remain with me 
the marks and stamp of the king's your father's grace, 
though I go not for so much in value as I have done. 
But my desire is now to have leisure without loitering, 
and not to become an abbey-lubber, as the old pro- 
verb was, but to yield some fruit of my private life. 
Having therefore written the reign of your majesty's 
famous ancestor, king Henry the Seventh ; and it hav- 
ing passed the file of his majesty's judgment, and been 
graciously also accepted of the prince, your brother, 
to whom it is dedicated, I could not forget my duty 
so far to your excellent majesty, to whom, for that I 
know and have heard, I have been at all times so much 
bound, as you are ever present with me, both in af- 
fection and admiration, as not to make unto you, in all 
humbleness, a present thereof, as now being not able 
to give you tribute of any service. If king Henry the 
Seventh were alive again, I hope verily he could not 
be so angry with me for not nattering him, as well 
pleased in seeing himself so truly described in co- 
lours that will last and be believed. I most humbly 
pray your majesty graciously to accept of my good 
will; and so, with all reverence, kiss your hands, pray- 
ing to God above, by his divine and most benign pro- 
vidence, to conduct your affairs to happy issue ; and 

Your Majesty's most humble 

and devoted servant, 

April 20, 1622. FR. ST. ALBAN. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 323 



My very honoured Lord, 

Longing to yield an account of my stewardship, 
and that I had not buried your talent in the ground, 
I waited yesterday the marquis's pleasure, until I 
found a fit opportunity to importune some return 
of his lordship's resolution. The morning could not 
afford it ; for time only allowed leave to tell him, I 
would say something. In the afternoon 1 had amends 
for all. In the forenoon he laid the law, but in the 
afternoon he preached the gospel ; when, after some 
revivations of the old distaste concerning York-house, 
he most nobly opened his heart unto me, wherein I 
read that which argued much good towards you. 
After which revelation, the book was again sealed 
up, and must, in his own time, only by himself be 
again manifested unto you. I have leave to remem- 
ber some of the vision, and am not forbidden to write 
it. He vowed, not court-like, but constantly, to ap- 
pear your friend so much, as if his majesty should 
abandon the care of you, you should share his for- 
tune with him. He pleased to tell me, how much 
he had been beholden to you ; how well he loved 
you ; how unkindly he took the denial of your house, 
for so he will needs understand it. But the close, for 
all this, was harmonious, since he protested he would 
seriously begin to study your ends, now that the 
world should see he had no ends on you. He is in hand 
with the work, and therefore will, by no means, ac- 
cept of your offer ; though, I can assure you, the ten- 
der hath much won upon him, and mellowed his heart 
towards you ; and your genius directed you right, 
when you wrote that letter of denial unto the duke, (a) 
The king saw it, and all the rest; which made him say 
unto the marquis, you played an after-game well ; 

(a) Of Lenox, of the 30th of January, 1621-2. 

324 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

and that now he had no reason to be puch of- 

I have already talked of the revelation, and now 
am to speak in apocalypitical language, which I hope 
you will rightly comment ; whereof, if you make dif- 
ficulty, the bearer (a) can help you with the key of the 

My lord Falkland, by this time, hath shewed you 
London from Highgate. If York-house were gone, 
the town were yours ; and all your straitest shackles 
cleared off, besides more comfort than the city air 
only. The marquis would be exceedingly glad the 
treasurer had it. This I know ; but this you must not 
know from me. Bargain with him presently, upon 
as good conditions as you can procure, so you have 
direct motion from the marquis to let him have it. 
Seem not to dive into the secret of it ; though you are 
purblind if you see not through it. I have told Mr. 
Meautys how I would wish your lordship to make 
an end of it. From him I beseech you, take it, and 
from me only the advice to perform it. If you part 
not speedily with it, you may defer the good which is 
approaching near you, and disappointing other aims, 
which must either shortly receive content, or never, 
perhaps, anew yield matter of discontent, though 
you may be, indeed, as innocent as before. Make 
the treasurer believe, that since the marquis will by 
no means accept of it, and that you must part with it, 
you are more willing to pleasure him than any body 
else, because you are given to understand my lord 
marquis so inclines; which inclination, if the treasurer 
shertly send unto you about it, desire may be more 
clearly manifested than as yet it hath been ; since, as 
I remember, none hitherto hath told you in termini s 
terminantibus, that the marquis desires you should gra- 
tify the treasurer. I know that way the hare runs ; 
and that my lord marquis longs until Cranfield hath 
it ; and so I wish too, for your good, yet would not it 
were absolutely passed, until my lord marquis did 

(a) Probably Mr. Meautys. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 325 

send, or write, unto you, to let him have it ; for then 
his so disposing of it were but the next degree re- 
moved from the immediate acceptance of it, and your 
lordship freed from doing it otherwise than to please 
him, and to comply with his own will and way. 

I have no more to say, but that I am, and ever 
will be 

Your Lordship's most affectionate friend 

and humble servant, 


Received the 11th May, 1622. 


My very good Lord, 

I understand, there is an extent prayed against 
me, and a surety of mine, by the executors of one 
Harris, a goldsmith. The statute is twelve years' 
old, and falleth to an executor, or an executor of an 
executor, I know not whether. And it was sure a 
statute, collected out of a shop-debt, and much of it 
paid. I humbly pray your lordship, according to 
justice and equity, to stay the extent, being likewise 
upon a double penalty, till I may better inform my- 
self touching a matter so long past, and if it be re- 
quisite, put in a bill, that the truth of the account 
appearing, such satisfaction may be made as shall be 
fit. So I rest 

Your Lordship's affectionate 

to do you faithful service, 

May 30, 1622. FR. ST. ALBAN 

326 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My very good Lord, 
I thought it appertained to my duty, both as a 
subject, and as he that took once the oath of a coun- 
sellor, to make known to your lordship an advertise- 
ment, which came to me this morning. A gentle- 
man, a dear friend of mine, whom your lordship can- 
not but imagine, though I name him not, told me 
thus much, that some English priests, that negociated 
at Rome to facilitate the dispensation, did their own 
business, that was his phrase ; for they negociated 
with the pope to erect some titulary bishops for Eng- 
land, that might ordain, and have other spiritual fa- 
culties ; saying withal most honestly, that he thought 
himself bound to impart this to some counsellor, both 
as a loyal subject, and as a Catholic ; for that he 
doubted it might be a cause to cross the graces and 
mercies, which the Catholics now enjoy, if it be not 
prevented; and he asked my advice, whether he 
should make it known to your lordship, or to my lord 
keeper, (a) when he came back to London. I com- 
mended his loyalty and discretion, and wished him 
to address himself to your lordship, who might com- 
municate it with my lord keeper, if you saw cause, 
and that he repaired to your lordship presently, which 
he resolved to do. Nevertheless, I did not think 
mine own particular duty acquitted, except I certified 
it also myself, borrowing so much of private friend- 
ship in a cause of state, as not to tell him I would do 
so much. 


My letter to my lord marquis, touching the business 
of estate advertised by Mr. Matthew (b) 

(a) Dr. Williams, bishop of Lincoln. 

(6) The date of this letter may be pretty nearly determined by 
one of the lord keeper to the marquis of Buckingham, dated August 
23, 1622, and printed in the Cabala. The postscript to that letter is 
as follows : " The Spanish ambassador took the alarm very speedily of 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 327 


My most honoured Lord, 

I come in these to your lordship with the voice of 
thanksgiving, for the continuance of your accustomed 
noble care of me and my good, which overtakes me, 
I find, whithersoever I go. But for the present it- 
self, whereof your lordship writes, whether or no it 
be better than that I was wont to bring your lord- 
ship, the end only can prove. For I have yet no 
more to shew for it than good words, of which many 
times I brought your lordship good store. But be- 
cause modicepdeans were not made to thrive in court, 
I mean to lose no time from assailing my lord marquis, 
for which purpose I am now hovering about New- 
hall, {a) where his lordship is expected, but not the 
king, this day. or to-morrow ; which place, as your 
lordship adviseth, may not be ill chosen for my busi- 
ness. For, if his lordship be not very thick of hear- 
ing, sure rSew-hall will be heard to speak for me. 

And now, my good lord, if any thing make me dif- 
fident, or indeed almost indifferent, how it succeeds, 
it is this : that my sole ambition having ever been, 
and still is, to grow up only under your lordship, it is 
become preposterous, even to my nature and habit, to 
think of prospering or receiving any growth, either 
without or besides your lordship. And therefore let 
me claim of your lordship to do me this right, as to 
believe that, which my heart says, or rather swears to 
me, namely, that what addition soever, by God's good 
providence, comes at any time to my life or fortune, it 
is, in my account, but to enable me the more to serve 

" the titulary Roman bishop; and before my departure from his 
•' house at Islington, whither I went privately to him, did write both 
" to Rome and Spain to prevent it. But I am afraid that Tobie 
'' will prove but an apocryphal, and no canonical, intelligencer, ac- 
" quainting the state with this project for the Jesuits , rather than 
" for Jtsus's sake." 
(a) In Essex. 

328 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

your lordship in both; at whose feet I shall ever 
humbly lay down all that I have, or am, never to rise 
thence other than 

Your Lordship's in all duty 

and reverent affections, 

September 11, 1622. T, MEAUTYS. 

To the Countess of Buckingham, (a) Mother 
to the Marquis of Buckingham. 

My very honourable good Lady, 

Youu ladyship's late favour and noble usage towards 
me were such, as I think your absence a great part 
of my misfortunes. And the more I find my most 
noble lord, your son, to increase in favour towards 
me, the more, out of my love to him, I wish he had 
often by him so loving and wise a mother. For, if 
my lord were never so wise, as wise as Solomon ; 
yet, I find that Solomon himself, in the end of his 
Proverbs, sets down a whole chapter of advices, that 
his mother taught him. 

Madam, I can but receive your remembrance with 
affection, and use your name with honour, and in- 
tend you my best service, if I be able, ever resting 

Your Ladyship's humble 

and affectionate servant, 

Be o/°O«0bTl6^ 29th FB..T.AL.A*. 

(a) Mary, daughter of Anthony Beaumont, a younger son of Wil- 
liam Beaumont, of Cole-Orton, in Leicestershire. She was thrice 
married; 1. to Sir George Villiers, father of the duke of Bucking- 
ham : 2. to Sir William Rayner : and 3. to Sir Thomas Compton, 
knight of the Bath, a younger brother of William, earl of Northamp- 
ton. She was created countess of Buckingham, July 1, 1618, and 
died April 19, 1632. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 329 


My very good Lord, 

I have many things to thank your lordship for, 
since I had the happiness to see you ; that your lord- 
ship, before your going out of town, sent my memo- 
rial to my lord treasurer : that your lordship offered, 
and received, and presented my petition to the king, 
and procured me a reference : that your lordship 
moved his majesty, and obtained for me access to 
him, against his majesty comes next, which in mine 
own opinion, is better than if it had been now, and 
will be a great comfort to me, though I should die 
next day after : that your lordship gave me so good 
English for my Latin book. My humble request is, 
at this time, that because my lord treasurer keepeth 
yet his answer in suspense, though by one, he useth 
to me, he speaketh me fair, that your lordship would 
nick it with a word : for if he do me good, I doubt 
it may not be altogether of his own. 
God ever prosper you. 

Your Lordship's most bounden 

and faithful servant, 

4th of November, 1622. FR. ST ALBAX 


It may please your Majesty, 

I may now in a manner sing nunc dimittis, now I 
have seen you. Before methought I was scant in 
state of grace, but in a kind of utter darkness. And 
therefore, among other your mercies and favours, I 

(a) This paper was written in Greek characters, soon after his 
access to king James I. which had been promised him in a letter of 
the marquis of Buckingham, from Newmarket, November 13, 1622. 

330 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

do principally thank your majesty for this admission 
of me to kiss your hands. 

I may not forget also to thank your majesty for 
your remission of my fine, for granting of my quietus, 
and general pardon ; and your late recommendation 
of my debts ; favours not small, specially to a servant 
out of sight, and out of use. 

I beseech your majesty to give me leave to tell 
you what had, in my misfortunes, sustained me. 
Aristotle says, Old men live by remembrance, young 
men by hope. And so it is true, that young men live 
by hope, and fallen men by remembrance. Two re- 
membrances have sustained me : the one, that since 
I had the prime vote in the lower house, to be first 
commissioner for the union, until the last assembly 
of parliament, I was chosen messenger of both houses, 
in the petitions of religion, which were my two first 
and last services, having passed a number of services 
of importance, your majesty never chid me ; neither 
did ever any public service miscarry in my hands. 
This was the finishing act of my prosperity The 
second was of my adversity, which, in few words, is 
this, that as my fault was not against your majesty ; 
so my fall was not your act ; and therefore I hope I 
shall live and die in your favour 

I have this farther to say in the nature of an humble 
oblation ; for things once dedicated and vowed can- 
not lose their character, nor be made common. I 
ever vowed myself to your service. Therefore, 

Firstj if your majesty do at any time think it fit, 
for your affairs, to employ me again publicly upon the 
stage, I shall so live and spend my time, as neither 
discontinuance shall disable me, nor adversity shall 
discourage me, nor any thing that I shall do, give 
any scandal or envy upon me. 

Secondly, if your majesty shall not hold that fit ; 
yet, if it shall please you at any time to ask my opi- 
nion, or require my propositions privately by my lord 
marquis, or any of your counsellors, that is my friend, 
touching any commission or business ; for, as Ovid 
said, Est a liquid luce palente minus ; I shall be glad to 
be a labourer, or pioneer in your service. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 331 

Lastly, and chiefly, because your majesty is an 
universal scholar, or rather master, and my pen (as 
I may * it, passed * *) gained upon the world, your 
majesty would appoint me some task, or literary pro- 
vince, that I may serve you calamo, if not consilio. 

I know that I am censured of some conceit of mine 
ability or worth : but, I pray your majesty, impute 
it to desire, possunt quia posse videntur And again, 
I should do some wrong to your majesty's school, if, 
in sixteen years' access and near service, I should 
think I had learned, or laid in, nothing. 

May it please your majesty, I have borne your 
image in metal : and I shall keep it in my heart, 
while I live. 

That his majesty's business never miscarried in my 
hands, I do not impute to any extraordinary ability 
in myself; but to my freedom from particular, either 
friends, or ends, and my careful receipt of his ma- 
jesty's directions, being, as I have formerly said to 
him, but as a bucket and cistern to that fountain ; a 
bucket to draw forth, a cistern to preserve. 

I may allude to the three petitions of the Litany, 
Libera nos, Domine ; parce mihi, Domine ; et exaudi 
nos, Domine. First, the first, I am persuaded, his 
majesty had a mind to do it, and could not conve- 
niently in respect of his affairs. For the second, he 
had done it in my fine and pardon. For the third, I 
had likewise performed, in restoring to the light of 
his countenance. 

There be mountebanks, as well in the civil body 
as in the natural. I ever served his majesty with 
modesty ; no shouldering, no undertaking. 

Seneca saith, Turn otii debet constare ratio quam ne- 
gotii. So I make his majesty oblation of both. 

For envy, it is an almanack of the last year ; and 
as a friend of mine said, the parliament died penitent 
towards me. 

Of my offences, far be it from me to say, dat veniam 
corvis, vexat censura Columbas : but I will say that I 
have good warrant for ; they were not the greatest of- 
fenders in Israel, upon whom the wall of ShilofelL 

332 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

What the king bestowed upon me, will be farther 
seen, than upon Paul's steeple. 

My story is proud, I may thank your majesty ; 
for I heard him note of Tasso, that he could know 
which poem he made, when he was in good con- 
dition, and which when he was a beggar. I doubt he 
could make no such observation of me. 

My lord hath done many things to shew his great- 
ness. This of mine is one of them, that shews his 

I am like ground fresh. If I be left to myself, I 
will grow and bear natural philosophy ; but if the 
king will plow me up again, and sow me on, I hope 
to give him some yield. 

Kings do raise and pull down with reason ; but the 
greatest work is reasoning. 

For my hap, I seek an otium, and, if it may be, a 
fat otium. 

I am said to have a feather in my head. I pray God 
some are not wild in their head, that gird not well. 

I am too old, and the seas are too long, for me to 
double the Cape of Good Hope. 

Ashes are good for somewhat ; for lees, for salts. 
But I hope I am rather embers than ashes, having 
the heat of good affections, under the ashes of my 
fortunes . 

Your majesty hath power : I have faith. There- 
fore a miracle may be soon wrought. 

I would live to study, and not study to live ; yet 
I am prepared for date obolum Belisario ; and I that 
have borne a bag, can bear a wallet. 

For my Pen : 

If active, 1 . The reconciling of laws. 

2. The disposing of wards and generally 

education of youth. 

3. Limiting the jurisdiction of courts, and 

prescribing rules for every of them. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 333 

Reglement of Trade. 

If contemplative, 1. Going on with the story of 

Henry the Eighth. 

2. General Treatise of de Legibus 

et Justitia. 

3. The Holy War. 

For My Lord of Buckingham. 

These I rank high amongst his favours. 

To the king of * * * that the goodness of his na- 
ture may strive with the goodness of his fortune. 

He had but one fault, and that is, that you cannot 
mar him with any accumulating of honours upon 

Now after this sunshine, and little dew, that save 

Whales will overturn your boat, or bark, or of ad- 
miral, or other. 

For the Prince. 

Ever my chief patron. 

The work of the Father is creation ; of the Son re- 

You would have drawn me out of the fire ; now 
out of the mire. 

To ask leave of the king to kiss the prince's hands, 
if he be not now present. 


Mem. of access. 


My most honoured Lord, 

Since my last to your lordship, I find, by Mr. John- 
son, that my lord treasurer is not twice in one mind, 
or Sir Arthur Ingram not twice in one tale. For 
Sir Arthur, contrary to his speech but yesterday 

334 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

with me, puts himself now, as it seems, in new hopes 
to prevail with my lord treasurer, for your lordship's 
good and advantage, by a proposition, sent by Mr. 
Johnson, for the altering of your patent to a new 
mould, more safe than the other, which he seemed to 
dissuade, as I wrote to your lordship. I like my lord 
treasurer's heart to your lordship, so much every day 
worse than other, especially for his coarse usage of 
your lordship's name in his last speech, as that I can- 
not imagine he means you any good. And therefore, 
good my lord, what directions you shall give herein 
to Sir Arthur Ingram, let them be as safe ones as you 
can think upon : and that your lordship surrender not 
your old patent, till you have the new under seal, lest 
my lord keeper should take toy, and stop it there. 
And I know your lordship cannot forget they have 
such a savage word among them, as fleecing God in 
heaven bless your lordship from such hands and 
tongues ; and then things will mend of themselves. 

Your Lordships, in all humbleness 
This Sunday morning. to honour and serve you, 

Indorsed, 25th of November [1622]. 


My very good Lord, 

I find my lord treasurer, after so many days and ap- 
pointments, and such certain messages and promises, 
doth but mean to coax me — it is his own word of 
old, and to saw me asunder, and to do just nothing 
upon his majesty's gracious reference, nobly procured 
by your lordship for this poor remnant. My lord, let 
it be your own deed ; and, to use the prayers of the 
Litany, good lord deliver me from this servile de- 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 335 

pendence ; for I had rather beg and starve, than be 
fed at that door. 

God ever prosper your lordship. 

Your Lordship's most bounden 

and faithful servant, 

Bedford-house, this FR. ST ALBAN. 


To Buckingham, about lord treasurer Cranfield's 

using of him. 

Remembrances of the Lord Viscount St. Alb an, 
upon his going to the Lord Treasurer, (a) 

My Lord, 

For past matters, they are memorial with me. I 
thank God I am so far from thinking to retrieve a for- 
tune, as I did not mark where the game fell. I ascribe 
all to Providence. Your lordship hath greatness ; 
and I hope you will line it with goodness. Of me 
you can have no use ; but you may have honour by 
me, in using me well : for my fortune is much in your 

For Sir G. I heard by Sir Arthur, (b) you thought 
well of my dealing to him ; for so Ingram told me. 

But I doubt he reported somewhat amiss of me, 
that procured that warrant ; since which he thinks 
he may bring me to his own conditions, never comes 
to me, flies from that he had agreed ; so to conclude 
with the letter upon even terms. 

For the king, I must submit. Ingram told me there 
should be a favour in it, till I might sue to the king. 

The sequestration as much as a resumption ; for if 
it be as in the king's hands, all will go back ; so it 
requires a farmer 

My pension and that the rewards of my long ser- 
vice, and relief of my present means. In parliament 

(a) These are written in Greek characters. 
(6) Ingram. 

336 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

he said he would not have me know what want 
meant. , 

LA. b. (a). 

Of York-house garden : 

Of New-hall: 

Of my being with my lord treasurer : 

Of my business. 

It is well begun : I desire it may be your act. 

It is nothing out of the king's purse : it laid fair ; 
a third part of the profit. 

The king bestows honour upon reward, one honour 
upon alms and charity. 

Time, I hope, will work this, or a better. 

I know my lord will not forsake me. 

He can have but one mother. Friends wayfarers, 
some to Wakham, some to Ware, and where the 
ways part, farewel. 

1 do not desire to stage myself, nor pretensions, 
but for the comfort of a private life. Yet will I be 
ever at your and the king's call. Malcontent, or 
busy-body, I scorn to be. 

Though my lord shall have no use of me, yet he 
shall have honour by me. 

For envy, the almanack of that year, is past. 

You may observe last parliament, though an high- 
aiming parliament, yet not a petition, not a clamour, 
not a motion, not a mention of me. Visitations by 
all the noblemen about the town. 

A little will make me happy : the debts I have 

I shall honour my lord with pen and words ; and be 
ready to give him faithful and free counsel, as ready, 
as when I had the seal ; and mine ever suavibus modis 
for safety, as well as for greatness. 

The king and the prince, I hear for certain, well 

To dine with : 

To go to New-hall. 

(a) Lady Buckingham, mother of the duke. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 337 


Excellent Lord, 

I perceive this day, by Mr. Comptroller, (a) that I 
live continually in your lordship's remembrance and 
noble purposes concerning my fortunes, as well for 
the comfort of my estate, as for countenancing me 
otherwise by his majesty's employments and graces ; 
for which I most humbly kiss your hands, leaving the 
times to your good lordship ; which, considering my 
age and wants, I assure myself, your lordship will 
the sooner take into your care. And for my house 
at Gorhambury, I do infinitely desire your lordship 
should have it ; and, howsoever I may treat, I will 
conclude with none, till I know your lordship's far- 
ther pleasure, ever resting 

Your Lordship's most obliged 

and faithful servant, 

Bedford-house this 5th gT ALBAN . 

or Feb. 1622.(6) 


My very good Lord, 

I have received, by this bearer, the privy seal for 
the survey of coals, which I will lay aside, until I 
shall hear farther from my lord Steward, (c) and the 
rest of the lords. 

I am ready to do as much as your lordship desireth, 
in keeping Mr. Cotton (d) off from the violence of 

(a) Henry Cary, viscount Falkland. 

(b) Two days before the marquis of Buckingham set out privately, 
with the prince, for Spain. 

(c) Duke of Lenox. 

(rf) Probably the surety of lord Bacon, for the debt to Harris the 
goldsmith, mentioned in his lordship's letter of May 30, 1622. 

338 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

those creditors : only himself is, as yet, wanting in 
some particular directions. 

I heartily thank your lordship for your book ; and 
all other symbols of your love and affection, which I 
will endeavour upon all opportunities to deserve : 
and, in the mean time, do rest 

Your Lordships assured faithful 

poor friend and servant, 
Westminster- college, this 7th z-t o 

of February, 1622. J0 ' "NCOLX, C. S. 

To the right honourable his very good lord, the lord 
viscount St. Alhan. 


Excellent Lord, 
Though your lordship's absence (a) fall out in an ill 
time for myself; yet because I hope in God this noble 
adventure will make your lordship a rich return in 
honour, abroad and at home, and chiefly in the ines- 
timable treasure of the love and trust of that thrice 
excellent prince ; I confess I am so glad of it, as I 
could not abstain from your lordship's trouble in 
seeing it expressed by these few and hasty lines. 

I beseech your lordship, of your nobleness vouch- 
safe to present my most humble duty to his highness, 
who, I hope, ere long will make me leave king Henry 
the Eighth, and set me on work in relation of his 
highness's adventures. 

I very humbly kiss your lordship's hands, resting 

Your Lordship's most obliged 

friend and servant. 
February 21, 1622. 


Excellent Lord, 
Upon the repair of my lord of Rochford unto your 
lordship, whom I have ever known so fast and true 

(a) Ib Spain. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 339 

a friend and servant unto you ; and who knows like^ 
wise so much of my mind and affection towards your 
lordship, I could not but kiss your lordship's hands, 
by the duty of these few lines. 

My lord, I hope in God, that this your noble ad- 
venture will make you a rich return, especially in the 
inestimable treasure of the love and trust of that 
thrice-excellent prince. And although to a man, that 
loves your lordship so dearly as I do, and knows 
somewhat of the world, it cannot be, but that in my 
thoughts there should arise many fears, or shadows of 
fears, concerning so rare an accident ; yet neverthe- 
less, I believe well, that this your lordship's absence 
will rather be a glass unto you, to shew you many 
things, whereof you may make use hereafter, than 
otherwise any hurt or hazard to your fortunes, which 
God grant. For myself, I am but a man desolate till 
your return, and have taken a course accordingly 
Vouchsafe, of your nobleness, to remember my most 
humble duty to his highness. And so God, and his 
holy angels, guard you both going and coming. 

Indorsed, March 10, 1622. 


Good Mr. Secretary, 

Though I wrote so lately unto you by lord Roch- 
ford ; yet upon the going of my lord Vaughan, (a) 
the prince's worthy and trusty servant, and my ap- 
proved friend, and your so near ally, I could not but 
put this letter into his hand, commending myself and 
my fortunes unto you. You know the difference of 
obliging men in prosperity and adversity, as much as 

(a) He was son arid heir of Walter Vaughan, of Golden Grove, 
in Caermarthenshire, esq. and was created lord Vaughan in the 
year 1620. The lord St. Alban, after he was delivered from his 
confinement in the Tower, Was permitted to stay at Sir John Vaug- 
han's house, at Parson's Green, near Fulham. 

2 2 

340 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

the sowing upon a pavement and upon a furrow new 
made. Myself for quiet, and the better to hold out, 
am retired to Grey's Inn : O) for when my chief friends 
were gone so far off, it was time for me to go to a 
cell. God send us a good return of you all. 

I ever rest, &c. 

My humble service to my lord marquis, to whom 
I have written twice. I would not cloy him. My 
service also to the count Gondomar, and lord of 


To Mr. Secretarv, Sir Francis Cottington, March 
22, 1622. 


It may please your Majesty, 

jVow that my friend is absent, for so I may call him 
still, since your majesty, when I waited on you, told 
me, that fortune made no difference, your majesty 
remaineth to me king, and master, and friend, and 
all. Your beadsman, therefore, addresseth himself 
to your majesty for a cell to retire into. The parti- 
cular I have expressed to my very friend, Mr. Secre- 
tary Conway. This help, which costs your majesty 
nothing, may reserve me to do your majesty service, 
without being chargeable unto you : for I will never 
deny, but my desire to serve your majesty, is of the 
nature of the heart, that will be ultimum moriens 
with me. 

God preserve your majesty, and send you a good 

(a) In a MS. letter of Mr. Chamberlain to Sir Dudley Carleton, 
dated at London, March 8, 1622-3, is the following passage: " The 
" lord of St. Alban is in his old remitter, and came to lie in his old 
" lodgings at Grey's Inn ; which is the fulfilling of a prophecy of 
" one Lock, a familiar of his, of the same' house, that knew him 
" intus et in cute; who, seeing him go thence in pomp, with the 
" great seal before him, said to divers of his friends, We shall live to 
'' have him here again." 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 341 

return of the treasure abroad, which passeth all In- 
dian fleets. 

Your Majesty's most humble 

and devoted servant, 

March 25, 1623. FR. ST. ALB AN. 


To the king, touching the provostship of Eton, (a) 


Good Mr. Secretary, 

When you did me the honour and favour to visit 
me, you did not only in general terms express your 
love unto me, but, as a real friend, asked me whether 
I had any particular occasion, wherein I might make 
use of you? At that time I had none : now there is 
one fallen. It is, that Mr. Thomas Murray, provost 
of Eton, whom I love very well, is like to die. It 
were a pretty cell for my fortune. The college and 
school, I do not doubt, but I shall make to flourish. 
His majesty, when I waited on him, took notice of 
my wants, and said to me, that, as he was a king, he 
would have care of me. This is a thing somebody 

(a) Mr. Thomas Murray, the provost of that college, having been 
cut for the stone, died April 1, 1623. The lord keeper Williams, in 
an unpublished letter to the marquis of Buckingham, dated 1 1 April, 
1623, has the following passage: " Mr. Murray, the provost of 
" Eton, is now dead : the place stayed by the fellows and myself 
" until your lordship's pleasure be known. Whomsoever your lord- 
" ship shall name I shall like of, though it be Sir William Becher, 
" though this provostship never descended so low. The king named 
" unto me yesterday morning Sir Albertus Morton, Sir Dudley 
" Carleton,and Sir [Robert] Aiton, our late queen's secretary. But 
" in my opinion, though he named him last, his majesty inclined to 
" this Aiton most. It will rest wholly upon your lordship to name 
" the man. It is somewhat necessary he be a good scholar, but 
" more that he be a good husband, and a careful manager, and a 
" stayed man ; which no man can be, that is so much indebted as 
" the lord of St. Alban's." 

342 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

would have ; and costs his majesty nothing. I have 
written two or three words to his majesty, which I 
would pray you to deliver, I have not expressed 
this particular to his majesty, but referred it to your 
relation. My most noble friend, the marquis, is now 
absent. Next to him, I could not think of a better 
address than to yourself, as one likest to put on his 
affection. I rest 

Your honour's very affectionate friend, 

Grey's Inn, the 25th of alban 

March, 1623. FR ' ST ALBA *- 


•From ST. ALBAN.* 

the collec- 

Robert Right Honourable, 

Esq 1 ! a"-' I do so well remember the motives, why I presented 
ceased. y 0U so -yvith. my humble service, and particular appli- 
cation of it to your particular use, as I neither forget 
nor repent the offer. And I must confess a greater 
quickning could not have been added to my reso- 
lution to serve you, than the challenge you lay to 
my duty, to follow, in his absence, the affection of 
your most noble and hearty friend the marquis. 

I lost no time to deliver your letter, and to contri- 
bute the most advantageous arguments I could. It 
seems your motion had been more than enough, if a 
former engagement to Sir William Becher upon the 
marquis his score had not opposed it. 

I will give you his majesty's answer, which was, 
That he could not value you so little, or conceive 
you would have humbled your desires and your 
worth so low : that it had been a great deal of ease 
to him to have had such a scantling of your mind ; to 
which he could never have laid so unequal a measure. 
His majesty adding further, that since your inten- 
tions moved that way, he would study your accom- 
modation. And it is not out of hope, but that he 
may give some other contentment to Sir William 
Becher in due time, to accommodate your lordship, 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 343 

of whom, to your comfort, it is my duty to tell you, 
his majesty declared a good opinion, and princely 
care and respect. 

I will not fail to use time and opportunity to your 
advantage : and if you can think of any thing to 
instruct my affection and industry, your lordship 
may have the more quick and handsome proof of 
my sure and real intentions to serve you, being 

Your Lordships affectionate servant, 
Royston, March 27, 1623. ED. CONWAY 


Illustrissime Comes, 

Mult a sunt, quae mihi animos addunt, et quandam 
alacritatem conciliant, ut Dominationem tuam il- 
lustrissimam hoc tempore de meis fortunis com- 
pellam et deprecer. Primum, idque vel maximum, 
quod cum tam arcta regumnostrorumconjunctiojam 
habeatur pro transacta, inde et tu factus sis inter- 
cessor tanto potentior ; et mihi nullus jam subsit 
scrupulus universas fortunas meas viro tanto, licet 
extero, debendi et acceptas referendi. Secundum, 
quod cum ea, quae dominatio tua illustrissima de me 
promisso tenus praesens impetraveras, neque ullam 
repulsam passa sint, neque tamen ad exitum per- 
ducta : videatur hoc innuere providentia divina, ut 
hoc opus me a calamitate erigendi plane tuum sit 
initio et fine. Tertium, quod stellae duae, quae mihi 
semper fuerunt propitiae, major et minor, jam splen- 
dent in urbe vestra, unde per radios auxiliares et be- 
nignos amoris erga me tui eum possint nancisci in- 
fluxum, qui me in aliquo non indigno priore fortuna 
gradu collocet. Quartum, quod perspexi ex literis, 
quas ad amicum meum intimum dominum Tobiam 
Matthaeum nuper scripsisti, memoriam mei apud te 
vivere et vigere, neque tanta negotiorum arduorum et 
sublimium mole, quanta dom. tuae incumbit, obrutam 

344 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

esse aut extinctam. Postremum accidit et illud, quod 
postquam ex favore excellent. Domini marchionis ad 
regis mei conspectum et colloquium admissus fuerim, 
videar mihi in statu gratiae collocatus. Non me allo- 
cutus est rex ut criminosum, sed ut hominem tem- 
pestate dejectum; et simul constantem meum ut 
perpetuum in sermone suo industrial et integritatis 
tenorem prolixe agnovit, cum insigni, ut videbatur, 
affectu : unde major mihi oboritur spes, manente ejus 
erga me gratia, et extincta omni ex diuturnitate in- 
vidia, labores illustr. domin. tuae pro me non incassum 
fore. Ipse interim nee otio me dedi, nee rebus me 
importune immiscui, sed in iis vivo, et ea tracto, 
quae nee priores, quos gessi, honores dedeceant, et 
posteris memoriam nominis mei haud ingratam for- 
tasse relinquent. Itaque spero me non indignam 
fore materiam, in qua et potential et amicitiae tuae vis 
elucescat et celebretur; ut non minus in privata 
hominis fortuna potuisse videaris, quam in negotiis 
publicis. Deus illustriss. dominationem tuam in- 
columem servet et felicitate cumulet. 


My lord St. Alban's first letter to Gondomar, into 
Spain, March 28, 1623. 


Excellent Lord, 

Finding so trusty a messenger as Sir John Epsley, 
I thought it my duty to put these few lines into 
his hands. I thank God, that those shadows, which 
either mine own melancholy, or my extreme love to 
your lordship, did put into my mind concerning this 
voyage of the prince and your lordship, rather vanish 
and diminish, than otherwise. The gross fear is 
past of the passage of France. I think you had the 
ring, which they write of, that, when the seal was 
turned to the palm of the hand, made men go invi- 
sible. Neither do I hear of any novelty here worth 
the esteeming. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 345 

There is a general opinion here, that your lordship 
is like enough to return, and go again, before the 
prince come : which opinion, whether the business 
lead you to do so or no, doth no hurt ; for it keeps 
men in awe. 

I find, I thank God, some glimmering of the king's 
favour, which your lordship's noble work of my 
access, no doubt, did chiefly cherish. I am much 
bound to Mr. Secretary Conway. It is wholly for 
your lordship's sake ; for I had no acquaintance with 
him in the world. By that I see of him, he is a man 
fit to serve a great king, and fit to be a friend and 
servant to your lordship. Good my lord, write two 
or three words to him, both of thanks, and a general 
recommendation of me unto him. 

Vouchsafe, of your nobleness, to present my most 
humble duty to his highness. We hear he is fresh in 
his person, and becomes this brave journey in all 
things. God provide all things for the best. 

I ever rest, &c. 

Indorsed, March 30, 1623. 


Good Mr. Secretary, 

I am much comforted by your last letter, wherein I 
find, that his majesty, of his mere grace and good- 
ness, vouchsafe to have a care of me, a man out of 
sight, out of use ; but yet his, as the Scripture saith, 
God knows those that are his. In particular, I am 
very much bound to his majesty, and I pray you, Sir, 
thank his majesty most humbly for it, that, notwith- 
standing the former designment of Sir William 
Becher, (a) his majesty, as you write, is not out of 

(a) Sir William had not, however, that post ; but, in lieu of it, the 
promise of 2500/. upon the fall of the first of the six clerks' places, 
and was permitted to keep his clerkship of the council. MS. letter 
of Mr. Chamberlain to Sir Dudley Carleton, dated at London, July 
24, 1624. The provostship was given to Sir Henry Wotton, who 
was instituted into it the 26th of that month, having purchased it by 

346 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

hope, in due time, to accommodate me of this cell, 
and to satisfy him otherwise. Many conditions, no 
doubt, may be as contenting to that gentleman, and 
his years may expect them. But there will hardly 
fall, especially in the spent hour-glass of my life, any 
thing so fit for me, being a retreat to a place of study 
so near London, and where, if I sell my house at 
Gorhambury, as I purpose to do, to put myself in 
some convenient plenty, I may be accommodated of 
a dwelling for summer time. And therefore, good 
Mr. Secretary, further this his majesty's good inten- 
tion, by all means, if the place fall. 

For yourself, you have obliged me much. I will 
endeavour to deserve it : at least your nobleness is 
never lost ; and my noble friend, the marquis, I know, 
will thank you for it. 

I was looking of some short papers of mine touch- 
ing usury, (a) to grind the teeth of it, and yet make it 
grind to his majesty's mill in good sort, without dis- 
contentment or perturbation. If you think good, I 
will send it to his majesty, as the fruit of my leisure. 
But yet I would not have it come from me, not for 
any tenderness in the thing, but because I know, in 
courts of princes, it is usual, non res, sed displicet 
auctor. God keep your honour, &c. 


To Mr. Secretary Conway, touching the provostship 
of Eton, March 31, 1623. 

a surrender of a grant of the reversion of the mastership of the 
rolls, and of another office, which was fit to be turned into present 
money, which he then, and afterward, much wanted [Life of him 
by Mr. Isaac Walton] : for when he went to the election at Eton, 
soon after his being made provost, he was so ill provided, that the 
fellows of the college were obliged to furnish his bare walls, and 
whatever else was wanting. MSS. letter of Mr. Chamberlain, Aug. 
7, 1624. 

(a) In his works is published, A Draught of an Act against an 
usurious Shift of Gain, in delivering of Commodities instead of Money. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Clumcellor Bacon, 347 


Illustrissime Comes, 

Primo loco, ut debeo, gratulor domination! tuae il- 
lustrissimae novum honoris tui gradum per se sub- 
limem, sed ex causa, propter quam evectus es, haud 
parum nobilitatum. Profectio dom. Tobise Matthaei, 
qui mihi est tanquam alter ego, ut dominatio tua 
illustrissima optime novit, in illas partes, memoriam 
mihi renovat eximii tui erga me favoris,. cum me 
pluries, paulo ante discessum tuum, in campis, in 
urbe visitares, et prolixe de voluntate tua erga for- 
tunas meas pollicereris. Quinetiam tam apud regem 
meum quam apud marchionem de illis sedulo ageres, 
ut etiam promissum ab illis de postulatis meis ob- 
tinueris. Quod si illo tempore quis mihi genius aut 
vates in aurem insusurrasset et dixisset, Mitte ista 
in praesens : Britannia est regio paulo frigidior : differ 
rem donee princeps Galliae et marchio IJuckinghamiae 
et comes de Gondomar conveniunt in Hispania, ubi 
hujusmodi fructus clementius maturescant : quin et 
viderit idem dom. Tob. Matthaeum, qui illic, quem- 
admodum nunc, instabit, et negotium promovebit: 
scilicet risissem, sed fidem prorsus non adhibuissem. 
Quare, illustrissime comes, cum talia miracula edi- 
deris in fortuna publica, etiam in fortuna amici et 
servi tui privata eniteat virtus tua. Miraculum enim 
potential et fidei proles est, Tu potentiam habes, 
ego fide abundo, si modo digna sit res ad quam do- 
minatio tua illustrissima manum salutarem porrigat. 
Id tempus optime demonstrabit. 

Cum nuper ad dominationem tuam illustrissimam 
scripserim, eo brevior fio. Hoc tantum a te peto, 
ut etiam inter negotia, quae feliciter administras, 
consuetam digneris dom. Matthaeo libertatem pro- 
ponendi et consulendi apud te ea, quae in rem meam 
fore videbimus. 

Deus illustrissimam tuam dominationem servet in- 
columem, ut enixe optat, &c. 

348 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My very good Lord, 
Though I have written to your lordship lately, yet 
I could not omit to put "a letter into so good a hand 
as Mr. Matthew's, being one, that hath often made 
known unto me, how much I am beholden to your 
lordship ; and knoweth likewise in what estimation I 
have ever had your lordship, not according to your 
fortunes, but according to your inward value. There- 
fore, not to hold your lordship in this time of so great 
business, and where I have so good a mean as Mr. 
Matthew, who, if there be any thing that concerns 
my fortune, can better express it than myself, I hum- 
bly commend myself and my service to your lord- 
ship, resting, &c. 


Good Mr. Secretary, 

Though I think I have cloyed you with letters, yet 
had I written a thousand before, I must add one 
more by the hands of Mr. Matthew, being as true a 
friend as any you or I have; and one, that made 
me so happy, as to have the assurance of our friend- 
ship ; which if there be any stirring for my good, I 
pray practise in so good a conjunction as his. 

I ever rest, &c. 


Good Mr. Matthew, 

Because Mr. Clarke is the first, that hath been sent 
since your departure, who gave me also the comfort- 
able news, that he met you well, I could not but 
visit you with my letters, who have so often visited 
me with your kind conferences. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 349 

My health, I thank God, is better than when you 
left me ; and, to my thinking, better than before my 
last sickness. This is all I need to write of myself 
to such a friend. 

We hope well, and it is generally rather spoken, 
than believed, that his highness will return very 
speedily But they be not the best pieces in painting, 
that are dashed out in haste. I hope, if any thing 
want in the speed of time, it will be compensed in 
the fruit of time, that all may sort to the best. 

I have written a few words of duty and respect 
only to my lord marquis, and Mr. Secretary I pray 
you kiss the count of Gondomar's hand. 

God keep you. 

Your most affectionate and assured friend, 

May 2, 1623. FR. ST. ALBAN. 


Excellent Lord, 

I write now only to congratulate with your grace 
your new honour ; (a) which because I reckon to be 
no great matter to your fortune, though you are the 
first English duke that hath been created since I was 
born, my compliment shall be the shorter. So having 
turned almost my hopes of your grace's return, by 
July, into wishes, and not to them neither, if it should 
be any hazard to your health, I rest, &c. 

Vouchsafe, of your nobleness, to present my most 
humble duty to his highness. Summer is a thirsty 
time ; and sure I am, I shall infinitely thirst to see 
his highness's and your grace's return. 

(a) The title of duke, conferred on him May 18, 1623. 

350 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 



My good Lord, 

I have received your hearty congratulation for the 
great honour and gracious favour which his majesty 
hath done me : and I do well believe, that no man is 
more glad of it than yourself. 

Tobie Matthew is here ; but what with the jour- 
ney, and what with the affliction he endures, to find, 
as he says, that reason prevails nothing with these 
people, he is grown extreme lean, and looks as sharp 
as an eyas, (a) Only he comforts himself with a con- 
ceit, that he has now gotten on the other side of the 
water, where the same reason, that is valuable in other 
parts of the world, is of no validity here ; but rather 
something else, which yet he hath not found out. 

I have let his highness see the good expressions of 
your lordship's care and faithful affection to his per- 
son ; and shall ever be ready to do you, in all things, 
the best service that I can. 

So wishing your lordship much happiness, I rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend 

Madrid, this 29th of May, 777, 

1623 st. vet. an d ' tum °l e servant, 



Excellent Lord, 
I humbly thank your grace for your letter of the 
29th of May ; and that your grace doth believe, that 
no man is gladder of the increase of your honour and 
fortune, than I am ; as, on the other part, no man 

(a) A young hawk, just taken out of the nest. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 351 

should be more sorry, if it should in the least degree 
decline, nor more careful, if it should so much as 
labour. But of the first, I speak as a thing that is : 
but of the two latter, it is but a case put, which I hope 
I shall never see. And to be plain with your grace, 
I am not a little comforted to observe, that, although 
in common sense and experience, a man would have 
doubted, that some things might have sorted to your 
prejudice ; yet in particulars we find nothing of it. 
For a man might reasonably have feared, that ab- 
sence and discontinuance might have lessened his 
majesty's favour : no such thing has followed. So 
likewise, that any, that might not wish you well, 
should have been bolder with vou. But all is conti- 


nued in good compass. Again,, who might not have 
feared, that your grace being there to manage, in 
great part, the most important business of Europe, 
so far from the king, and not strengthened with ad- 
vice there, except that of the prince himself, and thus 
to deal with so politic a state as Spain, you should be 
able to go through as you do 1 and yet nothing, as 
we hear, but for your honour, and that you do your 
part. Surely, my lord, though your virtues be great, 
yet these things could not be, but that the blessing of 
God, which is over the king and the prince, doth 
likewise descend upon you as a faithful servant ; and 
you are the more to be thankful to God for it. 

I humbly thank your grace, that you make me live 
in hishighness's remembrance, whom I shall ever bear 
a heart to honour and serve. And I much joy to 
hear of the great and fair reputation, which at all 
hands are given him. 

For Mr. Matthew, I hope by this time he hath ga- 
thered up his crumbs ; which importeth much, I as- 
sure your grace, if his cure must be, either by find- 
ing better reason on that side the line, or by disco- 
vering, what is the motion, that moveth the wheels, 
that, if reason do not, we must all pray for his being 
in good point. But in truth, my lord, I am glad he 
is there ; for I know his virtues, and particularly his 
devotion to your lordship. 

352 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

God return his highness and your grace, unto us 
safe and sound, and according to your heart's de- 



Good Mr Matthew. 

I have received your letter of the 10th of June, (a) 
and am exceeding glad to hear you are in so good 
health. For that, which may concern myself, I nei- 
ther doubt of your judgment in choosing the fittest 
time, nor of your affection in taking the first time you 
shall find fit. For the public business, I will not turn 
my hopes into wishes yet, since you write as you do; 
and I am very glad you are there, and, as I guess, you 
went in good time to his lordship. 

For your action of the case, it will fall to the ground ; 
for I have not heard from the duke, neither by letter 
nor message, at this time. 

God keep you. I rest always 

Your most affectionate and faithful servant, 

Grey's Inn, 17th of June, 1623. FR. ST ALBAN. 

I do hear from Sir Robert Kerr, and others, how 
much beholden I am to you. 


Good Mr, Matthew, 

I thaxk you for your letter of the 26th of June, 
and commend myself unto your friendship, knowing 
your word is good assurance, and thinking I cannot 
wish myself a better wish, than that your power may 
grow to your will. 

Since you say the prince hath not forgot his com- 
mandment, touching my History of Henry VIII. I 

(a) N. S. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 353 

may not forget my duty But I find Sir Robert Cot- 
ton, who poured forth what he had, in my other 
work, somewhat dainty of his materials in this. 

It is true, my labours are now most set to have 
those works, which I had formerly published, as that 
of Advancement of Learning, that of Henry VII. that 
of the Essays, being retractate, and made more per- 
fect, well translated into Latin by the help of some 
good pens, which forsake me not, for these modern 
languages will, at one time or other, play the bank- 
rupts with books : and since I have lost much time 
with this age, I would be glad, as God shall give me 
leave, to recover it with posterity 

For the essay of friendship, while I took your 
speech of it for a cursory request, I took my promise 
for a compliment. But since you call for it, I shall 
perform it. (a) 

I am much beholden to Mr. Gage for many expres- 
sions of his love to me : and his company, in itself 
very acceptable, is the more pleasing to me, because 
it retaineth the memory of yourself. 

This letter of yours, of the 26th, lay not so long 
by you, but it hath been as speedily answered by 
me, so as with Sir Francis Cottington I have had no 
speech since the receipt of it. Your former letters, 
which I received from Mr. Griesley, I had answered 
before, and put my letter into a good hand. 

For the great business, God conduct it well. Mine 
own fortune hath taught me expectation. 

God keep you. 


To Mr. Matthew, into Spain. 

(a) Among his Essays, published in quarto, and dedicated to the 
dnke of Buckingham, is one upon Friendship. 

VOL. VI. 2 A 

354 Letters, etc. of Lord Vhainceltor Bacon. 


Good Air. Matthew, 

I have received your letter sent by my lord of An- 
dover ; and, as I acknowledged your care, so I can- 
not fit it with any thing, that I can think on for my- 
self ; for since Gondomar, who was my voluntary 
friend, is in no credit, neither with the prince, nor 
with the duke, I do not see what may be done for 
me there-; except that, which Gondomar hath lost, 
you have found ; and then I am sure my case is 
amended : so, as with a great deal of confidence, I 
commend myself to you, hoping, that you will do 
what in you lieth, to prepare the prince and duke to 
think of me upon their return. And if you have 
any relation to the infanta, I doubt not but it shall be 
also to my use. 
God keep you. 

Your ?nost affectionate and assured friend, &;c. 


Excellent Lord, 

Though I have formerly given your grace thanks for 
your last letter, yet being much refreshed to hear 
things go so well, whereby we hope to see you here 
shortly, your errand done, and the prince within the 
vail ; I could not contain, but congratulate with your 
lordship, seeing good fortune, that is Gods blessing, 
still follow you. I hope I have still place in your 
love and favour ; which if I have, for other place, it 
shall not trouble me. I ever rest 

Your Grace's most obliged 

July 22, 1623. and faithful servant. 

Letters, etc of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 355 


Excellent Lord, 

Upon Mr. Clarke's dispatch, in troth I was ill in 
health, as he might partly perceive. Therefore I 
wrote to my true friend, and your grace's devoted 
servant, Mr,, Matthew, to excuse me to your grace 
for not writing. Since, I thank God, I am pretty 
well recovered ; for I have lain at two wards, one 
against my disease, the other against my physicians, 
who are strange creatures. 

My lord, it rejoiceth me much, that I understand 
from Mr. Matthew, that I live in your grace's re- 
membrance ; and that I shall be the first man, that 
you will think on upon your return : which if your 
grace perform, I hope God Almighty, who hath hi- 
therto extraordinarily blessed you in this rocky busi- 
ness, will bless you the more for my sake. For I 
have had extraordinary tokens of his divine favour to- 
wards me, both in sickness and in health, prosperity 
and adversity 

Vouchsafe to present my most humble duty to his 
highness, whose happy arrival will be a bright morn- 
ing to all. I ever rest 

Your Grace's most obliged 

and faithful servant, 

Grey s Inn, Aug. 29, 1623. FR. ST. ALBAX 


Good Mr. Matthew, 

I have gotten a little health : I praise God for it. I 
have therefore now written to his grace, that I for- 
merly, upon Mr. Clarke's dispatch, desired you to ex- 
cuse me for not writing, and taken knowledge, that 
I have understood from you, that I live in his grace's 

2 a 2 

356 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

remembrance ; and that I shall be his first man, that 
he will have care of upon his return. And although 
your absence be to me as uncomfortable to my mind, 
as God may make it helpful to my fortunes ; yet it is 
somewhat supplied by the love, freedom, and often 
visitations of Mr. Gage ; so, as when I have him, I 
think I want you not altogether. 
God keep you. 

Your most affectionate 

and much obliged friend, iSr. 


That I am exceeding glad his grace is come home 
(a) with so fair a reputation of a sound protestant, 
and so constant for the king's honour and errand. 

His grace is now to consider, that his reputation 
will vanish like a dream, except now, upon his return, 
he do some remarkable act to fix it, and bind it in. 

They have a good wise proverb in the country, 
whence he cometh, taken I think from a gentlewo- 
man's sampler, Qui en no danudo, pierdo punto, "he 
" that tieth not a knot upon his thread loseth his 
" stitch." 

Any particular I, that live in darkness, cannot pro- 
pound. Let his grace, who seeth clear, make his 
choice : but let some such thing be done, and then 
this reputation will stick by him ; and his grace may 
afterwards be at the better liberty to take and leave 
off the future occasions, that shall present. 

(a) The prince and duke arrived from Spain in London, October 
6, 1623. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 357 


It may please your most excellent Majesty, 

I send, in all humbleness, to your majesty, the poor 
fruits of my leisure. This book (a) was the first 
thing, that ever I presented to your majesty; (b) and 
it may be, will be the last. For I had thought it 
should have been posthuma proles. But God hath 
otherwise disposed for a while. It is a translation, 
but almost enlarged to a new work. I had good helps 
for the language. I have been also mine own index ex- 
purgatorius, that it may be read in all places. For 
since my end of putting it into Latin was to have it 
read every where, it had been an absurd contradic- 
tion to free it in the language, and to pen it up in the 
matter. Your majesty will vouchsafe graciously to 
receive these poor sacrifices of him, that shall ever 
desire to do you honour, while he breathes, and ful- 
filleth the rest in prayers. 

Your Majesty's true beadsman, 

and most humble servant, fyc. 

Todos duelos con pan son buenos : itaque det vestra 
Majestas obolum Belisario. 


It may please your excellent Highness, 

I send your highness, in all humbleness, my book 
of Advancement of Learning, translated into Latin, 
but so enlarged as it may go for a new work. It is a 

(a) De Augmentis Scientiarum, printed at London, 1623, in folio. 
The present to king James 1. is in the royal library in the British 

(b) The two books of Sir Francis Bacon of the Proficiency and Ad- 
vancement of Learning, Divine and Human: printed at London, 1605, 
in quarto. 

358 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

book, I think, will live, and be a citizen of the world, 
as English books are not. For Henry the Eighth, to 
deal truly with your highness, I did so despair of my 
health this summer, as I was glad to choose some such 
work, as I might compass within days ; so far was I 
from entering into a work of length. Your highness's 
return hath been my restorative. When I shall wait 
upon your highness, I shall give you a farther account. 
So I most humbly kiss your highness's hands, resting 

Your highness's most derated servant. 

I would, as I wrote to the duke in Spain, I could 
de your highness's journey any honour with my pen. 
It began like a fable of the poets; but it deserveth all 
in a piece a worthy narration. 

coxf buc. {a) 

My Lord, 

Mr counsels bear not so high an elevation, as to 
have for their mark business of estate. That, which 
I level at, is your standing and greatness, which ne- 
vertheless I hold for a main pillar of the king's ser- 

For a parliament, I hold it then fit, when there 
have passed some more visible demonstrations of your 
power with the king, and your constancy in the way 
you are in : before not. 

There are considerable, in this state, three sorts of 
men : the party of the Papists, which hate you ; 
the party of the Protestants, including those they call 
Puritans, whose love is vet but green towards you ; 
and particular great persons, which are most of them 
reconciled enemies, or discontented friends : and you 
must think there are a great many, that will magnify 
you, and make use of you for the breaking of the 
match, or putting the realm into a war, which after 
will return to their old bias. 

(a) Conference i.'th Buckingham. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 359 

For particulars, it is good to carry yourself fair ; 
but neither to trust too far, nor to apply too much, 
but keep a good distance, and to play your own game, 
shewing yourself to have, as the bee hath, both of the 
honey and of the sting. 

The speech now abroad is, " My lord of Bucking- 
" ham's head is full of thoughts : he hath a great 
" task ; either he must break, or the match must 
" break. He was wont to go to the king's ways ; 
" but now he goeth cross his way, he will easily lose 
" his way." 

There is a point nice to be managed, yea, and ten- 
der to be spoken of, which is your carriage between 
the king and the prince ; so that you may lose no 
manner of ground with the prince ; and yet the king 
may not think himself the more solitary, nor that 
you adore too much the sun-rising. Though this 
you may set down, that the way to have the king 
sure unto you is to keep great with the prince. 

Conf. with Buc. December 17, 1623. 

You march bravely : but methinks you do not draw 
up your troops. 

You must beware of these your pardons. If we 
make men less in awe, and respect you, urlna chiara 
fajico al medico. 

The points of the general advice. 

If a war be proceeded in ; to treat a strait league 
with France, undername of a renovation of the match 
with France. Three secret articles, the liberty of the 
German nation, whereof there is a fresh precedent of 
Henry the Second of France, that took it into protec- 
tion prosperously, and to the arrest of the emperor 
Charles's greatness. 2. The conservation of the liber- 
ties of the Low Countries for the United Provinces, 
and open trade into the East and West Indies. 

Offer of mine own service upon a commission into 

My lord hath against him these disadvantages ; the 
catholic party ; the Spaniard ; the envy and fear of 

360 Letters etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

particular great men ; the nice point of carrying him- 
self between the king and the prince. 

The knot, which is to be tied for his reputation, 
must either be advancing or depressing of persons, 
or putting by, or forwarding, of actions. 

Conf. Buc. qu. and old store, January 2, 1623. 

There is not an honester man in court than Mont- 
gomery (a) 

To have some opportunity, by the D.'s means, to 
speak with the prince in presence of the duke. 

To think, whether it be fit for me to speak with 
the king, and to seek access before parliament ; if 

The offer of my service to live a summer, as upon 
mine own delight, at Paris, to settle a fast intelli- 
gence between France and us. 

I have somewhat of the French : I love birds, as 
the king doth, and have some childish mindedness, 
wherein we shall consent. 

To think of Belfast's sending over into Ireland. 
Those, that find themselves obnoxious to parliament, 
will do all they can, that those things, which are 
likest to distaste the king, be first handled. 

It is not to be forgotten, that as long as great men 
were in question, as in my case, all things went 
sweetly for the king. But the second meeting, when 
no such thing was, the pack went higher. 

Weeding time is not yet come. Cott. Car. 
qu. of Car. 

The battery will be chiefly laid on the prince's 
part, if they find any entry. 

To be the author of some counsel to the prince, 
that tasteth of religion and virtue, lest it be imputed, 
that he entertains him only in pleasures, like a Pe. 

The things remarkable for your grace, to fix and 

(a) Philip, earl of Montgomery, afterward of Pembroke. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 36 1 

bind in the reputation, which you have gained, must 
be either persons, or matters. 

The doubt the prince is mollis cera, and formed di 
ultima impression. Therefore good to have sure per- 
sons about him, or at least none dangerous. 

For the pardons to proceed, it is a tender business. 
First, whatsoever useth to be done in parliament is 
thankless. Then it is not good for his grace. It will 
make men bolder with him. Urina chiara fa fico al 
medico. Lastly, remove the envy from others, it may 
beat upon my lord himself, or the king. 

Conf. B. January 2, 1623. 

You have now tied a knot, as I wished you ; qui 
en no da nudo, pierdo punto ; (a) a jolly one, the par- 
liament. Although I could have wished, that before 
a parliament, some remarkable thing had been done, 
whereby the world might have taken notice, that you 
stand the same in grace and power with the king. 
But there is time enough for that between this and 
parliament, (b) And besides, the very prevailing for 
a parliament sheweth your power with the king. 

You march bravely Do you draw up your troops 
so well ? 

One of these days I shall turn my lord Brooke, and 
say to you, O brave Buckingham. 

I will commend you to all others, and censure you 
only to yourself. 

You bowl well, if you do not horse the bowl an 
hand too much. You know the fine bowler is knee 
almost to ground in the delivery of the cast. 

Nay, and the king will put a hook in the nostrils of 
Spain, and lay a foundation of greatness here to his 
children, in these west parts. The call for me, it is 
book-learning. You know the king was wont to do me 
the honour, as to say of me, de minimis non curat lex : 

(a) " He that tieth not a knot upon his thread, loseth his stitch." 

(b) It met February 19, 1623-4. 

362 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

if good for any thing, for great volumes, I cannot 
thread needles so well. 

The chamberlain : (a) for his person, not effectual ; 
but some dependences he hath, which are drawn 
with him. Besides, he can take no reputation from 

Montgomery is an honest man, and a good ob- 
server. Can you do nothing with Naunton 1 (b) 
Who would think now, that I name Naunton to my 
lord of Buckingham 1 But I speak to you point-blank : 
no crooked end, either for myself, or for others turn. 

The French treaty, besides alliance, is to have 
three secret articles : the one, the protection of the 
liberty of Germany, and to avoid from it all forces 
thence, like to that which was concluded between the 
princes of Germany and Henry II. (c) the last king 
except Henry IV of value in France ; for the race of 
the Valois were faitneants ; and, in the name of Ger- 
many, to conclude the Grisons and Valtoline. The 
second, the conserving the liberties of the Low Coun- 
tries. The third, the free trade into all parts of both 
East and West Indies. All these import no invasive 
hostility, but only the uniting of the states of Europe 
against the growing ambition of Spain. Neither do 
any of these touch upon the cause of religion. 

I am persuaded, the hinge of the king's affairs, for 
his safety and greatness, is now in Spain. I would 
the king had an abler instrument. 

Above all, you must look to the safety of Ireland, 
both because it is most dangerous for this state, for the 
disease will ever fall to the weakest part; and besides, 
this early declaration against Spain, which the popish 
party call abrupt, and is your grace's work, may be 
thought to be the danger of Ireland. It were good 

(a) William, earl of Pembroke. 

(b) Sir Robert Naunton, who had been secretary of state, and 
was now master of the court of wards. 

(c) This league first arrested the greatness of the emperor, and 
cloistered him. Note of Lord Bacon. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 363 

you called to you Belfast (a) and Grandison, (b) and 
ask their opinions, what is best to be done for the 
safety of Ireland, either by increasing the list of 
companies, and by contenting those that are in arrear, 
by paying ; or by altering any governor there ; or by 
having companies ready mustered and trained here, 
towards the coast of Ireland ; or by having shipping 
in readiness, &c. For this gown commission, I like 
it well ; but it is but paper-shot for defence. 

If the Papists be put in despair, it both endanger- 
eth Ireland, and maketh a greater difficulty in the 
treaty and alliance with France. 

To think of a difference to be put between the Je- 
suits and other priests and Papists, as to reduce, in 
some moderation, the banishment of the one, though 
not of the other : but to remember, that they were 
the reasonablest, as I take it, in the consult ; and it 
may draw the blow of an assassin against Bucking- 

At least the going on with the parliament hath 
gained this, that the discourse is ceased, " My lord 
" of Buckingham hath a great, task. His head is 
vt full : either the match breaks, or his fortune breaks. 
" He has run his courses with the stream of the king's 
" ways ; but now he goeth cross-way, he may soon 
" lose his own way" 

If your grace go not now constantly on for reli- 
gion, and round dealing with Spain, men will either 
think they were mistaken in you, or that you are 
brought about ; or that your will is good, but you 
have no power. 

Your grace hath a great party against you, and a 
good rough way- The Spaniards hate you : the Pa- 
pists little better. In the opinion of the people, you 
are green, and not yet at a gage. Particulars are, 
for the most part, discontented friends or reconciled 
enemies: and that nice dividing between the sol 
orient and Occident. 

(a) Arthur Chichester, baron of Belfast, who had been made lord 
deputy of Ireland in ] 604. 

(6) Oliver St. John, viscount Grandison, made lord deputy of 
Ireland in August, 1616. 

364 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


Excellent Lord, 

I desire in this, which I now presume to write to 
your grace, to be understood, that my bow carrieth 
not so high, as to aim to advise touching any of the 
great affairs now on foot, and so to pass it to his ma- 
jesty through your hands ; though it be true, that my 
good affection towards his majesty, and the prince, 
and the public, is that which will last die in me ; and 
though I think also his majesty would take it but 
well, if having been that man I have been, my honest 
and loyal mind should sometimes feed upon those 
thoughts. But my level is no farther, but to do the 
part of a true friend, in advising yourself for your own 
greatness and safety ; although, even in this also, I 
assure myself I perform a good duty to the public 
service, unto which I reckon your standing and 
power to be a firm and sound pillar of support. 

First, therefore, my lord, call to mind oft, and con- 
sider duly, how infinitely your grace is bound to God 
in this one point, which I find to be a most rare piece, 
and wherein, either of ancient or late times, there are 
few examples ; that is, that you are beloved so dearly, 
both by the king and the prince. You are not as a 
Lerma, or an Olivares, and many others the like, 
who have insinuated themselves into the favours of 
young princes, during the kings', their fathers', time, 
against the bent and inclination of the kings : but con- 
trariwise, the king himself hath knit the knot of trust 
and favour between the prince and your grace, where- 
in you are not so much to take comfort in that you 
may seem to have two lives in your own greatness, as 
in this, that hereby you are enabled to be a noble in- 
strument for the service, contentment, and heart's- 
ease, both of father and son. For where there is so 
loving and indulgent a father, and so respective and 
obedient a son, and a faithful and worthv servant, in- 
terested in both their favours upon all occasions, it 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 365 

cannot be but a comfortable house. This point your 
grace is pricipally to acknowledge and cherish. 

Next, that, which I should have placed first, save 
that the laying open of God's benefits is a good pre- 
paration to religion and godliness, your grace is to 
maintain yourself firm and constant in the way you 
have begun ; which is, in being, and shewing yourself 
to be, a true and sound Protestant. This is your soul's 
health. This is that you owe to God above, for his 
singular favours; and this is that which hath brought 
you into the good opinion and good will of the realm 
in general. So that, as your case difFereth, as I said, 
from the case of other favourites, in that you have both 
king and prince ; so in this, that you have also now 
the hearts of the best subjects, for I do not love the 
word people, your case difFereth from your own, as it 
stood before. And because I would have your repu- 
tation in this point complete, let me advise you, that 
the name of Puritans in a Papist's mouth do not make 
you to withdraw your favour from such as are honest 
and religious men ; so that they be not so turbulent 
and factious spirits, or adverse to the government of 
the Church, though they be traduced by that name. 
For of this kind is the greatest part of the body of the 
subjects ; and besides, which is not to be forgotten, 
it is safest for the king and his service, that such men 
have their dependence upon your grace, who are en- 
tirely the king's, rather than upon any other subject. 

For the Papists, it is not unknown to your grace, 
that you are not, at this time, much in their books. 
But be you like yourself; and far be it from you, un- 
der a king and prince of that clemency, to be inclined 
to rigour or persecution. 

But three things must be looked unto : the first, 
that they be suppressed in any insolency, which may 
tend either to disquiet the civil estate, or scandalise 
our Church in fact ; for otherwise, all their doctrine 
doth it in opinion. The second, that there be an end, 
or limit, of those graces, which shall be thought fit for 
them, and that there be not every day new demands 
hearkened to. The third, that for those cases and 

366 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

graces, which they have «eceived, or shall receive, of 
the state, the thanks go the right way ; that is, to the 
king and prince, and not to any foreigner. For this is 
certain, that if they acknowledge them from the state, 
they may perhaps sit down when they are well. But 
if they have a dependence upon a foreigner, there will 
he no end of their growing desires and hopes. And 
in this point also, your lordship's wisdom and mode- 
ration may do much good. 

For the match with Spain, it is too great and dark 
a business for me to judge of. But as it hath relation 
to concern yourself, I will, as in the rest, deal freely 
with your grace. 

My lord, you owe, in this matter, two debts to the 
king : the one, that, if in your conscience and judg- 
ment you be persuaded it be dangerous and prejudi- 
cial to him and his kingdoms, you deliver your soul, 
and in the freedom of a faithful counsellor, joined 
with the humbleness of a dutiful servant, you declare 
yourself accordingly, and shew your reasons. The 
other, that if the king in his high judgment, or the 
prince in his settled affection, be resolved to have it 
go on, that then you move in their orb, as far as they 
shall lay it upon you. But mean while, let me tell 
your grace, that I am not of the general opinion 
abroad, that the match must break, or else my lord 
of Buckingham's fortune must break. I am of an- 
other opinion ; and yet perhaps it will he hard to 
make you believe it, because both sides will persuade 
you to the contrary. For they that would not have it 
go on will work upon that conceit, to make you op- 
pose it more strongly They that would have it go 
on will do the same, to make you take up betimes, 
and come about. But T having good affiance in your 
grace's judgment, will tell you my reasons why I thus 
think, and so leave it. If the match should go on, 
and put case against your counsel and opinion, doth 
any man think, that so profound a king, and so well 
seen. in the science of reigning, and so understanding 
a prince, will ever suffer the whole sway of affairs and 
greatness to go that way ? And, if not, who should 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 367 

be a fitter person to keep the balance even than your 
grace, whom the king and prince know to be so in- 
tirely their own, and have found so nobly independent 
upon any other ? Surely my opinion is, you are likely 
to be greater by counterpoise against the Spanish de- 
pendence, than you will by concurrence. And there- 
fore, in God's name, do your duty faithfully and wise- 
ly ; for behaving yourself well otherwise, as I know 
you will, your fortune is like to be well either way. 
For that excellent lady, whose fortune is so distant 
from her merits and virtue, the queen of Bohemia, 
your grace, being as it were the first-born or prime 
man of the king's creatures, must in consequence owe 
the most to his children and generations ; whereof I 
know your noble heart hath far greater sense than 
any man s words can infuse into you. And therefore 
whatsoever liveth within the compass of your duty, 
and of possibility, will no doubt spring from you out 
of that fountain. 

It is open to every man's discourse, that there are 
but two ways for the restitution of the Palatinate, 
treaty and arms. It is good, therefore, to consider 
of the middle acts, which may make either of these 
ways desperate, to the end they may be avoided in 
that way which shall be chosen. If no match, either 
this with Spain, or perhaps some other with Austria, 
no restitution by treaty If the Dutch, either be 
ruined, or grow to a peace, of themselves, with Spain, 
no restitution by war. 

But these things your grace understandeth far 
better than myself. And, as I said before, the points 
of state I aim not at farther, than they may concern 
your grace, to whom, while I live, and shall find it 
acceptable to you, I shall ever be ready to give the 
tribute of a true friend and servant, and shall always 
think my counsels given you happy, if you shall par- 
don them, when they are free, and follow them, when 
they are good. God preserve and prosper you. 

368 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


Excellent Lord, 

There is a suit, whereunto I may, as it were, claim 
kindred, and which may be of credit and profit unto 
me ; and it is an old arrear, which is called upon from 
Sir Nicolas Bacon, my eldest brother. It may be 
worth to me perhaps two thousand pounds ; and 
yet I may deal kindly with my brother, and also re- 
ward liberally, as I mean to do, the officers of the 
Exchequer, which have brought it to light. Good 
my lord, obtain it of the king, and be earnest in it for 
me. It will acquit the king somewhat of his pro- 
mise, that he would have care of my wants ; for 
hitherto, since my misfortunes, I have tasted of his 
majesty's mercy, but not of his bounty Butyour lord- 
ship may be pleased in this, to clear the coast with my 
lord treasurer ; else there it will have a stop. I am 
almost at last cast for means ; and yet it grieveth me 
most, that at such a time as this I should not be ra- 
ther serviceable to your grace, than troublesome. 
God preserve and prosper your grace. 

Your grace's most obliged 

and faithful servant, 

This 23d of January, 1622. FR. ST. ALBAN 


My very good Lord, 

Let me be an humble suitor to your lordship, for 
your noble favour. I would be glad to receive my 
writ this parliament, (c) that I may not die in disho- 

(a) The duke's answer to this letter, dated at Newmarket, the 
28th of January, 1623, is printed p. 580 of Vol. V 

(b) Henry Vere, who died in 1625. He was lord great chamber- 
lain of England. 

(c) That met February 19, 1623, and was prorogued May 29, 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 369 

nour; but by no means, except it should be with the 
love and consent of my lords to re-admit me, if their 
lordships vouchsafe to think me worthy of their com- 
pany : or if they think that which I have suffered now 
these three years, in loss of place, in loss of means, 
and in loss of liberty for a great time, to be a suffi- 
cient expiation for my faults, whereby I may now 
seem in their eyes to be a fit subject of their grace, 
as I have been before of their justice. My good lord, 
the good which the commonwealth might reap of my 
suffering, is already inned. Justice is done ; an ex- 
ample is made for reformation ; the authority of the 
house for judicature is established. There can be no 
farther use of my misery ; perhaps some little may be 
of my service ; for, I hope I shall be found a man 
humbled as a Christian, though not dejected as a 
worldling. I have great opinion of your lordship's 
power, and great hope, for many reasons, of your fa- 
vour ; which if I may obtain, I can say no more but 
nobleness is ever requited in itself; and God, whose 
special favour in my afflictions I have manifestly 
found to my comfort, will, I trust, be my pay-master 
of that, which cannot be requited by 

Your Lordships affectionate 

humble servant, 8$c. 

Indorsed, February 2, 1623. 


Good Cousin, 

Upon a little searching, made touching the patents 
of the survey of coals, I find matter not only to ac- 
quit myself, but likewise to do myself much right. 
Any reference to me, or any certificate of mine, I 

(a) He appears to be a relation of his lordship's lady, who was 
daughter of Benedict Barnham, esq. alderman of the city of London. 
Sir Francis was appointed by his lordship one of the executors of his 
last will. 

VOL. VI. 2 B 

370 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

find not. Neither is it very likely I made any ; for 
that, when it came to the great seal, I stayed it. I did 
not only stay it, butbroughtit before the council-table, 
as not willing to pass it, except their lordships allowed 
it. The lords gave hearing to the business, I remem- 
ber, two several days ; and in the end disallowed it, 
and commended my care and circumspection, and or- 
dered, that it should continue stayed ; and so it did 
all my time. 

About a twelvemonth since, my lord duke of Le- 
nox, now deceased, {a) wrote to me to have the privy 
seal ; which, though I respected his lordship much, I 
refused to deliver to him, but was content to put it 
into the right hand ; that is, to send it to my lord 
keeper, (b) giving knowledge how it had been stayed. 
My lord keeper received it by mine own servant, 
Writeth back to me, acknowledging the receipt, and 
adding, that he would lay it aside until his lordship 
heard further from my lord steward, (c) and the rest 
of the lords. Whether this first privy seal went to the 
great seal, or that it went about again, I know not : 
but all my part is, that I have related. I ever rest 

Your faithful friend and cousin, 

March 14, 1623. FR. ST. ALBAN. 


My Lord, 

I am now full three years old in misery: neither 
hath there been any thing done for me, whereby I 
might die out of ignominy, or live out of want. But 
now that your grace, God's name be praised for it, 
hath recovered your health, and are come to the 
court, and the parliament business hath also inter- 
mission, I firmly hope your grace will deal with his 

(«) He died suddenly, February 12, 1623-4. 

(b) See his letter to lord St. Alban, of February 7, 1622. 

(c) James, marquis of Hamilton, who died March 2, 162'4-5. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 37 1 

majesty, that, as I have tasted of his mercy, I may 
also taste of his bounty Your grace, I know, for a 
business of a private man, cannot win yourself more 
honour ; and I hope I shall yet live to do you service. 
For my fortune hath, I thank God, made no altera- 
tion in my mind, but to the better. I ever rest 

Your Grace's most obliged 

and faithful servant, 


If I may know, by two or three words from your 
grace, that you will set in for me, I will propound 
somewhat that shall be modest, and leave it to your 
grace, whether you will move his majesty yourself, or 
recommend it by some of your lordship's friends, that 
wish me well ; [as my lord of Arundel, or Secretary 
Conway, or Mr. James Maxwell. («)] 


Excellent Lord, 

I understand, by Sir John Suckling, that he at- 
tended yesterday at Greenwich, hoping, according to 
your grace's appointment, to have found you there, 
and to have received your grace's pleasure touching 
my suit, but missed of you : and this day he sitteth 
upon the subsidy at Brentford, and shall not be at 
court this week : which causeth me to use these few 
lines, to hear from your grace, I hope, to my comfort : 
humbly praying pardon, if I number thus the days, 
that misery should exceed modesty. I ever rest 

Your Grace's most faithful 

and obliged servant, 

June 30, 1624. FK,. st ALBAN 

(a) The words included in brackets have a line drawn after them. 

2 b2 

372 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


Mr. Chancellor, 
This way, by Mr. Myn, besides a number of little 
difficulties it hath, amounteth to this, that I shall 
pay interest for mine own money Besides, I must 
confess, I cannot bow my mind to be a suitor, much 
less a shifter, for that means, which I enjoy by his 
majesty's grace and bounty And therefore I am ra- 
ther ashamed of that I have done, than minded to go 
forward. So that I leave it to yourself, what you 
think fit to be done in your honour and my case, 

Your very loving friend, 

London, this 7th of July, 1624. FR. ST. ALB AN. 


Excellent Lord, 

Now that your grace hath the king private, and at 
better leisure, the noise of soldiers, ambassadors, par- 
liaments, a little ceasing, I hope you will remem- 
ber your servant ; for at so good a time, (a) and after 
so long a time, to forget him, were almost to forsake 
him. But, howsoever, I shall still remain 

Your Grace's most obliged 

and faithful servant, 


I am bold to put into my good friend, Sir Tobie 
Matthew's hand, a copy of my petition, which your 
grace had sent to Sir John Suckling. 

Indorsed, August, 1624. 

(a) This seems to refer to the anniversary thanksgiving-day for the 
king's delivery from the Gowry conspiracy, on the 5th of August, 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 373 


Excellent Lord, 

I am infinitely bound to your grace for your late fa- 
vours. I send your grace a copy of your letter, sig- 
nifying his majesty's pleasure, and of the petition, 
the course, I take it, must be, to make a warrant for 
the execution of the same, by way of reference to Mr. 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Mr. Attorney (a) 
I most humbly pray your grace, likewise, to prostrate 
me at his majesty's feet, with most humble thanks 
for the grant of my petition, whose sweet presence 
since I discontinued, methinks I am neither amongst 
the living, nor amongst the dead. 

I cannot but likewise gratulate his majesty on the 
extreme prosperous success of his business, since this 
time twelvemonth. I know I speak it in a dangerous 
time ; because the die of the Low Countries is upon 
the throw. But yet that is all one. For if it should 
be a blow, which I hope in God it shall not, yet it 
would have been ten times worse, if former courses 
had not been taken. But this is the raving of a hot 

God evermore bless his majesty's person and de- 
signs, and likewise make your grace a spectacle of 
prosperity, as you have hitherto been. 

Your Grace's most faithful and obliged, 

and by you revived servant, 

Grey's Inn, 9th of October, 1624. FR. ST. ALBAN. 

(a) Sir Thomas Coventry. 

374 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


Good Mr. Chancellor, 

I do approve very well of your forbearance to move 
my suits, in regard the duke's return (b) is so near 
at hand, which I thought would have been a longer 
matter ; and I imagine there is a gratiastitium, till he 
come. I do not doubt but you shall find his grace 
nobly disposed. The last time you spake with him 
about me, I remember you sent me word, he thanked 
you for being so forward for me. Yet I could wish, 
that you took some occasion to speak with him, gene- 
rally to my advantage, before you move to him any 
particular suit ; and to let me know how you find 

My lord treasurer sent me a good answer touching 
my monies. I pray you continue to quicken him, 
that the king may once clear with me. A fire of old 
wood needeth no blowing ; but old men do. I ever 

Yours to do you service. 

(a) This letter is indorsed, 1625. 

(b) From Paris, whither the duke of Buckingham went in May, 
1625, to conduct the new queen to England. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 375 

Consultations in Parliament anno 1 CaroliTlegis, 
at Westminster, anno Domini 1625. (a) 

[Found among Lord Bacon's Papers.] 

The consultations now in parliament may be regu- 
lated into these four heads following. 

1 . What it was ; and how far the introitus et 

exitus there ordered. Vide my book of a medium 

for ten years before primo Jacobi regis. 



The state of the 
king in the con- < 
his crown. 

What now 
in clear 
either by 

ow it is 3 

revenue, J 



Lands ; 

Customs and impositions ; 


Gifts of land, ex mero motu, 
and no valuable consideration. 

This'maybe revoked. 

Grants of pensions, now 
120,000/. before but 18,000/. 
Good times have resumed them 
upon necessity. 

Increase of household, from 
45,000/. to 80,000/. 

The purveyors more, and 
how ^ the table less furnished than 

it is abated by 


Fruitless ambassages with 
larger allowance than former- 
ly. To reduce them to the or- 
dinary of the late queen. 

Treble increase of the privy 
purse. Double increase of the 
treasury of the chamber and 
great wardrobe. In all, by not 
using the best course of assign- 
ments, whereby the creditor is 
delayed inhis payment,and the 
king surcharged in the price. 
The exchequer-man making 
his best profit from the king's 

(a) This parliament met on the 18th 

of June, and was dissolved August 12, 

376 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancelldr Bacon. 

f Subsidies and fifteenths, spent 
only in defence of the states, or aid 
of our allies. 

Tonnage and poundage employ- 
f 1. ed in guard of the seas. Loans 

Formerly in<( rarely, and that employed entirely 
for the public. Imposition by 
prerogative of old custom, rated 
easily by the book of rates, if 
any, either limited to time or mea- 

The condition 
of the subject < 
in his freedom 
and fortune. 

taxes by par- 


Now in 

Custom enhanced by the new 
books of rates. Impositions and 
monopolies multiplied; and this 
settled to continue by grants. 
■^ Tonnage and poundage levied, 
though no act of parliament, nor 
the seas guarded. The times, the 
ways, and the persons, that induce 

The employ- 
ment or waste 
of treasure. 


Public trea-<{ 
sure is to be 

The king's 

What sums have been granted 
for the defence of the state these 
last three years. 
How in particular spent and where, 
f 1. The council of 
By what ad- war appointed by par- 
vice, as by liament. 
direction of <[ 2. By full order of 
the council, 
j 3. By any other than 
Lthose, and by whom. 

1. The Palatinate. 

2. Count Mansfield. 

3. Land soldiers in 
the last fleet. 

How many 
| and when 

I or employ- 
. ed, as to 

The design, where 
they were sent. 

The council, that di- 
rected it. 

The success of the 
action, and the return 
of thepersons in num- 
Jber, and the loss. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 377 

The number and quantity employed 

The manner of imbarking these 
ships, and what prejudice and dis- 
4. \ couragement of trade. 

Our own. The council, that directed such em- 


The several successes, as at Argier, 
and Cadiz. 

In ships 
and muni- 
tion of 

Strangers, as 




Hired by contract to 
serve, and how used : or 

Taken as prize : if so, 

How then delivered and 
dealt withal in the course 
of justice. 

What success hath fol- 
lowed upon injustice done 
them : as the arrest of our 
goods in France and Ger- 
many, whereby our goods 
are at a stand for vent. 

The number and true 
value of the goods. 

The account made to his 
majesty or his officers,for it. 
1. By whom 

The dis- 
and dis- 
charging of 
any of them 
and the 

the direc- 

2. The pre- 

3.The value 
of the goods. 

4. The place 
whither they 

Under this head will fall the complaint of Dover. 

A nation feared, renowned,victorious. 
It made the Netherlands there a state 
when it was none. 

Recovered Henry IV of France's 
kingdom, when he had nothing left but 
the town of Dieppe. 

Conquered the invincible navy of 
Spain in 1588. 

Took towns in Portugal the year fol- 
lowing, and marched 100 miles upon 
the firm land. 

Fired, or brought away, the Spanish 

378 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


How for- 
merly we 

Honour of 
the king and 

The cause 

state, which,< , " e cau ^ 
as in all ^ of the S ood ' 
other, con- 
sists more in 
fama than vi. 


navy before Cadiz, and sacked the 

Took the Spanish ships daily, and 
spoiled the Port-Towns of the West- 
Indies, never losing but one ship dur- 
ing all the Spanish wars. 

Reduced the ambition of that king 
for a fifth monarchy to so low an ebb, 
that in one year he paid 2500 millions 
of ducats for interest, so as after he was 
inforcedto beg treaties of peace, in low 
terms, at the last queen regent's hands. 

A carriage and readiness in the peo- 
ple to assist their sovereign in their 
^purse and person. 

A wisdom and gravity of council, 
kwho ordered nothing but by public de- 
bate, and then assisted by the military 
'professors, either by land or sea, of the 
.best repute, and such only employed. 

we now < 
.stand by 

In the voyage of Al- 
4. gier. 

3. Loss in re- In the Palatinate. 

In what <( putation by <j In the journey with 
condition. the ill sue- Mansfield. 

cess. In this last to Ca- 

L Ldiz.(a) 

T f The unchearfulness 

[ we have either to adven- 
ture our purses or goods, 
J occasioned by a distrust 
5. <j we have of the suc- 

The reasons, cesses, 
j The want of the like 

j courses and counsels, 

I (.that were formerly used. 

I could wish, that for every of these four heads 
there were a particular committee to examine an apt 
report for the houses ; and the houses, upon every 
report, to put itself into a committee of the whole 
assembly ; and after a full and deliberate debate, to 
order a model, or form, for a conference with the 
lords : and so, together, humbly to present unto his 
majesty a remonstrance of their labour ; offering 
withal a serious consultation and debate amongst 

(a) In October, 1625. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 379 

themselves for the finding out the fittest manner both 
for the defence of the state and our allies, reformation 
of the errors, and a constant way to raise such sup- 
plies of money and necessaries, as may enable his ma- 
jesty to proceed chearfully, and I hope assuredly, in 
this his glorious action, not only for himself and the 
state, but for all that profess the same religion, and 
are liked to be overwhelmed in the ambition of the 
Spanish monarchy 


Good Sir Robert Pye, 

Let me intreat you to dispatch that warrant of a 
petty sum, that it may help to bear my charge of 
coming up (a) to London. The duke, you know, 
loveth me, and my lord treasurer (b) standeth now 
towards me in very good affection and respect, (c) 
You that are the third person in these businesses, I 
assure myself, will not be wanting ; for you have pro- 
fessed and shewed, ever since I lost the seal, your 
good will towards me. I rest 

Your affectionate and assured friend, 8§c. 

To Sir Robert Pye. Gor. 1625. 

(a) From Gorhambury. 

(b) Sir James Lord Ley, advanced from the post of lord chief 
justice of the King's Bench, on the 20th of December, 1 624, to that 
of lord treasurer ; and created earl of Marlborough on the 5th of 
February, 1625-6. 

(c) His lordship had not been always in that disposition towards 
the lord viscount St. Alban ; for the latter, in a letter to this lord 
treasurer, severely expostulated with him about his unkindness and 

380 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My very good Lord, 

This gentleman, the bearer hereof, Mr. Colles by- 
name, is my neighbour. He is commended for a 
civil young man. I think he wanteth no metal, but 
he is peaceable. It was his hap to fall out with Mr. 
Matthew Francis, serjeant at arms, about a toy ; the 
one affirming, that a hare was fair killed, and the 
other foul. Words multiplied, and some blows passed 
on either side. But since the first falling out, the 
Serjeant hath used towards him divers threats and 
affronts ; and, which is a point of danger, sent to 
him a letter of challenge : but Mr. Colles, doubting 
the contents of the letter, refused to receive it. Mo- 
tions have been made also of reconcilement, or of 
reference to some gentlemen of the country not par- 
tial : but the serjeant hath refused all, and now, at 
last, sueth him in the earl marshal's court. The gen- 
tleman saith, he distrusteth not his cause upon the 
hearing; but would be glad to avoid restraint, or 
long and chargeable attendance. Let me therefore 
pray your good lordship to move the noble earl (b) in 
that kind, to carry a favourable hand towards him, 
such as may stand with justice and the order of that 
court. I ever rest 

Your Lordship's faithful friend and servant. 

To E. Dorset. Gor. 1625. 

(a) Sir Edward Sackville succeeded to that title on the death of 
his brother Richard, March 28, 1624. 

(b) Arundel, earl marshal. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 381 


My very good Lord, 

I received from your lordship two letters, the one 
of the 23d, the other of the 28th of this month. To 
the former I do assure your lordship I have not heard 
any thing of any suits or motion, either touching 
the reversion of your honours, or the rent of your 
farm of petty writs ; and, if I had heard any thing 
thereof, I would not have been unmindful of that 
caveat, which heretofore you gave in my former 
letters, nor slack to do you the best service 1 might. 

The debt of Sir Nicholas Bacon resteth as it did ; 
for in the latter end of king James's time, it exhibited 
a quo warranto in the Exchequer, touching that li- 
berty, against Sir Nicholas, which abated by his 
death ; then another against Sir Edmund, which by 
the demise of the king, and by reason of the adjourn- 
ment of the late term, hath had no farther proceed- 
ing, but that day is given to plead. 

Concerning your other letter, I humbly thank your 
lordship for your favourable and good wishes to me, 
though I, knowing my own unaptness to so great 
an employment, (a) should be most heartily glad, if 
his majesty had, or yet would choose, a man of more 
merit. But, if otherwise, humbleness and submission 
becomes the servant, and to stand in that station 
where his majesty will have him. But as for the re- 
quest you make for your servant, though I protest I 
am not yet engaged by promise to any, because I 
hold it too much boldness towards my master, and 
discourtesy towards my lord keeper (Z>) to dispose of 
places, while he had the seal : yet in respect I have 

(a) That of the great seal, of which Sir Thomas Coventry was 
three days after made lord keeper, on the 1st of November, 1625. 

(b) Bishop Williams, who had resigned the great seal, on the 
25th of October, 1625, to Sir John Suckling, who brought his ma- 
jesty's warrant to receive it, dated at Salisbury on the 23d of that 

382 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

some servants, and some of my kindred, apt for the 
place you write of, and have been already so much 
importuned by noble persons, when I lately was with 
his majesty at Salisbury, as it will be hard for me to 
give them all denial ; I am not able to discern how I 
can accommodate your servant ; though for your sake, 
and in respect of the former knowledge myself have 
had of the merit and worth of the gentleman, I should 
be most ready and willing to perform your desire, 
if it were in my power. And so, with remembrance 
of my service to your lordship, I remain, 

At your Lordship's commandment, 

Kingsbury, October 29, 1625. THO. COVENTRY 

To the right honourable and my very good lord the 
viscount St.Alban. 


Good Mr. Roger Palmer, 

I thank God, by means of the sweet air of the 
country, I have obtained some degree of health. 
Sending to the court, I thought I would salute you : 
and I would be glad in this solitary time and place, 
to hear a little from you how the world goeth, accord- 
ing to your friendly manner heretofore. 
Fare ye well most heartily 

Your very affectionate and assured friend, 

Gorhambury, Oct. 29, 1625. ER. ST ALBAN 


Excellent Lord, 

I could not but signify unto your grace my rejoicing, 
that God hath sent your grace a son and heir, (a) and 
that you are fortunate as well in your house, as in 

(a) Born November 17, 1625, and named Charles. Diary of the 
Life of Archbishop Laud, published by Mr. Wharton, p. 24. This 
son of the duke died the 16th of March, 1626-7 Ibid. p. 40. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 383 

the state of the kingdom. These blessings come 
from God ; as I do not doubt but your grace doth, 
with all thankfulness, acknowledge, vowing to him 
your service. Myself, I praise his divine majesty, 
nave gotten some step into health. My wants are 
great ; but yet I want not a desire to do your grace 
service : and I marvel, that your grace should think 
to pull down the monarchy of Spain without my 
good help. Your grace will give me leave to be 
merry, however the world goeth with me. I ever 

Your Grace's most faithful, 

and obliged servant, 8§c. 

I wish your grace a good new year. 


Good Mr, Chancellor, 

I did wonder what was become of you, and was 
very glad to hear you were come to court ; which, 
methinks, as the times go, should miss you as well 
as I. 

I send you another letter, which I wrote to you of 
an old date, to avoid repetition ; and I continue my 
request then to you, to sound the duke of Bucking- 
ham's good affection towards me, before you do move 
him in the particular petition. Only the present oc- 
casion doth invite me to desire, that his grace would 
procure me a pardon of the king of the whole sen- 
tence. My writ for parliament I have now had twice 
before the time, and that without any express re- 
straint not to use it. It is true, that I shall not be 
able, in respect of my health, to attend in parliament ; 
but yet I might make a proxy- Time hath turned 
envy to pity ; and I have a long cleansing week of 
five years expectation and more. Sir John Bennet 
hath his pardon; and my lord of Somerset hath his 
pardon, and, they say, shall sit in parliament. My 

384 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

lord of Suffolk cometh to parliament, though not to 
council. I hope I deserve not to be the only outcast. 
God keep you. I ever rest 

Your most affectionate friend 

to do you service. 

I wish you a good new year. 


To the chancellor of the Duchy Gor. 1625. 


Mons. V Ambassadeur , monfils, 

Vous scavez que le commencement est la moitie du 
fait. Voyla pourquoy je vous ay escrit ce petit mot 
de lettre, vous priant de vous souvenir de vostre 
noble promesse de me mettre en la bonne grace de 
nostre tres-excellente Royne, & m'en faire recevoir 
quelque gracieuse demonstration. Vostre Excellence 
prendra aussi, s'il vous plaist, quelque occasion de 
prescher un peu a mon avantage en l'oreilie du Due 
de Buckingham en general. Dieu vous ayt en sa 
saincte garde. 


Vostre tres-affectionne 

et tres humble serviteur, 
January 18, 1625. 


Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 385 

The following letters, wanting both date and 
circumstances to determine such dates, are 
placed here together 


7- , , i , t i i • draught in 

It may please your honourable Lordship, the library 

of Queen's 

I account myself much bound to your lordship for college, 
your favour shewed to Mr. Higgins upon my com- ^ch^D. 3. 
mendations about Pawlet's wardship ; the effect of 
which your lordship's favour, though it hath been 
intercepted by my lord deputy's suit, yet the signifi- 
cation remains : and I must in all reason consent and 
acknowledge, that your lordship had as just and good 
cause to satisfy my lord deputy's request, as I did 
think it unlikely, that my lord would have been suitor 
for so mean a matter. 

So this being to none other end but to give your 
lordship humble thanks for your intended favour, I 
commend your lordship to the preservation of the 
Divine Majesty 

From Gray's Inn. 



I am to recommend to your favour one Mr. John 
Ashe, as to serve under you, as agent of your com- 
pany : whose desire how much I do affect, you may 
perceive if it be but in this, that myself being no fur- 
ther interested in you, by acquaintance or deserving, 
yet have intruded myself into this commendation ; 
which, if it shall take place, I shall by so much the 
more find cause to take it kindly, by how much I find 
less cause in myself to take upon me the part of a 
mover or commender towards you, whom nevertheless 
I will not so far estrange myself from, but that in a 
vol vi. 2 c 

386 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

general or mutual respect, incident to persons of our 
qualities and service, and not without particular in- 
ducements of friendship, I might, without breaking 
decorum, offer to you a request of this nature, the 
rather honouring you so much for your virtues, I 
would gladly take occasion to be beholden to you ; 
yet no more gladly than to have occasion to do you 
any good office. And so this being to no other end, 
I commend you to God's goodness. 

From my chamber at the 

•From the T0 MR# CAWFEILDE.* 


draught in 

the library ^ SIR. 

of Queen's 

college, j MADE f u ll account to have seen you here this read- 
Arch, d. 2. ing, but your neither coming nor sending the interr. 
as you undertook, I may (a) perceive of a wonder. 
And you know super mirari cceperunt philosophari. 
The redemption of both these consisteth in the vouch- 
safing of your coming up now, as soon as you conve- 
niently can ; for now is the time of conference and 
counsel. Besides, if the course of the court be held 
super interrogat. judicis, then must the interr. be 
ready ere the commission be sealed ; and if the com- 
mission proceed not forthwith, then will it be caught 
hold of for further delay. I will not, by way of ad- 
mittance, desire you to send with all speed the interr. 
because I presume much of your coming, which T 
hold necessary ; and accordingly, pro more amicitice, 
I desire you earnestly to have regard both of the 
matter itself, and my so conceiving. And so, &c. 

Your friend particularly. 
(«) Query whether perceive. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 387 


draught in 

My very good Lord, SqS 

Finding by my last going to my lodge at Twicken- Oxford', 
ham, and tossing over my papers, somewhat that I Arch - D - 2, 
thought might like you, I had neither leisure to per- 
fect them, nor the patience to expect leisure ; so de- 
sirous I was to make demonstration of my honour 
and love towards you, and to increase your good 
love towards me. And I would not have your lord- 
ship conceive, though it be my manner and rule to 
keep state in contemplative matters, si quis venerit 
nomine suo, eum recipietis, that I think so well of the 
collection as I seem to do : and yet I dare not take 
too much from it, because I have chosen to dedicate 
it to you. To be short, it is the honour I can do to 
you at this time. And so I commend me to your 
love and honourable friendship. 


May it please your Majesty, 

Thinking often, as I ought, of your majesty's virtue 
and fortune, I do observe, not without admiration, 
that those civil acts of sovereignty, which are of the 
greatest merit, and therefore of truest glory, are by 
the providence of God manifestly put into your hands, 
as a chosen vessel to receive from God, and an excel- 
lent instrument to work amongst men the best and 
noblest things. The highest degree of sovereign ho- 
nour is to be founder of a kingdom or estate ; for, as 
in the acts of God, the creation is more than the 
conservation ; and as among men, the birth-day is 
accounted the chiefest of the days of life ; so, to 
found a kingdom is more worthy, than to augment, or 
to administer the same. And this is an honour that 
no man can take from your majesty, that the day of 

2c 2 

388 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

your coming to the crown of England was as the 
birth-day of the kingdom intire Britain. 

The next degree of sovereign honour is the planta- 
tion of a country or territory, and the reduction of a 
nation, from waste soil and barbarous manners, to a 
civil population. And in this kind also your majesty 
hath made a fair and prosperous beginning in your 
realm of Ireland. 

The third eminent act of sovereignty, is to be a 
lawgiver, whereof he speaketh, 

Pace data terris, animum ad civilia vertit 
Jura suum, legesque tulit justissimus author. 
And another saith, " Ecquid est, quod tarn proprie 
" dici potest actum ejus, qui togatus in republica 
" cum potestate imperioque versatur, quam lex. 
" Qusere acta Gracchi; leges Sempronise proferen- 
" tur; qusere Syllse, Cornelise quid? Cneii Pompeii 
" tertius consulatus in quibus actis consistit ? Nempe 
" legibus. A Csesare ipso si qusereres quidnam egis- 
" set in urbe et toga ; leges multas se respondeat et 
" praeclaras tulisse." 


It may please your Majesty, 

A full heart is like a full pen : it can hardly make 
any distinguished work. The more I look upon my 
own weakness, the more I must magnify your fa- 
vours ; and the more I behold your favours, the 
more I must consider mine own weakness. This is 
my hope, that God, who hath moved your heart to 
favour me, will write your service in my heart. Two 
things I may promise ; for, though they be not mine 
own, yet they are surer than mine own, because 
they are God's gifts; that is, integrity and indus- 
try And therefore, whensoever I shall make my 
account to you, I shall do it in these words, ecce 
tibi lucrifeci, and not ecce mihi lucrifeci. And for in- 
dustry, I shall take to me, in this procuration, not 
Martha's part, to be busied in many things, but 
Mary's part, which is to intend your service ; for the 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 389 

less my abilities are, the more they ought to be con- 
tracted ad unum. For the present, I humbly pray 
your majesty to accept my most humble thanks and 
vows as the forerunners of your service, which I shall 
always perform with a faithful heart. 

Your Majesty's most obedient servant, 


The humble petition oftheLordYERVLAM, viscount St. 


That whereas your supplicant, for reward of full 
sixteen years' service in the painfullest places of your 
kingdom, how acceptable or useful, he appealeth to 
your majesty's gracious remembrance, had of your 
majesty's gracious bounty two grants, both under the 
great seal of England ; the one a pension of 1 200/. 
the other a farm of the petty writs, about 600/. per 
annum in value, which was long since assigned to 
your supplicant's wife's friends in trust for her main- 
tenance : which two grants are now the substance of 
your supplicant's and his wife's means, and the only 
remains of your majesty's former favours, except his 
dignities, which without means are but burdens to 
his fortunes : 

So it is, most gracious sovereign, that both these 
are now taken from him ; the pension stopped, the 
lease seized, the pension being, at this present, in 
arrear 500/. and at Michaelmas 800/. is stopped, as 
he conceiveth, upon the general stop of pensions ; 
though he hopeth assuredly, that your majesty, that 
looketh with the gracious eye of a king, and not the 
strict eye of an officer, will behold his case as especial, 
if not singular. The latter was first seized for satisfac- 
tion of a private gentleman, your supplicant unheard, 
and without any shadow of a legal course. Since it 
hath been continued, in respect of a debt to your 
majesty for the arrear of rent upon the same farm, 

890 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

amounting to 1500/. But whereas your majesty's 
farmers debtors for their rents, and other your debt- 
ors, have usually favours, sometimes of stallment, 
sometimes upon equity, if their farms decay, or at 
least when they are called upon, have days given, 
put in security, or the like; your supplicant was 
never so much as sent to, no warnings to provide, no 
days given, but put out of possession suddenly by a 
private and peremptory warrant, without any spark 
of those favours used to the meanest subjects. So 
that now your supplicant having left little or no an- 
nual income, is in great extremity, having spread the 
remnant of his former fortunes in jewels and plate, 
and the like, upon his poor creditors, having scarce 
left bread to himself and family 

In tender consideration whereof, your supplicant, 
and overthrown servant, doth implore your majesty's 
grace and goodness felt by so many, known to all, 
and whereof he cannot live to despair ; first, in gene- 
ral, that your majesty will not suffer him, upon whose 
arm your princely arm hath so often been, when you 
presided in counsel, so near he was, and who hath 
borne your image in metal, but more in his heart, ut- 
terly to perish ; or, which is worse, to live in his last 
days in an abject and sordid condition. Next, in 
particular, that your majesty would be graciously 
pleased to take present order to have the arrear of his 
pension paid, and likewise that for the future it may 
be settled, that he be not at courtesy, nor to beg at 
that door, which is like enough to be shut against 
him. Secondly, that the possession of his wife's lease 
may be restored to her ; and this bit of arrear to your 
majesty, that you will be pleased to remit it, accord- 
ing to your majesty's gracious and pious promise,when 
you admitted him to you in the night of his troubles, 
which was, that you would not meddle with his estate, 
but to mend it. In the restoring the possession, you 
shall remove your hand of arms; in the remitting 
of the rent, you shall extend your hand of grace : 
and if he be not worthy of so much favour, as to 
have it released yet, that it may be respited for some 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 39 1 

good time, that he may make somewhat of that 
his father left him, and keep himself out of want, in 
such sort, that your supplicant, that aspireth but to 
live to study, be not put to study to live. And he, ac- 
cording to his bounden duty, shall not intermit, as he 
ever hath done, to pray to God for your majesty's 
health and happiness. 


My very good Lord, 

I hear yesterday was a day of very great honour 
to his majesty, which I do congratulate. I hope also 
his majesty may reap honour out of my adversity ; 
as he hath done strength out of my prosperity. His 
majesty knows best his own ways ; and for me to de- 
spair of him, were a sin not to be forgiven. I thank 
God I have overcome the bitterness of this cup by 
Christian resolution ; so that worldly matters are but 
mint and cumin. 

God ever preserve you. 


To my Lord of Buckingham after my troubles. 


My very good Lord, 

I thought it my duty to take knowledge to his ma- 
jesty, from your lordship, by the inclosed, that, much 
to my comfort, I understand his majesty doth not for- 
get me nor forsake me, but hath a gracious inclination 
to me, and taketh care of me ; and to thank his ma- 
jesty for the same. I perceive, by some speech, that 
passed between your lordship and Mr. Meautys, that 
some wretched detractor hath told you, that it were 
strange I should be in debt : for that I could not but 
have received an hundred thousand pounds gift since 
I had the seal which is an abominable falsehood. 

392 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

Such tales as these made St. James say, that the tongue 
is ajire, and itself fired from hell, whither, when these 
tongues shall return, they will beg a drop of water to 
cool them. I praise God for it, I never took penny for 
any benefice or ecclesiastical living ; I never took 
penny for releasing any thing I stopped at the seal ; I 
never took penny for any commission, or things of that 
nature; I never shared with any servant for any 
second or inferior profit. My offences I have myself 
recorded, wherein I studied, as a good confessant, 
guiltiness, and not excuse ; and therefore I hope it 
leaves me fair to the king's grace, and will turn many 
men's hearts to me. 

As for my debts, I shewed them your lordship, 
when you saw the little house and the farm, besides a 
little wood or desert, which you saw not. 

If these things were not true, although the joys of 
the penitent be sometimes more than the joys of the 
innocent, I could not be as I am. 

God bless you, and reward you for your constant 
love to me. I rest, &c. 


My Lord, 

I say to myself, that your lordship hath forsaken me ; 
and I think I am one of the last, that findeth it, 
and in nothing more, than that twice at London 
your lordship would not vouchsafe to see me, though 
the latter time I begged it of you. If your lordship 
lack any justification about York-house, good my lord, 
think of it better ; for I assure your lordship, that mo- 
tion to me was to me as a second sentence ; for I con- 
ceived it sentenced me to the loss of that, which I 

(a) Among lord Bacon's printed letters, is one without a date, in 
which he complains, as in this, that he, being twice now in London 
the marquis did not vouchsafe to see him. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 393 

thought was saved from the former sentence, which is 
your love and favour. But sure it could not be that 
pelting matter, but the being out of sight, out of use, 
and the ill offices done me, perhaps, by such as have 
your ear. Thus I think, and thus I speak ; for I am 
far enough from any baseness or detracting, but shall 
ever love and honour you, howsoever I be 

Your forsaken friend and freed servant, 



My very good Lord, 

It is in vain to cure the accidents of a disease, ex- 
cept the cause be found and removed. I know ad- 
versity is apprehensive ; but I fear it is too true, that 
now 1 have lost honour, power, profit and liberty ; I 
have, in the end, lost that, which, to me, was more 
dear than all the rest, which is my friend. A change 
there is apparent and great ; and nothing is more sure, 
than that nothing hath proceeded from and since my 
troubles, either towards your lordship or towards the 
world, which hath made me unworthy of your unde- 
served favours or undesired promises. Good my lord, 
deal so nobly with me, as to let me know, whether 
I stand upright in your favour, that either I may en- 
joy my wonted comfort, or see my griefs together, 
that I may the better order them ; though, if your 
lordship should never think more of me, yet your 
former favours should bind me to be 

Your Lordships most obliged 

and faithful servant, 


394 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 


My very good Lord, 

This extreme winter hath turned, with me, a weak- 
ness of body into a state that I cannot call health, 
but rather sickness, and that more dangerous than felt, 
as whereby I am not likely to be able to wait upon 
your lordship, as I desired, your lordship being the 
person, of whom I promise myself more almost than 
of any other; and, again, to whom, in all loving 
affection, I desire no less to approve myself a true 
friend and servant. My desire to your lordship is to 
admit this gentleman, my kinsman and approved 
friend, to explain to you my business, whereby to save 
further length of letter, or the trouble of your lord- 
ship's writing back. 


Good Mr. Matthew, 

The event of the business, whereof you write, is, 
it may be, for the best : for seeing my lord, of himself, 
beginneth to come about, quorsum as yet ? I could 
not in my heart suffer my lord Digby to go hence with- 
out my thanks and acknowledgments. I send my 
letter open, which I pray seal and deliver. Particu- 
lars I would not touch. 

Your most affectionate 

and assured friend, 


Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 395 


Good Mr. Matthew, 

When you write by pieces, it sheweth your con- 
tinual care ; for a flush of memory is not so much ; and 
I shall be always, on my part, ready to watch for you, 
as you for me. 

I will not fail, when I write to the lord marquis to 
thank his lordship for the message, and to name the 
nuntius. And, to tell you plainly, this care, they 
speak of, concerning my estate, was more than I 
looked for at this time ; and it is that, which pleaseth 
me best. For my desires reach but to a fat otium. 
That is truth ; and so would I have all men think ex- 
cept the greatest ; for I know patents, absque aliquid 
inde reddendo, are not so easily granted. 

I pray my service to the Spanish ambassador, and 
present him my humble thanks for his favour. I am 
much his servant ; and ashes may be good for some- 
what. I ever rest 

Your most affectionate and assured friend, 


I have sought for your little book, and cannot find 
it. I had it one day with me in my coach. But sure 
it is safe ; for I seldom lose books or papers. 


Most honoured Lord, 

I have received your great and noble token and 
favour of the 9th of April, and can but return the 
humblest of my thanks for your lordship's vouch- 
safing so to visit this poorest and unworthiest of your 
servants. It doth me good at heart, that, although I 
be not where I was in place, yet I am in the fortune 

396 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

of your lordship's favour, if I may call that fortune, 
which I observe to be so unchangeable. I pray hard 
that it may once come in my power to serve you for 
it ; and who can tell, but that, as fortis imagmatio 
o-enerat casum, so strange-desires may do as much? 
Sure I am that mine are ever waiting on your lordship ; 
and wishing as much happiness as is due to your in- 
comparable virtue, I humbly do your lordship reve- 

Your Lordships most obliged 

and humble servant, 


Postsc. The most prodigious wit, that ever I knew 
of my nation, and of this side of the sea, is of your 
lordship's name, though he be known by another. 


My very good Lord, 

I must use a better style, than mine own, in saying, 
Amor tuus undequaque se ostendit ex Uteris tuts proximis, 
for which I give your grace many thanks, and so, 
with more confidence, continue my suit to your 
lordship for a lease absolute for twenty-one years of 
the house, being the number of years, which my 
father and my predecessors fulfilled in it. A good 
fine requires certainty of term : and I am well assured 
that the charge I have expended, in reparations, 
amounting to 1000 marks at least already, is more than 
hath been laid out by the tenants that have been in it 
since my remembrance, answerable to my particular 
circumstance, that I was born there, and am like to 
end my days there. Neither can I hold my hand, but, 
upon this encouragement, am like to be doing still, 
which tendeth to the improvement, in great measure, 

(a) Dr. Tobie Matthew. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 397 

of the inheritance of your see by superlapidations, 
if I may so call it, instead of dilapidations, wherewith 
otherwise it might be charged. 

And whereas a state for life is a certainty, and not 
so well seen how it wears, a term of years makes me 
more depending upon you and. your succession. 

For the providing of your lordship and your suc- 
cessors a house, it is part of the former covenant, 
wherein I desired not to be released. 

So assuring myself of your grant and perfecting of 
this my suit ; and assuring your grace of my earnest 
desire and continual readiness to deserve well of you 
and yours chiefly, and likewise of the see in any of 
the causes or pre-eminences thereof, I commend your 
grace to God's goodness, resting, &c. 

The following Papers, containing the Lord 
Chancellor Ellesmere's Exceptions to Sir 
Edward Coke's Reports and Sir Edward's 
Answers, having never been printed, though 
Mr Stephens, who had copied them from 
the Originals, designed to have given them to 
the Public, they are subjoined here in justice 
to the Memory of that great Lawyer and 
Judge; especially as the Offence taken at his 
Reports by king James, is mentioned above 
in the Letter of the Lord Chancellor and Sir 
Erancis Bacon, of October 16, l6l6, to 
that king. 



It may please your most excellent Majesty, 
According to your majesty's directions signified 
unto me by Mr. Solicitor, I called the lord chief jus- 
tice before me on Thursday the 17th of this instant, 
in the presence of Mr. Attorney and others of your 
learned counsel. I did let him know your majesty's 
acceptance of the few animadversions, which, upon 

398 Letters, etc, of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

review of his own labours, he had sent, though fewer 
than you expected, and his excuses other than you 
expected, as namely, in the prince's case, the want of 
the original in French, as though, if the original had 
been primogenitus in Latin, then he had not in that 
committed any error. I told him farther, that be- 
cause his books were many, and the cases therein, as 
he saith, 500, your majesty, out of your gracious fa- 
vour, was pleased, that his memory should be re- 
freshed ; and that he should be put in mind of some 
passages dispersed in his books, which your majesty, 
being made acquainted with, doth as yet distaste, 
until you hear his explanation and judgment con- 
cerning the same. And that out of many some few 
should be selected, and that at this time he should not 
be pressed with more, and these few not to be the 
special and principal points of the cases, which were 
judged, but things delivered by discourse, and, as it 
were, by expatiation, which might have been spared 
and forborn, without prejudice to the judgment in 
the principal cases. 

Of this sort Mr. Attorney and Mr. Solicitor made 
choice of five specially, which were read distinctly to 
the lord chief justice. He heard them with good at- 
tention, and took notes thereof in writing, and, lest 
there might be any mistaking either in the declaring 
thereof unto him, or in his misconceiving of the same, 
it was thought good to deliver unto him a true copy 
Upon consideration whereof, and upon advised deli- 
beration, he did yesterday in the afternoon return unto 
me, in the presence of all your learned counsel, a copy 
of the five points before mentioned, and his answer 
at large to the same, which I make bold to present 
herewith to your majesty, who can best discern and 
judge both of this little which is done, and what may 
be expected of the multiplicity of other cases of the 
like sort, if they shall be brought to further exami- 
nation. All that I have done in this hath been by 
your majesty's commandment and direction, in pre- 
sence of all your learned counsel, and by the special 
assistance and advice of your attorney and solicitor. 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 399 

I know obedience is better than sacrifice; for 
otherwise I would have been an humble suitor to 
your majesty to have been spared in all service con- 
cerning the lord chief justice. I thank God, I forget 
not the fifth petition, Dimitte nobis debita nostra sicut, 
S$c. but withal I have learned this distinction : there 
is, 1. Remissio vindictce. 2. Remissio poence. 3. Remis- 
siojudicii. The two first I am past, and have freely 
and clearly remitted. But the last, which is of judg- 
ment and discretion, I trust I may in Christianity and 
with good conscience retain and not to trust too 
far, &c. 

I must beseech your majesty's favour to excuse me 
for all that I have here before written, but specially 
for this last needless passage; wherein I fear your ma- 
jesty will note me to play the divine, without learning, 
and out of season. So with my continual prayers to 
God to preserve your majesty with long, healthful, 
and happy life, and all earthly and heavenly felicity, 
I rest 

Your Majesty's humble 

At York-house, , „ -,, - 7 , . . , , 

22 Oct. 1616 ana jaithjul subject and servant, 


Questions demanded of the Chief Justice of 
the King's Bench by his majesty's command- 

1 . Ik the case of the isle of Ely, whether his lord- Lib. 10. 
ship thinks that resolution there spoken of to be law ; 
That a general taxation upon a town, to pay so much 
towards the repair of the sea-banks, is not warranted 

to be done by the commissioners of sewers ; but that 
the same must be upon every particular person, ac- 
cording to the quantity of his land, and by number of 
acres and perches ; and according to the portion of 
the profit, which every one hath there. 

2. In Darcy's case, whether his lordship's judgment Lib - n - 

400 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

be as he reporteth it to be resolved ; that the dispen- 
sation or licence of queen Elizabeth toDarcy to have 
the sole importation of cards, notwithstanding the sta- 
tute, 3 E. 4, is against law 

Lib. ii. 3 # i n Godfrey's case, what he means by this pas- 
sage, Some courts cannot imprison, fine, or amerce, 
as ecclesiastical courts before the ordinary archdea- 
con, &c. or other commissioners, and such like, which 
proceed according to the canon or civil law. 

Lit- 8. 4. In Dr. Bonhams case, what he means by this 

passage, That in many cases the common law shall 
control acts of parliament, and sometimes shall 
judge them to be merely void : For where an act of 
parliament is against common right and reason, the 
law shall control it, and adjudge it void. 

Lib. ii. 5. ]n Bagges's case, to explain himself where he 
saith, That to the court of King's Bench belongs 
authority, not only to correct errors in judicial pro- 
ceedings, but other errors and misdemeanors extra- 
judicial, tending to the breachof peace, oppression 
of subjects, or to the raising of faction, controversies, 
debate, or to any manner of misgovernment. So no 
wrong or injury can be done, but, that this shall be 
reformed or punished by due course of law 

I received these questions the 17th of this instant 
October, being Thursday ; and this 21st day 
of the same month I made these answers fol- 

The humble and direct Answer to the Questions 
upon the Case of the Isle of Ely 

The words The statute of the 23 H. VIII. cap. 5, prescribeth 

hjte^sH". the commission of sewers to be according to the man- 

8, the com- ner, form, tenure, and effect, hereafter ensuing, name- 

sewer°?° ly, to inquire by the oath of men, &c. who hath any 

lands or tenements, or common of pasture, or hath, 

or may have, any loss, &c. and all these persons to 

tax, distrain, and punish, &c. after the quantity of 

lands, tenements, and rents, by the number of acres and 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 401 

perches, after the rate of every person's portion or 
profit, or after the quantity of common of pasture, or 
common of fishing, or other commodity there, by such 
ways and means, and in such manner and form, as to 
you, or six of you, shall seem most convenient. 

The commissioners of sewers within the isle ofT hetaxa_ 
Ely did tax Fendrayton, Samsey, and other towns commis- e 
generally, namely, one intire sum upon the town of sioners - 
Fendrayton, another upon Samsey, &c. The lords of 
the council wrote to myself, the chief justice of the 
Common Pleas, and unto justice Daniel and justice 
Foster, to certify our opinions, whether "such a ge- 
neral taxation were good in law Another question 
was also referred to us, whereof no question is now 
made : and as to this question we certified, and so I 
have reported as folio weth, That the taxation ought to The re P ort - 
have these qualities, 1. It ought to be according to 
the quantity of lands, tenements, and rents, and by 
number of acres and perches. 2. According to the 
rate of every person's portion, tenure, or profit, or of 
the quantity of common of pasture, fishing, or other 
commodity, wherein we erred not, for they be the 
very words and text of the law, and of the commis- 
sion. Therefore we concluded, that the said taxa- 
tion of an intire sum in gross upon a town is not war- 
ranted by their commission, &c. And being de- 
manded by your majesty's commandment, whether I 
do think the said resolution concerning the said ge- 
neral taxation to be law, I could have wished, that I 
could have heard counsel learned again on both sides, 
as I and the other judges did, when we resolved this 
point ; and now being seven years past since the said 
resolution, and by all this time I never hearing any 
objection against it, I have considered of this case, as 
seriously as I could within this short time, and with- 
out conference with any ; and mine humble answer 
is, That for any thing that I can conceive to the con- 
trary, I remain still of my former opinion, and have, *• 
as I take it, the express text and meaning of the law 
to warrant mine opinion. Seeing that one town is of 2. 
greater value, and subject to more danger, than ano- 

VOL. VI. 2 D 

402 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Baeon. 

ther, the general taxation of a town cannot, as I take 
it, be just, unless the particular lands, &c. and loss 
be known, for the total must rise upon the particu- 
lars ; and if the particulars be known, then may the 
taxations be in particular, as it ought, as I take it, to 
be according to the express words of the act and 

3. The makers of the act did thereby provide, That 
every man should be equally charged, according to his 
benefit or loss ; but if the general taxations should be 
good, then might the intire tax set upon the town be 
levied of any one man or some few men of that town ; 
which should be unequal, and against the express 
words of the act and commission ; and if it should be 
in the power of their officer to levy the whole taxa- 
tion upon whom he will, it would be a means of much 
corruption and inconvenience ; all which the makers 
of the act did wisely foresee by the express words of 
the act. 

4. If the taxation be in particular, according to the 
number of acres, &c. which may easily be known, it 
may, as I take it, be easily done. 

5. It was not only the resolution of the said three 
judges, but it hath been ruled and adjudged by divers 
other judges in other rates accordingly. 

All which notwithstanding I most humbly sub- 
mit myself herein to your majesty's princely 
censure and judgment. 



The case. The statute of 3 of E. 4. cap. 4. at the humble pe- 
tition of the card-makers, &c. within England, pro- 
hibiteth, amongst other things, the bringing into the 
realm of all foreign playing cards upon certain pe- 
nalties. Queen Elizabeth, in the fortieth year of her 
reign, granted to Sir Ed. D'Arcy, his executors, de- 
puties, and assigns, for twenty-one years, to have the 
sole making of playing cards within the realm, and 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 403 

the sole importation of foreign playing cards ; and that 
no other should either make any such cards, within 
the realm, or import any foreign cards, but only the 
said Sir Ed. D'Arcy, his executors, deputies, and as- 
signs, notwithstanding the said act. 

The point concerning the sole making of cards 
within the realm is not questioned : the only question 
now is concerning the sole importation. 

It was resolved, that the dispensation or licence to The words 
have the sole importation or merchandizing of cards, pon^on- 
without any limitation or stint, is utterly against the «ming the 

laW- the sole im 

And your majesty's commandment having been p° rtation - 
signified to me, to know, whether my judgment be, 
as I report it to be resolved, in most humble manner 
I offer this answer to your majesty ; That I am of opi- 
nion, that without all question the late queen by her 
prerogative might, as your majesty may, grant licence 
to any man to import any quantity of the said manu- 
facture whatsoever, with a non obstante of the said sta- 
tute : and for proof thereof I have cited about fifteen 
book-cases in my report of this case. And the first of 
those book-cases is the 2 H. 7 fol. 6. by the which 
it appeareth, that if a penal statute should add a 
clause, That the king should not grant any dispensa- 
tion thereof, non obstante the statute ; yet the king, 
notwithstanding that clause of restraint, might grant 
dispensations at his pleasure with a non obstante there- 
of. Therefore seeing this royal prerogative and 
power to grant dispensations to penal laws is so in- 
cident and inseparable to the crown, as a clause in an 
act of parliament cannot restrain it, I am opinion, 
that when the late queen granted to Sir Ed. D'Arcy 
to have the sole importation of manufacture without 
limitation, and that no other should import any of 
the same during 21 years, that the same was not of 
force either against the late queen, or is of force 
against your majesty : for, if the said grant were of 
force, then could not the late queen or your majesty, 
during the said term, grant any dispensation of this 

2 d2 

404 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

statute concerning this manufacture to any other for 
any cause whatsoever ; which is utterly against your 
majesty's inseparable prerogative, and consequently 
utterly void ; which falleth not out where the licence 
hath a certain limitation of quantity or stint ; for there 
the crown is not restrained to grant any other licence. 
And therefore where it was resolved by Popham, 
chief justice, and the court of King's Bench, before I 
was a judge, That the said dispensation or licence to 
have the sole importation and merchandizing of cards 
without any limitation or stint, should be void, I am 
of the same opinion ; for that it is neither against your 
majesty's prerogative, nor power in granting of such 
dispensations ; but tendeth to the maintenance of 
your majesty's prerogative royal, and may, if it stand 
with your majesty's pleasure, be so explained. 

Wherein in all humbleness I submit myself to 
your majesty's princely censure and judgment. 



The words Some courts cannot imprison, fine, nor amerce, as 
port! 6 Ie ' ecclesiastical courts holden before the ordinary, arch- 
deacon, or Iheir commissaries and such like, which 
proceed according to the common or civil law 

And being commanded to explain what I meant 
by this passage, I answer, that I intended only those 
ecclesiastical courts there named and such like, that 
is, such like ecclesiastical courts, as peculiars, &c. 

And within these words (x\nd such like), I never 
did nor could intend thereby the high commission ; 
for that is grounded upon an act of parliament, and 
the king's letters patents under the great seal. There- 
fore these words commissaries and such like cannot be 
extended to the high commission, but, as I have said, 
to inferior ecclesiastical courts. 

Neither did I thereby intend the court of the ad- 
miralty ; for that is not a like court to the courts be- 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 405 

fore named ; for those be ecclesiastical courts, and 
this is temporal. But I referred the reader to the case 
in Brooks's abridgment, pla. 77, where it is that, if 
the admiral, who proceeded by the civil law, hold 
plea of any thing done upon the land, that it is void 
and coram nonjudice ; and that an action of transgres- 
sions in that case doth lie, as by the said case it ap- 
peareth. And therefore that in that case he can nei- 
ther fine nor imprison. And therewith agree divers 
acts of parliament ; and so it may be explained, as it 
was truly intended. 

All which I most humbly submit to your ma- 
jesty's princely judgment. 


The humble and direct Answer to the fourth 
Question arising out of Dr. Bonham's Case. 

In this case I am required to deliver what I mean 
by this passage therein, That in many cases the com- 
mon law shall control acts of parliament ; and some- 
times shall adjudge them to be merely void; for where 
an act of parliament is against common right and 
reason, the common law shall control it, and adjudge 
it to be void. 

The words of my report do not import any new 
opinion, bvit only a relation of such authorities of law, 
as had been adjudged and resolved in ancient and 
former times, and were cited in the argument of Bon- 
ham's case ; and therefore the words of my book are 
these, "It appeareth in our books, that in many The words 
cases the common law shall control acts of parlia- ° ort the re ~ 
ment, and sometimes shall adjudge them to be ut- 
terly void ; for when an act of parliament is against 
common right and reason, or repugnant or impossible 
to be performed, the common law shall control this, 
and adjudge such act to be void." And therefore in 
8 E. 3. 30, Thomas Tregor's case, upon the statute of 
West 2. cap. 38, et artic. super cart. cap. 9, Herle saith, 
Some statutes are made against law and right, which 

406 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

they, that made them, perceiving, would not put 
them in execution. 

The statute of H. II. cap. 21, gives a writ of Ces- 
savit kceredi petenti super hceredem tenent et super eos, 
quibus alienatum fuerit hujusmodi tenementum. And yet 
it is adjudged in 33 E. 3, tit. cessavit 42, where the 
case was, Two co-partners, lords and tenant by fealty 
and certain rent ; the one co-partner hath issue, and 
dieth, the aunt and the neice shall not join in a ces- 
savit, because that the heir shall not have a cessavit, 
for the cessor in his ancestor's time. Fitz. N. B. 209, 
F and herewith accords Plow com. 110. And the 
reason is, because that in a cessavit, the tenant, be- 
fore judgment, may render the arrearages and da- 
mages, &c. and retain his land : and this he cannot 
do, when the heir bringeth a cessavit for the cessor in 
the time of his ancestor ; for the arrearages incurred 
in the life of his ancestor do not belong to the heir. 

And because that this is against common right and 
reason, the common law adjudges the said act of par- 
liament as to this point void. The statute of Carlisle, 
made anno 35 E. I. enacteth, That the order of the 
Cestertians and augustins have a convent and common 
seal ; that the common seal shall be in the custody of 
the prior, which is under the abbot, and four others 
of the discreetest of the house ; and that any deed 
sealed with the common seal, that is not so kept, shall 
be void. And the opinion in the 27 H. 6. tit. Annu- 
ity 41, was, that this statute is void ; for the words of 
the book are, it is impertinent to be observed : for the 
seal being in their custody, the abbot cannot seal any 
thing with it ; and when it is in the hands of the ab- 
bot, it is out of their custody ipso facto. And if the 
statute should be, observed, every common seal might 
be defeated by a simple surmise, which cannot be. 
Note, reader, the words of the said statute made at 
Carlisle, anno 35 E. 1. which is called Statutum Religio- 
sorum, are these : Et insuper ordinavit dominus rex et 
statuit, quodabbates Cistercienses and Prcemonstratenses 
ordinum religiosorum, fyc. de cetero habeant sigillum 
commune, et Mud in custodia prions monasterii seu do- 

Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 407 

mus et quatuor de dignioribus et discretioribus ejus- 
dem loci conventus sub privato sigillo abbatis ipsius loci 
custod. deponend. Et siforsan aliqua scripta obligatio- 
num, donationum, emptionum, venditionum, alienationum, 
seu aliorum quorumcunque contractuum alio sigillo quam 
tali sigillo communi sicut prcemittitur custodit, inveniatur 
amodo, sigillata pro nullo penitus habeantur, omnique 
careant jirmitate. So the statute of 1 E. 6. cap. 
14, gives chanteries, &c. to the king, saving to the 
donor, &c. all such rents, services, &c. and the com- 
mon law controls this, and adjudges it void as to 
the services ; and the donor shall have the rent as a 
rent-seek to distrain of common right ; for it should 
be against common right and reason, that the king 
should hold of any, or do suit to any of his sub- 
jects, 14 Eliz. Dyer, 313. And so it was adjudged 
Mich. 16 and 17 Eliz. in the common place in Stroud's 
case. So if any act of parliament give to any to hold, 
or to have conusance of all manner of pleas before 
him arising within his manor of D. yet he shall hold 
no plea, whereunto himself is a party, for Iniquum est 
aliquem sua rei essejudicem. 

Which cases being cited in the argument of this 
case, and I finding them truly vouched, I reported 
them in this case, as my part was, and had no other 
meaning than so far as those particular cases there 
cited do extend unto. And ^orafore the beginning 
is, It appeareth in our bx.ok , *c. And so it may be 
explained, as it was truly intended. 

In all which I mosthrrolfc/y submit myself to your 
majesty's princely censure and judgment* 


The humble and direct Answer to the last Ques- 
tion arising upon Bagg's Case. 

It was resolved, that to this court of the King's The words 
Bench belongeth authority not only to correct errors °o* e re " 
in judicial proceedings, but other errors and misde- 

408 Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

meanors tending to the breach of the peace, or op- 
pression of the subjects, or to the raising of faction or 
other misgovernment : so that no wrong or injury 
either public or private can be done, but it shall be 
reformed and punished by law- 

Being commanded to explain myself concerning 
these words, and principally concerning this word, 
misgovernment ; 

I answer, that the subject-matter of that case con- 
cerned the misgovernment of the mayors and other 
the magistrates of Plymouth. 

And I intended for the persons the misgovernment 
of such inferior magistrates for the matters in commit- 
ting wrong or injury, either public or private, punish- 
able by law, and therefore the last clause was added, 
" and so no wrong or injury, either public or private, 
" can be done, but it shall be reformed and punished 
" bylaw;" and the rule is verba intelligenda sunt secun- 
dum subjectam materiam. 

And that they and other corporations might know, 
that factions and other misgovernments amongst 
them, either by oppression, bribery, unjust disfran- 
chisements, or other wrong or injury, public or pri- 
vate, are to be redressed and punished by law, it was 
so reported. 

But if any scruple remains to clear it, these words 
may be added, by inferior magistrates ; and so the 
sense shall be by faction or misgovernment of inferior 
magistrates, so as no wrong or injury, &c. 

All which I most humbly submit to your ma- 
jesty's princely judgment. 


May it please your Lordship, 

Above a year past, in my late lord chancellor's 
time, information was given to his majesty, that I hav- 
ing published in eleven works or books of reports, 
containing above 600 cases one with another, had 
written many things against his majesty's prerogative. 

Zetters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 409 

And I being by his majesty's gracious favour called 
thereunto, all the exceptions, that could be taken to 
so many cases in so many books, fell to five, and the 
most of them too were by passages in general words ; 
all which I offered to explain in such sort, as no sha- 
dow should remain against his majesty's prerogative, 
as in truth there did not ; which whether it were re- 
lated to his majesty, I know not. But thereupon 
the matter hath slept all this time ; and now the mat- 
ter, after this ever blessed marriage, is revived, and 
two judges are called by my lord keeper to the 
former, that were named. My humble suit to your 
lordship is, that if his majesty shall not be satisfied 
with my former offer, viz. by advice of the judges to 
explain and publish as is aforesaid those five points, 
so as no shadow may remain against his prerogative ; 
that then all the judges of England may be called 
hereunto. 2. That they may certify also what cases 
I have published for his majesty's prerogative and 
benefit, for the good of the church, and quieting of 
men's inheritances, and good of the commonwealth ; 
for which purpose I have drawn a minute of a letter 
to the judges, which I assure myself your lordship 
will judge reasonable ; and so reposing myself upon 
your lordship's protection I shall ever remain 

Your most bounden servant, Therein 

no date to 
EDW COKE. this letter, 
but 1 con- 
ceive it 
Superscribed, written in 

October or 

To the right honourable his singular good lord the earl btrji6ir. 
of Buckingham, of his majesty's privy council. Note b v 


Whereas in the time of the late lord chancellor in- 
timation was given unto us, that divers cases were 
published in Sir Edward Coke's reports, tending to 
the prejudice of our prerogative royal ; whereupon 

4 K) Letters, etc. of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 

we caring for nothing more, as by our Jungly office 
we are bounden, than the preservation of prerogative 
royal, referred the same ; and thereupon, as we are 
informed, the said Sir Edward Coke being called 
thereunto, the objections were reduced to five only, 
and most of them consisting in general terms ; all 
which Sir Edward offered, as we are informed, to ex- 
plain and publish, so as no shadow might remain 
against our prerogative. And whereas of late two 
other judges are called to the others formerly named. 
Now our pleasure and intention being to be informed 
of the whole truth, and that right be done to all, do 
think it fit, that all the judges of England, and barons 
of the Exchequer, who have principal care of our pre- 
rogative and benefit, do assemble together concerning 
the discussing of that, which, as is aforesaid, was for- 
merly referred ; .and also what cases Sir Edward Coke 
hath published to the maintenance of our prerogative 
and benefit, for the safety and increase of the revenues 
of the church, and for the quieting of men's inherit- 
ances, and the general good of the commonwealth : in 
all which we require your advice and careful consi- 
derations ; and that before you make any certificate 
to us, you confer with the said Sir Edward, so as all 
things may be the better cleared. 

To all the judges of England, and barons of the 





First, I bequeath my soul and body into the hands e Regr. 
of God by the blessed oblation of my Saviour ; the pr^rogat. 
one at the time of my dissolution, the other at the cantuariaj 
time of my resurrection. For my burial, I desire it ex ra0 " 
may be in St. Michael's church, near St. Alban's : 
there was my mother buried, and it is the parish 
church of my mansion-house of Gorhambury, and it 
is the only Christian church within the walls of Old 
Verulam. I would have the charge of my funeral not 
to exceed three hundred pounds at the most. 

For my name and memory, I leave it to men's cha- 
ritable speeches, and to foreign nations, and the next 
ages. But, as to that durable part of my memory, 
which consisteth in my works and writings, I desire 
my executors, and especially Sir John Constable and 
my very good friend Mr. Bosvile, to take care that of 
all my writings, both of English and of Latin, there 
may be books fair bound, and placed in the king's 
library, and in the library of the university of Cam- 
bridge, and in the library of Trinity College, where 
myself was bred, and in the library of Bennet Col- 
lege, where my father was bred, and in the library of 
my lord of Canterbury, and in the library of Eton. 

Also, whereas I have made up two register-books, 
the one of my orations or speeches, the other of my 
epistles or letters, whereof there may be use ; and yet 
because they touch upon business of state, they are 
not fit to be put into the hands but of some counsellor, 

412 The Last Will of Francis, Viscount St. Allan. 

I do devise and bequeath them to the right honourable 
my very good lord bishop of Lincoln, and the chan- 
cellor of his majesty's duchy of Lancaster. Also I 
desire my executors, especially my brother Consta- 
ble, and also Mr. Bosvile, presently after my decease, 
to take into their hands all my papers whatsoever, 
which are either in cabinets, boxes, or presses, and 
them to seal up until they may at their leisure peruse 

I give and bequeath unto the poor of the parishes 
where I have at any time rested in my pilgrimage, 
some little relief according to my poor means : to the 
poor of St. Martin in the Fields, where I was born, 
and lived in my first and last days, forty pounds ; to 
the poor of St. Michael's near St. Alban's, where I 
desire to be buried, because the day of death is better 
than the day of birth, fifty pounds ; to the poor of St. 
Andrew's, in Holborn, in respect of my long abode in 
Gray's-Inn, thirty pounds ; to the poor of the abbey 
church parish in St. Alban's, twenty pounds ; to the 
poor of St Peter's there, twenty pounds ; to the poor 
of St.Stephen's «here, twenty pounds ; to the poor of 
Redborn, twenty pounds ; to the poor of Hemstead, 
where I heard sermons and prayers to my comfort in 
the time of the former great plague, twenty pounds ; 
to the poor of Twickenham, where I lived some time 
at Twickenham Park, twenty pounds. I intreat Mr. 
Shute, of Lombard Street, to preach my funeral ser- 
mon, and to him in that respect I give twenty pounds ; 
or if he cannot be had, Mr. Peterson, my late chap- 
lain, or his brother. 

Devises and legacies to my wife : I give, grant 
and confirm to my loving wife, by this my last will, 
whatsoever hath been assured to her, or mentioned or 
intended to be assured to her by any former deed, be it 
either my lands in Hertfordshire, or the form of the 
seal, or the gift of goods, in accomplishment of my 
covenants of marriage ; and I give her also the ordi- 
nary stuff at Gorhambury, as wainscot tables, stools, 
bedding, and the like (always reserving and except- 
ing the rich hangings with their covers, the table-car- 

The Last Will of Francis, Viscount St. Alban. 413 

pets, and the long cushions, and all other stuff which 
was or is used in the long gallery ; and also a rich 
chair, which was my niece Caesar's gift, and also the 
armour, and also all tables of marble and towch). I 
give also to my wife my four coach geldings, and my 
best caroache, and her own coach mares andcaroache; 
I give also and grant to my wife the one half of the 
rent which was reserved upon Read's lease for her life ; 
which rent, although I intended to her merely for her 
better maintenance while she lived at her own charge ; 
and not to continue after my death ; yet because she 
has begun to receive it. I am content to. continue it 
to her ; and I conceive by this advancement, which 
first and last I have left her, besides her own inherit- 
ance, I have made her of competent abilities to main- 
tain the estate of a viscountess, and give sufficient 
tokens of my love and liberality towards her ; for I do 
reckon, and that with the least, that Gorhambury and 
my lands in Hertfordshire, will be worth unto her 
seven hundred pounds per annum, besides woodfells, 
and the leases of the houses, whereof five hundred 
pounds per annum only I was tied unto by covenants 
upon marriage ; so as the two hundred pounds and 
better was mere benevolence; the six hundred pounds 
per annum upon the farm of the writs, was likewise 
mere benevolence ; her own inheritance also, with 
that she purchased with part of her portion, is two 
hundred pounds per annum and better, besides the 
wealth she hath in jewels, plate, or otherwise, where- 
in I was never strait-handed. All which I here set 
down, not because I think it too much, but because 
others may not think it less than it is. 

Legacies to my friends : I give unto the right ho- 
nourable my worthy friend the marquis Fiatt, late lord 
ambassador of France, my books of orizons or psalms 
curiously rhymed ; I give unto the right honourable 
my noble friend Edward earl of Dorset, my ring, with 
the crushed diamond, which the king that now is 
gave me when he was a prince ; I give unto my right 
honourable friend the lord Cavendish, my casting 
bottle of gold : I give to my brother Constable all 

414 The Last Will of Francis, Viscount St. Alban. 

my books, and one hundred pounds to be presented to 
him in gold ; I give to my sister Constable some 
jewels to be bought for her, of the value of fifty 
pounds ; I give to Nail, her daughter, some jewels, 
to be bought for her, of the value of forty pounds ; 
I give to my lady Coke some jewels, to be bought 
for her, of the value of fifty pounds ; and to her 
daughter, Ann Cooke, to buy her a jewel, forty 
pounds ; and to her son, Charles, some little jewel, to 
the value of thirty pounds. I will also, that my exe- 
cutors sell my chambers in Gray's-Inn, which, now 
the lease is full, I conceive may yield some three hun- 
dred pounds ; one hundred pounds for the ground 
story ; and two hundred pounds for the third and 
fourth stories ; which money, or whatsoever it be, I 
desire my executors to bestow for some little present 
relief, upon twenty-five poor scholars in both univer- 
sities, fifteen in Cambridge, and ten in Oxford. I 
give to Mr. Thomas Meautys some jewel, to be 
bought for him, of the value of fifty pounds, and my 
foot cloth horse. I give to my ancient good friend, Sir 
Tobie Matthew, some ring, to be bought for him, of 
the value of thirty pounds. I give to my very good 
friend, Sir Christopher Darcy, some ring, to be bought 
for him, of the value of thirty pounds. I give to Mr. 
Henry Percy one hundred pounds. I give to Mr. 
Henry Goodricke forty pounds. I give to my god- 
son, Francis Lowe, son of Humphrey Lowe, one hun- 
dred and fifty pounds. I give to my godson, Francis 
Hatcher, son of Mr.William Hatcher one hundred 
pounds. I give to my godson, Francis Fleetwood, 
son of Henry Fleetwood, Esq. fifty pounds. I give to 
my godson, Philips, son of auditor Philips, twenty 
pounds. I give to every of my executors a piece of 
plate of thirty pounds value. 

Legacies to my servants now, or late servants : I 
give to my servant, Robert Halfpenny, four hundred 
pounds, and the one half of my provisions of hay, fire- 
wood, and timber, which shall remain at the time of 
my decease. I give to my servant, Stephen Paise, three 
hundred and fifty pounds, and my bed with theappur- 

The Last Will of Francis , Viscount St.Alban. 415 

tenances, bed-linen, and apparel-linen, as shirts, pil- 
low-biers, sheets, caps, handkerchiefs, etc. I give to 
my servant, Wood, three hundred and thirty pounds, 
with all my apparel, as doublets, hose ; and to his wife, 
ten pounds. I give to my late servant, Francis Ed- 
ney, two hundred pounds, and my rich gown. I give 
to my ancient servant, Troughton, one hundred 
pounds. I give to my chaplain, Dr. Rawleigh, one 
hundred pounds. I give to my ancient servant, Wel- 
les, one hundred pounds. I give to my ancient ser- 
vant, Fletcher, one hundred pounds ; and to his bro- 
ther ten pounds : and if my servant Fletcher be 
dead, then the whole to his brother. I give to my 
wife's late waiting-gentlewoman, Mrs. Wagstaffe, 
one hundred pounds. I give to Morrice Davis, one 
hundred pounds. I give to old John Bayes one hun- 
dred pounds. I give to my ancient servant, Woder, 
three-score and ten pounds. I give to my ancient 
servant, Guilman, three score pounds. I give to my 
ancient servant, Faldo, forty pounds. I give to Lon- 
don, my coachman, forty pounds. I give to Harsnep, 
my groom, forty pounds. I give to Abraham, my 
footman, forty pounds. I give to Smith, my bayliff, 
and his wife, forty pounds. I give to my ancient ser- 
vant, Bowes, thirty pounds. I give to my servant 
Atkins, thirty pounds. I give to old Thomas Gothe- 
rum, who was bred with me from a child, thirty 
pounds. I give to my servant, Plomer, twenty 
pounds. I give to Daty, my cook, twenty pounds. 
I give to Henry Brown twenty pounds. I give to 
Richard Smith twenty pounds. I give to William 
Sayes ten pounds. I give to John Large twenty 
pounds. I give to old goodwife Smith ten pounds. 
I give to Peter Radford's wife five pounds. I give 
to every mean servant that attends me, and is not al- 
ready named, five pounds. 

The general devise and bequest of all my lands and 
goods to the performance of my will. 

Whereas by former assurance made to Sir John 
Constable, knight, my brother-in-law, and to Sir 
Thomas Crewe and Sir Thomas Hedley, knights, and 

416 The Last Will of Francis, Viscount St.Alban. 

Serjeants at law, and some other persons now de- 
ceased, all my lands and tenements in Hertfordshire 
were by me conveyed in trust : And whereas of late 
my fine, and the whole benefit thereof, was by his ma- 
jesty's letters patents conveyed to Mr. JusticeHutton, 
Mr Justice Chamberlain, Sir Francis Barneham, and 
Sir Thomas Crewe, knight, persons by me named in 
trust ; I do devise by this my will, and declare that 
the trust by me reposed, as well touching the said 
lands as upon the said letters patents, is, that all and 
every the said persons so trusted, shall perform all 
acts and assurances that by my executors, or the sur- 
vivor or survivors of them, shall be thought fit and re- 
quired, for the payment and satisfaction of my debts, 
and legacies, and performance of my will, having a 
charitable care that the poorest either of my creditors 
or legataries be first satisfied. 

I do farther give and devise all my goods, chattels, 
and debts due to me whatsoever, as well my pension 
of twelve hundred pounds per annum from the king, 
for certain years yet to come ; as all my plate, jew- 
els, household- stuff, goods and chattels whatsoever, 
except such as by this my last will I have especially 
bequeathed, to my executors, for the better and more 
ready payment of" my debts, and performance of my 

And because I conceive there will be upon the 
moneys raised by sale of my lands, leases, goods and 
chattels, a good round surplusage, over and above 
that which may serve to satisfy my debts and legacies, 
and perform my will, I do devise and declare, that my 
executors shall employ the said surplusage in manner 
and form following : that is to say, that they purchase 
therewith so much land of inheritance, as may erect 
and endow two lectures in either the universities; and 
of which lectures shall be of natural philosophy, and 
the sciences in general thereunto belonging ; hoping 
that the stipends or salaries of the lecturers may 
amount to two hundred pounds a year for either of 
them ; and for the ordering of the said lectures, and 
the election of the lecturers from time to time, I 

The Last Will of Francis, Viscount St. Alban. 417 

leave it to the care of my executors, to be established 
by the advice of the lords bishops of Lincoln and Co- 
ventry and Litchfield. 

Nevertheless, thus much I do direct, that none 
shall be lecturer if he be English, except he be master 
of arts of seven years standing, and that he be not 
professed in divinity, law, or physic, as long as he re- 
mains lecturer; and that it be without difference 
whether [he] be a stranger or English : and I wish 
my executors to consider of the precedent of Sir 
Henry Savil's lectures, for their better instruction. 

I constitute and appoint for my executors of this 
my last will and testament, my approved good friend 
the right honourable Sir Humphrey Maye, chancellor 
of his majesty's duchy of Lancaster, Mr. Justice Hut- 
ton, Sir Thomas Crewe, Sir Francis Barneham, Sir 
John Constable, and Sir Euball Thelwall ; and I name 
and intreat to be one of my supervisors, my most no- 
ble, constant, and true friend, the duke of Bucking- 
ham, unto whom I do most humbly make this my last 
request, that he will reach forth his hand of grace to 
assist the just performance of this my will ; and like- 
wise that he will be graciously pleased for my sake to 
protect and help such of my good servants, as my 
executors shall at any time recommend to his grace's 
favour : and also I do desire his grace, in all humble- 
ness, to commend the memory of my long-continued 
and faithful service unto my most gracious sovereign, 
who ever, when he was prince, was my patron, as I 
shall, who have now, I praise God, one foot in heaven, 
pray for him while I have breath. 

And because of his grace's great business, I pre- 
sume also to name for another of my supervisors, my 
good friend and near ally the master of the rolls. 

And I do most earnestly intreat both my execu- 
ors and supervisors, that although I know well it is 
matter of trouble and travail unto them, yet consider- 
ing what I have been, that they would vouchsafe to 
do this last office to my memory and good name, and 
to the discharge of mine honour and conscience ; that 

VOL. VI. 2 E 

418 The Last Will of Francis, Viscount St. Alban. 

all men maybe duly paid their own, that my good 
mind, by their good care, may effect that good 

Whatsoever I have given, granted, confirmed, or 
appointed to my wife, in the former part of this my 
will, I do now, for just and great causes, utterly re- 
voke and make void, and leave her to her right only 

I desire my executors to have special care to dis- 
charge a debt by bond, now made in my sickness to 
Mr. Thomas Meautys, he discharging me fully to- 
wards Sir Robert Dowglass, and to procure Sir Ro- 
bert Dowglass his patent to be delivered to him. 


Published the nineteenth day of December, 1625, 
in the presence of 

W Rawley, Ro. Halpeny, Stephen Paise, 
Will. Atkins, Thomas Kent, Edward Legge. 

Decimo tertio die mensis Julii anno Domini milles- 
simo sexcentesimo vkesimo septimo emanavit com- 
missio domino Roberto Rich militi, supremce curiae 
cancellarice magistror' uni. et Thomce Meautys 
armigero, creditoribus honorandi viri domini 
Frhncisci Bacon militis, domini Verulam, vice- 
comitis Sancti Albani, defunct', habentibus etc. 
ad administrand' bona jura et credita dicti de- 
functi Francisci Bacon defunct', juxta tenorem et 
effectum ipsius testamenti suprascripf, eo quod do- 
minus Thomas Crewe miles et dominus Johannes 
Constable miles, executores in hujusmodi testa- 
mento nominaf alias vigore mandator' sive occa- 
sionum a curia prarogat Cantuar emanat' ad id 
legitime et peremptorie citati, onus executionis tes- 
tament' suprascripf in se suscipere recusarun est 
denegarunt, saltern plus juste distulerunt ; eoque 
quod dominus Humphridus Maye miles, cancel- 
larius ducatus Lancastria, dominus Ricardus 
Hutton miles, unus justitiariorum domini nostri 

The Last Will of Francis, Viscount St. Alban. 419 

regis de banco coram, dominus Euball Thelwall 
miles, supremce curia? cancellariaz magistrorum 
unus, et dominus Franciscus Barnham miles, ex- 
ecutores etiam in testamento suprascripf nominaf, 
ex certis causis eos et amicos suos in ea parte juste 
moverf oneri executionis testament suprascripf ex- 
presse renuntiarunt, prout ex actis curice prazdict' 
plenius liquet et apparet ; de bene etjideliter admi- 
nistrando eadem ad sancta Dei evangelia in debita 
juris forma jurat'' 

Linthwaite Farbant Registrar' deputat' assumpt'. 

2 e 2 






The Marks i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. denote the Volumes, and the 
Figures the Pages. 

ABATOR, who is so called, iv. 99, how and when he may become 

lawful owner of another's lands ibid. 

Abbot, George, archbishop of Canterbury • vi. 92, 113, 117 

Abecedarium naturce ii. 15 

Abettor, several ways of becoming so iv. 389 

Abilities, natural, like plants, want pruning ... ii. 374 
Abjuration, in what cases a man shall be obliged to abjure the 
realm, iv. 300, several cases thereof, with the proceedings relat- 
ing to them ibid. 301 

Absolution, whether that in our liturgy is not improper, ii. 539, is 

of two sorts only ibid. 

Absque impetitione vasti, the sense and meaning of this clause 
cleared up, and stated by the words themselves, by reason, by 
authorities, by removing contrary authorities, by practice, iv. 
226 to 232, it gives no grant of property, iv. 227, how this clause 

came first to be used iv. 228 

Academics, acknowledged by all sects to be the best • ii. 233 
Acceleration of time in works of nature, i. 355, in clarification of 
liquor, ibid, in several maturations, i. 358, as of fruits, ibid, of 
drinks, ibid, of metals, i. 362. Acceleration of putrefaction, i. 
364. Acceleration of birth, 372, of growth or stature, ibid, three 
means of it, 372, 373. Acceleration of germination, i. 391, by 
three means, namely, mending the nourishment, i. 393, comfort- 
ing the spirits of the plant, ibid, making way for the easy coming 
to the nourishment, ibid. Several pregnant instances thereof, 
i. 394, et seq. Acceleration of clarification in wine • i. 518 
Accessary, how one man may become so to the act of another done 

by his order iv. 57 

Aches in men's bodies foreshew rain and frost • ii. 8 

Acquests, new ones, more burden than strength • • • v. 79 
Act, not to be confounded with the execution of the act, nor the 
intire act with the last part of it, instances • • • iv. 18 
Act of parliament, a rule to be observed where that is donor, iv.195, 
five acts relating to the distinction of the body natural and po- 


iitic of the king explained, iv. 351, et seq. of 1 Jac. I. relating 

to the punishment of witchcraft iy. 386 

Acting in song graceful '{• 346 

Active men, wherein preferred to virtuous .... ii. 371 
Actium, battle of, decided the empire of the world • ii. 329 
Administration, how a property in goods, &c. may be gained by 
letters thereof, iv. 128, 129, what bishop shall have the power of 
granting them in disputable cases, ibid, two cases in the deaths 
of executors and administrators where the ordinary shall admi- 
nister iv. 130 

Administrators, their office and authority in some particulars, iv. 

130, in what cases the ordinary is to commit administration, ibid. 

they must execute their authority jointly, ibid, may retain ibid. 

Admiralty, how to be ordered after the union • • • iii. 284 

Adrian VI. ii. 427 

Adrian the emperor, ii. 441, mortally envied in others the qualities 
he excelled in, ii. 270, instances of his misplaced bounty and ex- 
pense iv. 376 

Adversity, ii. 262, resembles miracles in its command over nature, 

ibid, fortitude its proper virtue ibid. 

Advice, how to be .given and taken ii. 371 

Advice to Sir George Villiers • iii. 429 

Vide Villiers. 

Advocates, ii. 384, surprising that their confidence should prevail 

with judges, ibid, what is due to and from them • • ibid. 

Advowsons, cases relating thereto explained • • iv. 16, 45, 50 

./Egypt hath little rain, i. 511. ^Egyptian conserving bodies, i. 513, 

their mummies ibid. 

^neas Sylvius, his remark on the conduct of the popes and lawyers, 
ii. 432, says, that had not Christianity been supported by mi- 
racles, it ought to be received for its honesty • • • ii. 433 
^Equinoctial more tolerable for heat than the torrid zone, i. 388, 

three causes thereof i. 389 

iEsop, his fable of the frogs in a great drought, ii. 236, of the cat 
and the fox, ii. 238, of the fainting man and death • ii. 240 

iEthiopes, fleshy and plump, why i. 389 

Aetites, or eagle-stone i. 312 

iEtna compensateth the adjacent countries for the damages it doth, 

i. 446 
iEtna and Vesuvius, why they shoot forth no water • • i. 519 
Affectation of tyranny over men's understandings and beliefs ii. 78 
Affections of beasts impressed upon inanimate things, ii. 69, three 
affections which tie subjects to sovereigns, v. 190, no heat of af- 
fection without idleness iii. 499 

Affidavits in chancery, in what cases not to be allowed iv. 521 
Africa, why so fruitful of monsters, i. 410, the people there never 

stir out after the first showers ii. 2 

Aydirr), is always rightly translated charity in the Rhemish version, 

ii. 539 

Agaric works most on phlegm, i. 433, a spongy excrescence on the 

roots of trees, ibid. 450, 459, a putrefaction . i. 480 

Agathocles ii. 413 


Age. See Youth. 

Age of discretion, at what time allowed to be by our law v. 414 

Age, its excellency in four things, ii. 428, its inconveniencies and 

difficulties with regard to action ii. 355, 356 

Agesilaus ....*. ii. 414 

Agrippa raised by Augustus ii. 316 

Agues cured by applications to the wrist, i. 289, proceed mostly 

from obstruction of the humours i. 366 

Aid, a certain sum of money so called, its uses iv. 104 

Air turned into water, i. 254, by four several ways, i. 255, 256, in- 
stances tending thereto, i. 280, converted into a dense body, a 
rarity in nature, i. 255, 256, increases in weight, and yields nou- 
rishment, i. 257, hath an antipathy with tangible bodies, i. 281, 
converted into water by repercussion from hard bodies, ibid. 
Air turned into water by the same means that ice, i. 282, meddles 
little with the moisture of oil, i. 286, elision of air a term of igno- 
rance, i. 303. Air condensed into weight, i. 257, 503. Air pent 
the cause of sounds, i. 300, 301, 302, eruptions thereof cause 
sounds, i. 300. Air not always necessary to sounds, i. 304, 307, 
thickness of the air in night, contributes to the increasing and 
our better hearing of sounds, than in the day, as well as the ge- 
neral silence, i. 309. Air excluded in some bodies, prohibiteth 
putrefaction, i. 308, in some causeth it, ibid, the causes of each, 
ibid. Air compressed and blown, prohibiteth putrefaction, i. 370, 
congealing of air, i. 376. Airs wholesome, how found out, i. 
516, 517, the putrefaction of air to be discerned aforehand, ii. 
2, 3. Airs good to recover consumptions, ii. 54. Air healthful 

within doors, how procured ii. 55 

Air and fire foreshew winds ii. 6 

Air, the causes of heat and cold in it, ii. 30, hath some degree of 

light in it • ibid. 

Air poisoned by art, ii. 50,why the middle region of it coldest, ii. 241 

Albert Durer ii. 357 

Alchemy, some remarks upon it v. 312 

Alchemists censured i. 362 

Alcibiades, his advice to Pericles about giving in his accounts, ii. 

449, beautiful ii. 357 

Alexander, why his body sweet i. 247 

Alexander's body preserved till Caesar Augustus's time, i. 514, his 
character of Antipater, ii. 439, of Hephzestion and Craterus, ibid, 
censured by Augustus, ii. 441, by Parmenio, ii. 442, contemned 
by Diogenes, ii. 446, would run with kings when advised by 
Philip to the olympic games, ii. 452, his saying to Callisthenes 
upon his two orations on the Macedonians, iv. 364, a smart reply 

of his to Parmenio iii. 291 

Alexander VI. sends the bishop of Concordia to mediate between 
the kings of England and France, v. 76, thanks Henry VII. for 
entering into a league in defence of Italy • • • v. 141 
Alga marina applied to roots of plants furthers their growth i. 403 
Alien, enemy, how considered by our laws, iv. 326, 327. Alien 
friend, how considered, ibid. Littleton's definition of an alien, 
iv. 346, how the several degrees of aliens are considered by our 
laws iii. 272, 273 


Alienation office, history of it, iv. 132, the reason of its name, with 
its uses, iv. 105, 133, the parts of each officer therein, iv. 141, 
how its profits might increase without damage to the subject, 

iv. 154, 155, 156 

Aliments changed, good ]■ 277 

Alkermes h. 67 

Allegiance, does not follow the law or kingdom, but the person of 
the king' iv. 330, 332, 346, 347, is due to sovereigns by the law 
of nature, iv. 325, 326, statutes explained relating thereto, iv. 
331, 332, is more ancient than any laws, iv. 347, continueth after 
laws, ibid, is in vigour even where laws are suspended, ibid, must 
be independent, and not conditional, iv. 427, oath of it altered, 
with disputes following thereupon between the reformed and 

papists v. 308 

Allen, cardinal, is mentioned for the popedom, iii. 98, a stage actor 
of the same name, with an epigram upon him • • v. 505 

Alleys close gravelled, what they bring forth . . . i. 436 
Almonds, how used in clarifying the Nile water • • • i. 512 
Alonso Cartilio, his pleasant speech concerning his servants ii. 423 
Alphonso Petrucci, his plot against the life of pope Leo • v. 60 
Alphonso duke of Calabria, eldest son to the king of Naples, has 
the order of the garter from Henry VII. • • • v. 91 

Alterations of bodies ii. 15 

Alteratives in medicine i. 277 

Altering the colours of hairs and feathers • • • i. 287, 288 
Altham, baron of the exchequer, a grave and reverend judge iv. 504 
Amalgamation, ii. 204, mixing mercury with other metals in a hot 

crucible ibid. 

Amber formed from a soft substance, i. 283, its virtue • ii. 53 

Ambiguitas patens, what is meant thereby in law, iv. 79, how to be 

holpen, ibid, latens, what meant by it, ibid, how to be holpen, 

80, another sort of it ibid. 

Ambition, ii. 343, to take a soldier without it, is to pull off his 
spurs, ii. 344, the mischiefs of it, ibid, the use of ambitious 

men ibid. 

Amendment of the law. See Law. 

America, a supposed prophecy of its discovery • • ii. 341 

Amurath the first, slain iv. 445 

Amurca, what i. 470 

Anabaptists profess the doctrine of deposing kings • iv. 445 

Anacharsis ii. 454 

Anarchy in the spirits and humours, when ... i. 306 

Anaxagoras condemned to die by the Athenians • • ii. 451 

Andes, mountains of ii. 389 

Andrews, bishop, his account of Spalato .... ii. 433 

Andrews, Dr. Lancelot, bishop of Ely, vi. 189, 233, knew early of 

the lord chancellor's being engaged in writing his Novum Or- 

ganum vi. 253 

Angelo, Michael, the famous painter ii. 426 

Anger, the impressions and various effects thereof, i. 492, causeth 
the eyes to look red, why, ii. 32. Anger not to be extinguished, 
only confined, ii. 386, compared by Seneca to ruin, which breaks 


itself on what it falls, ii. 387, its great weakness, from the sub- 
jects in whom it most reigns, ibid, remedies of it • . ii. 388 
Animals and plants, that put forth prickles, generally dry ii. 70 
Animate and inanimate bodies, wherein they differ • • i. 449 
Anne of Denmark, wife of king James I. vi. 145 

Anne of Bullen, what she said at her death ... ii. 401 
Anne, inheritress of the duchy of Britain, intended for Henry VII. 
v. 10, but married to Charles VIII. of France • • ibid. 

Annals i. 85 

Annesley, Sir Francis, secretary of Ireland • vi. 251 

Annihilation, not possible in nature i. 293 

Annual herbs may be prolonged by seasonable cutting • i. 441 

Annuity given pro consilio impenso et impendendo, is not void, if 

the grantee is hindered from giving it by imprisonment iv. 16 

Anointing of birds and beasts, whether it alters their colour, i. 287. 

Anointing the body a preservative of health, i. 502. Anointing 

of the weapon said to heal ii. 75 

Answers insufficient, how to be punished in chancery, iv. 518, in 

what case they must be direct iv. 519 

Antalcidas the Spartan, ii. 448, rebukes an Athenian • ibid. 

Antigonus ii. 452 

Antiochia, its wholesome air, whence ii. 54 

Antipathy and Sympathy, i. 288, of plants, i. 411, et seq. instances 
of Antipathy in other kinds, ii. 65, et seq. Antipathy between 

enemies in absence ii. 72 

Antiquities i. 80 

Antisthenes ii. 446 

Antonius, his genius weak before Augustus, ii. 56, ambassadors of 

Asia Minor expostulate with him for imposing a double tax, ii. 

452, his character, ii. 274, calls Brutus witch • • ii. 316 

Ape, its nature, ii. 70, virtue ascribed to the heart of an ape by the 

writers of natural magic • • ibid. 

Apelles ii. 357 

Apollonius of Tyana, ii. 43, the ebbing and flowing of the sea, 
what, according to him, ibid, tells Vespasian, that Nero let down 
the strings of government too low, or wound them up too high, 
ii. 297, 438, tires Vespasian at Alexandria with his insipid specu- 
lations, ii. 449, his affectation of retirement • • • ii. 314 

Apophthegms, an appendix of history i. 89 

Apophthegms, their use ii. 400 

Apothecaries, how they clarify their syrups, i. 247, their pots, how 

resembling Socrates ii. 443 

Apothecaries incorporated by patent, vi. 278, and notes (a) and (b) 
Appetite, of continuation in liquid bodies, i. 253. Appetite of 
union in bodies, i. 350. Appetite in the stomach, ii. 9, what qua- 
lities provoke it ibid. 

Apple, inclosed in wax for speedy ripening, i. 360, hanged in smoke, 
ibid, covered in lime and ashes, ibid, covered with crabs and 
onions, ibid. Apple in bay and straw, i. 361, in a close box, 
ibid. Apple rolled, ibid. Apple in part cut besmeared with 
sack, i. 361, rotten apples contiguous to sound ones, putrefy 
them i. 365 


Apple-cions grafted on the stock of a colewort • • i. 404, 405 
Apple-lrees, some of them bring forth a sweet moss • i. 431 

Aqua fortis dissolving iron "• 205 

Aragon, kingdom of, is united with Castile, iii. 303, is at last natura- 
lized to prevent any revolts, iii. 304, causes of its revolt iii. 264 
Archbishop of Vienna, his revelation to Lewis XI. • ii. 72 
Archbishops, how they came in use ...... ii. 512 

Archidamus retorts upon Philip that his shadow was no longer than 

before his victory ii. 443 

Architecture •• 108 

Arian heresy, the occasion thereof ii. 510 

Aristander, the soothsayer ii. 341 

Aristippus, his abject behaviour to Dionysius, ii. 439, his luxury 
ii. 443, insulted by the mariners for shewing signs of fear in a 
tempest, ii. 447, his censure of those who are attached to parti- 
cular sciences ii. 452 

Aristotle mistakes the reason why the feathers of birds have more 
lively colours than the hairs of beasts, i. 246, his precept that 
wine be forborn in consumptions, i. 269, his reason why some 
plants are of greater age than animals, i. 271, his method of har- 
dening bodies with close pores, i. 284, full of vain-glory ii. 380 

Arithmetic » i. 108 

Arms, the profession of them necessary to the grandeur of any 

state ii. 327 

Army, a project of reinforcing it in Ireland, without any expense, 

v. 441 
Arraignment of Blunt, Davers, Davis, Merick, and Cuffe, all con- 
cerned in lord Essex's treason ; with their confessions, evidences 
against them, their defences, and answers thereto • iii. 179 
Arrest, in what cases the constable has power to execute it iv. 313 
Arrows, with wooden heads sharpened, pierce wood sooner than 

with iron heads, why i. 487 

Arsenic used as a preservative against the plague • • ii. 68 

Arts, history of i. 77 

Arts of elegance, i. 116, intellectual arts • • • • i. 131 

Art of war, its progress, improvement, and change • • ii. 327 

Arthur, prince, born, v. 19, married to Catherine, v. 156, v. 162, 

dies at Ludlow-castle, v. 163, studious and learned beyond his 

years and the custom of princes ibid. 

Artichokes, how made less prickly and more dainty, i. 405. Arti- 
choke only hath double leaves, one for the stalk, another for the 

fruit • i. 472 

Arundel, lord, some account of him v. 460 

Arundel, Thomas earl of, sworn of the council in Scotland, vi. 155, 

wishes lord viscount St. Alban well vi. 371 

Ashes in a vessel will not admit equal quantity of water, as in the 
vessel empty, i. 261. Ashes an excellent compost • i. 446 

Asp causeth easy death i. 461 

Assassin, this word derived from the name of a Saracen prince, 

iv. 444, 445 

Assassins ii. 349 

Assimilation in bodies inanimate, i. 285, in vegetables • i. 374 


Astriction prohibiteth putrefaction, i. 368, of the nature of cold ibid. 
Astringents, a catalogue of them ... ii. 220, 221, 222 

Astronomy i. 108 

Astronomers, some in Italy condemned .... v . 466 

Atheism, ii. 290, rather in the lip than the heart, ibid, the causes 

of it, ii. 291. Atheists contemplative rare • • • ibid. 

Athens, their manner of executing capital offenders, i. 461, there 

wise men propose, and fools dispose, ii. 454, their wars ii. 328 

Athletics i. 126 

Atlantis, New, ii. 79, described, ii. 94, et seq. swallowed up by an 
earthquake, as the ^Egyptian priest told Solon • • ii. 389 
Atoms, how supported by Democritus i. 290, 291 

Aton, in Scotland, its castle taken by the earl of Surry v. 137 

Attainder, cases relating thereto explained, iv. 20, 21, 48, 49, what 
sort of them shall give the escheat to the king, iv. 102, etc. and 
what to the lord, iv. 108, by judgment, 102, by verdict or con- 
fession, iv. 108, by outlawry, ibid, taken often by prayer of 
clergy, iv. 109, forfeiteth all the person was possessed of at the 
time of the offence, iv. 110, there can be no restitution of blood 
after it, but by act of parliament, with other consequences there- 
of, iv. Ill, if a person guilty of it shall purchase, it shall be to 
the king's use, unless he be pardoned, ibid, cases relating to a 
person guilty of it, and his children, iv. 110, 111, the clause of 
forfeiture of goods thereby, found in no private act till Edward 

IV.'s reign iv. 175 

Attainders of the adherents of Henry VII. reversed, v. 14, 15. 

Attainders of his enemies v. 15 

Attention without too much labour stilleth the spirits • i. 503 

Attorney-general, used not to be a privy-counsellor, iv. 363, did not 

then deal in causes between party and party • • • ibid: 

Attraction by similitude of substance, i. 487, catalogue of attractive 

bodies ii. 215, 216 

Atturnement, what it is, iv. 117, must be had to the grant of a re- 
version, ibid, in what cases a tenant is obliged to atturne ibid. 
Audacity and confidence, the great effects owing to them ii. 57 
Audibles mingle in the medium, which visibles do not, i. 332, the 
cause thereof, ibid, several consents of audibles and visibles, i. 
341, 342, several dissents of them, i. 343, 344, 345. Audibles 
and visibles do not destroy or hinderone another, i. 342. Audibles 
carried in arcuate lines, visibles in straight ones i. 343, ii. 55 
Audley, lord, heads the Cornish rebels, v. 130, his character, ibid, 
taken, v. 135, beheaded on Tower-hill .... ibid. 

Avernus, lake of ii. 51 

Augustus Caesar, ii. 413, his wonder at Alexander, ii. 441, indigna- 
tion against his posterity, calling them imposthumes, and not 
seed, ii. 449, 450, died in a compliment, ii. 256, his attachment 
to Agrippa, ii. 316, of a reposed nature from his youth, ii. 355, 

commended as a great lawgiver iv. 5, 378 

Aviaries, which recommended ii. 368 

Auterlony's books of 200/. land in charge in fee-simple, stayed at 

the seal, and why v. 503 

Authority strengtheneth imagination, ii. 61, its power and iufluence, 
ibid, followeth old men, and popularity youth • • ii. 356 


Autre capacity # autre droit, their difference shewn • iv. 243 
Auxiliary forces, v. 72, aids of the same nation on both sides ibid. 

Axioms to be extracted * '• 7' 2 

Aylesbury, Thomas, vi. 297, secretary to the marquis of Bucking- 
ham as lord high admiral ibid. 


BABYLON, its walls cemented by Naptha • • • • ii. 207 

Bacon, Sir Nicholas, a short account of him, iii. 96, bishop of Ross's 
saying of him, ibid, was lord keeper of the great seal, ii. 407, 
409, 422, 426, an old arrear demanded of him, vi. 368, indebted 
to the crown vi. 381 

Bacon, Mr. Antony, ii. 420, 421, v. 273, our author's dedication 
to him ii. 251 

Bacon, Sir Francis, made attorney-general, ii. 421, his conversation 
with Gondomar when advanced to the great seal, ii. 422, his 
apology for any imputations concerning lord Essex, iii. 211, his 
services to lord Essex, iii. 213, two points wherein they always 
differed, iii. 215, 216, a coldness of behaviour grows between 
them, iii. 217, his advice to the queen about calling home lord 
Essex from Ireland, iii. 218, his advice to lord Essex, when he 
came from Ireland without leave from the queen, iii. 219, en- 
deavours to reconcile the queen to lord Essex, iii. 220, etc. de- 
sires the queen to be left out in Essex's cause, iii. 222, writes an 
account by the queen's order of the proceedings relating to Essex, 
iii. 232, 233, is censured by some for his proceedings in the 
Charter-house affair, but unjustly, v. 506, he praises the king's 
bounty to him, v. 567, complains to the king of his poverty, v. 
568, expostulates roughly with Buckingham about neglecting 
him, v. 573, does the same with treasurer Marlborough, v. 582, 
begs of the king a remission of his sentence, and the return of his 
favour, v. 583, promises bishop Williams to bequeath his writings 
to him, v. 585, his last will, vi. 411, is charged with bribery. See 

Bacon, Sir Francis, offends queen Elizabeth by his speeches in 
parliament, vi. 2, 3, speeches drawn up by him for the earl of 
Essex's device, vi. 22, & seq. arrested at the suit of a goldsmith, 
vi. 41, 42, substance of a letter written by him to the queen for 
the earl of Essex, vi. 43, insulted by the attorney-general Coke, 
vi. 46, arrested again, vi. 48, desires to be knighted, ibid, going 
to marry an alderman's daughter, vi. 49, and note (c), his letter 
to Isaac Casaubon, vi. 51, writes to the king on the death of the 
earl of Salisbury, lord treasurer, vi. 52, 53, his letter to the king 
touching his majesty's estate in general, vi. 58, on the order of 
baronets, vi. 63, his charge against Mr. Whitelocke, vi. 65, letter 
to the king on the death of the lord chief justice Fleming, vi. 70, 
his letters to Mr. John Murray, vi. 76, 77, supplement to his 
speech against Owen, vi. 80, 81, thanks to Sir George Villiers 
for a message to him of a promise of the chancellor's place, vi. 
88, questions legal for the judges in the case of the earl and coun- 
tess of Somerset, vi. 94, his heads of the charge against the earl 


of Somerset, vi. 97, his letter to Sir George Villiers relating to 
that earl, vi. 101, his remembrances of the king's declaration 
against the lord chief justice Coke, vi. 127, sends the king a war- 
rant to review Sir Edward Coke's reports, vi. 132, his remem- 
brances to the king on his majesty's going to Scotland, vi. 134, 
his additional instructions to Sir John Digby, vi. 138, his account 
of council business, vi. 139, cases in chancery recommended to 
him by the earl of Buckingham, vi. 142, and note (b) 143, 148, 
&c. recommends Sir Thomas Edrnondes to his niece for a hus- 
band, vi. 147, desirous to have York-house, vi. 144, 396, con- 
fined to his chamber by a pain in his legs, vi. 148, has not one 
cause in his court unheard, vi. 149, resides some time at Dorset- 
house, ibid, complains that the earl of Buckingham writes sel- 
domer than he used, vi. 155, apologizes in a letter to the king, for 
having opposed the match between the earl's brother and Sir Ed- 
ward Coke's daughter, vi. 157, 158, 159, 160, the king's answer 
to that letter, vi. 161, on ill terms with secretary Winwood, vi. 
161, 162, note (b) earl of Buckingham exasperated against him, 
vi. 165, reconciled, vi. 173, his advice to the king about reviving 
the commission of suits, vi. 169, speaks with the judges concern- 
ing commendams, vi. 173, his great dispatch of business in chan- 
cery, vi. 182, created lord Verulam, vi. 203, note (c), desirous of 
being one of the commissioners to treat with the Hollanders, vi. 
215, returns thanks to the king for a favour granted him, vi. 220, 
his letter to Frederick count Palatine, vi. 221, ordered to admo- 
nish the judges for negligence, vi. 229, his advice, with regard to 
currants and tobacco, followed by the king, vi. 232, gives a charge 
in the star-chamber, vi. 244, draws up rules for the star-cham- 
ber, vi. 247, advises the king to sit in person in that court, vi. 
249, his letter to the king with his Novum Organum, vi. 252, 
thanks the king for his acceptance of that work, vi. 256, approves 
of the king's judgment about the proclamation for calling a par- 
liament, vi. 257, notes of his speech in the star-chamber, against 
Sir Henry Yelverton, vi. 258, his advice to the marquis of Buck- 
ingham concerning the patents granted, vi. 262, letter of him and 
the two chief justices, about parliament business, vi. 265, thanks 
the king for creating him viscount St. Alban, vi. 271, his speech 
to the parliament, vi. 273, his letter to the marquis of Buckingham 
about the proceedings of the house of commons concerning griev- 
ances, vi. 275, his letter to the king, vi. 276, speaks in his own 
defence at a conference, ibid, note (a), his letter to the marquis 
of Buckingham, when the house of commons began to accuse him 
of abuses in his office, vi. 277, his concern in incorporating the 
apothecaries, vi. 279, memoranda of what he intended to deliver 
to the king, upon his first access after his troubles, vi. 280. 281, 
282, proceedings against him, vi. 280, note (a), 281, his notes 
upon the case of Michael de la Pole and others, vi. 284, his letters 
to count Gondomar, vi. 287, directed to go to Gorhambury, vi. 
288, his letter to Charles, prince of Wales, vi. 289, to the king, vi. 
290, 291, grant of pardon to him, vi. 292, his letter to lord keeper 
Williams, vi. 294, his petition intended for the house of lords, 
ibid, his letter to lord Digby, vi. 296, to the marquis of Bucking- 


ham, vi. 297, memorial of a conference with the marquis, vi. 298, 
299, 300, his history of the reign of king Henry VII. vi. 303, his 
letter to the duke of Lenox, vi. 306, to the marquis of Bucking- 
ham, vi. 306, 307, to Mr. Tobie Matthew, vi. 311, desirous to 
offer his house and lands at Gorhambury to the marquis, vi. 311, 
312, his letter to the marquis of Buckingham, ibid, to the lord 
viscouut Falkland, vi. 316, to lord treasurer Cranfield, vi. 317, to 
Thomas Meautys, esq. vi, 320, to Mr. Tobie Matthew, vi. 321, to 
the queen of Bohemia, vi. 322, to the lord keeper, vi. 325, to the 
marquis of Buckingham, vi. 326, to the countess of Buckingham, 
vi. 328, to the marquis of Buckingham, vi. 329, memorial of his 
access to the king, ibid, remembrances of what he was to say to 
the lord treasurer Cranfield, vi. 335, his letter to the marquis, vi. 
337, 338, to Sir Francis Cottington, vi. 339, he returns to Gray's 
Inn, vi. 340, and note (&), his letter to the king, ibid, to secretary 
Conway, vi. 341, to count Gondomar, vi. 343, to the marquis of 
Buckingham, vi. 344, is obliged to secretary Conway, vi. 345, his 
letter to secretary Conway, ibid, desirous of the provostship of 
Eton, ibid, intends to sell Gorhambury, vi. 346, his papers on 
usury, ibid, his letter to count Gondomar, vi. 347, to the earl of 
Bristol, vi. 348, to Sir Francis Cottington, ibid, to Mr. Matthew, 
ibid, to the duk'e of Buckingham, vi. 349, to Mr. Matthew, /i. 
352, his history of Henry VIII. vi. 352, 353, his letter to the 
duke of Buckingham, vi. 355, to the king with his book de Aug- 
mentis Scientiarum, vi. 357, to the prince with the same book, 
ibid, his essay on friendship, ii. 314, his conference with the 
duke, vi. 359, 360, 361, letter of advice to the duke, vi. 364, 
desires his writ of summons to parliament, vi. 368, his letter to 
Sir Francis Barnham, vi. 369, to the duke of Buckingham, vi. 
370, 371, to Sir Richard Weston, vi. 372, to Sir Humphry May, 
vi. 374, to Sir Robert Pye, vi. 379, to Edward, earl of Dorset, 
vi. 380, letter to Mr. Roger Palmer, vi. 382, to the duke of Buck- 
ingham, ibid, to Mons. D'Effiat, vi. 384, to king James I. vi. 387, 
388, his petition to king James I. vi. 389, his letters to the mar- 
quis of Buckingham, vi. 391, 392, 393, 394, to Mr. Matthew, 
vi. 394, to the archbishop of York, vi. 396, to the king, on Cot- 
ton's case, vi. 73, his letter to Mr. Cecil about his travels, vi. 1, 
letter of thanks to the earl of Essex, vi. 2, to alderman Spencer, 
vi. 3, to queen Elizabeth, being afraid of her displeasure, vi. 6, 
to Mr. Kemp, vi. 7, to the earl of Essex, about the Huddler, vi. 8, 
to Sir Robert Cecil, vi. 12, his letter to queen Elizabeth, vi. 16, 
to his brother Antony, vi. 17, another to his brother Antony, 
about being solicitor, and the queen's temper of mind, vi. 18, his 
letter to Sir Robert Cecil about his going abroad, if not made 
solicitor, vi. 20; to Sir Thomas Egerton, desiring favours, vi. 32, 
to the earl of Essex on his going on the expedition against Cadiz, 
vi. 38, his letter to his brother Antony, vi. 40, to Sir John Davis, 
vi. 50, his eulogium on Henry prince of Wales, vi. 58, 59, 60, 
his letter to lord Norris, vi. 82, his letter to Sir George Villiers 
about Sir Robert Cotton's examination, vi. 89,his letter to the 
judges about the cause of commendams, vi. 94, his letter to the 
king about the transportation of tallow, butter and hides, vi. Ill- 


to Mr. Maxey of Trinity College, vi. 146, to his niece about her 
marriage, v. 147, his letter to the duke of Buckingham about Sir 
Henry Yelverton's case, vi. 259, his letter to the lord treasurer 
for his favour to Mr. Higgens, vi. 385, to Sir Francis Vere in 
favour of Mr. Ashe, ibid, to Mr. Cawfeilde about sending inter- 
rogatories, vi. 386, his friendly letter to lord Montjoye, vi. 387. 
See letters. 
Bacon, Antony, a letter from his brother to him, vi. 17, another let- 
ter about being solicitor to queen Elizabeth vi. 18 
Bacon. Sir Edmund, a letter to his uncle about the salt of worm- 
wood vi. 130 

Baggage, the properties of it ii. 338 

Bagg's case vi. 400, 407 

Bajazet, better read in the Alcoran, than government • v. 73 
Bailiffs, their office, iv. 318, by whom appointed • • ibid. 

Balaam's Ass, the title of a libel against king James I. note (a) vi. 73 
Bankrupts, their petitions, when to be granted • iv. 524 

Banquet of the seven wise men ii. 444 

Baptism by women or laymen condemned, ii. 540, was formerly 

administered but annually ibid. 

Barbadico, duke of Venice, joins in the Italian league • v. 115 
Barbary, the plague cured there by heat and drought, i. 384, hotter 

thanunder the line, why i. 388, 389 

Bargains of a doubtful nature ii. 339 

Barley, William, sent to lady Margaret, &c. v. 98, made his peace 

at last v. 110 

Barnham, Sir Francis, letter to him from lord St. Alban vi. 369 

Baronets, letter to king James I. from Sir Francis Bacon, on that 

order, vi. 63, when first created • vi. 64, note (b) 

Barrel empty, knocked, said to give a diapason to the same barrel 

full ..... i. 321 

Barrenness of trees, the cause and cure ••••!. 409, 410 
Barrow, a promoter of the opinions of the Brownists • hi. 60 
Barton, called the Holy Maid of Kent, is condemned for treason, 

iv. 427, v. 108 

Basil turned into wild thyme i. 425 

Basilisk said to kill by aspect ii. 52 

Basset, Robert vi. 193 

Bastard, how his heirs may become lawful possessors, in opposition 

to legal issue iv. 99 

Bathing i. 488 

Bathing the body, i. 501, would not be healthful for us if it were in 

use, i. 502, for the Turks good ibid. 

Battery, how to be punished iv. 82 

Battle of Granicum, ii. 440, of Arbela, ii. 323, of Actium, ii. 329, 
of Bosworth Field, v. 5, of Stokefield near Newark, v. 32, of St. 
Alban, v. 52, of Bannockbourn, v. 59, of Cressy, Poictiers, and 
Agincourt, v. 79, of Blackheatb, v. 134, of Newport in Flanders, 

iii. 524 
Bayly, Dr. Lewis, bishop of Bangor, a book of his to be examined, 

vi. 240, and note (rf) 
Baynton or Bainham vi. 170, 171 


Beads of several sorts commended u. 66 

Beaks of birds cast '• 504 

Bearing in the womb, in some creatures longer, in some shorter, 

& i. 508 

Bears, their sleeping, i. 270, ii. 41, breed during their sleeping, ii. 

41. Bear big with young seldom seen .... ibid. 

Beasts, why their hairs have less lively colours than birds' feathers, 

i. 246, 247, 287. Beasts do not imitate man's speech as birds 

do, whence, i. 335, 336. Beasts communicating species with or 

resembling one another, i. 472, the comparative greatness of 

beasts and birds with regard to fishes, ii. 23, 24, greater than 

birds, whence ibid. 

Beasts that yield the taste or virtue of the herb they feed on, i. 417, 

their bearing in the womb i. 507 

Beasts foreshew rain, how ii. 8 

Beautiful persons ii. 357 

Beauty, how improved i. 256 

Beauty and deformity, ii. 357, 358, the relation of beauty to virtue, 
ii. 357, when good things appear in full beauty • • ii. 240 
Becher, Sir William, vi. 116, resigns his pretensions to the provost- 
ship of Eton vi. 345, note (a) 

Bedford, duke of, v.' 12. See Jasper. 

Bedford, lady, some account of her v. 436 

Beer, how fined, i. 356, 357, 358, improved by burying, i. 383, 

capon beer, how made, i. 266, 267, a very nourishing drink ibid. 

Bees humming, an unequal sound, i. 317, their age, i.483, whether 

they sleep all winter i. 504 

Beggars, the ill effects from them iii. 391 

Behaviour of some men like verse, in which every syllable is mea- 
sured, ii. 377, should be like the apparel, not too strait ii. 378 

Belfast, lord vi. 360, 363, and note (/) 

Bells, why they sound so long after the percussion, i. 303, 304, 
ringing of them said to have chased away thunder and dissipated 
pestilent air, 305. See i. 343, Bells, what helps the clearness of 

their sound ii. 190 

Bellum sociale, between the Romans and Latins, with the occasion 

of it iii. 302 

Benevolence, a contribution so called, made of money, plate, &c. 
to king James I. with the occasion of it, iv. 429, v. 81, 172, &c. 
letters sent to the sheriffs, to bring the country into it, iv. 431, 
great care taken to prevent its being looked on as a tax, or being 
drawn into precedent ; with reasons in justification thereof, iv.431, 
432, 433. Oliver St. John's complaints against it, with his papers 
relating thereto condemned in several particulars iv. 433, 434 

Benbow, Mr. vi. 301 

Bennet, Sir John vi. 156, 255 

Bernard, St. ii. 291 

Bernardi, Philip vi. 219 

Bertram, concerning his murdering of Tyndal, v. 452, his case,v. 554 

Bertram, John, his case, vi. 133 aud note (e) 

Bevers, lord, admiral of the arch-duke v. 127 

Bias, his precept about love and hatred ii. 416 


Bill of review, in what cases to be admitted in chancery, iv. 509, fyc. 
of an immoderate length, is to be fined in chancery, iv. 517, that 
is libellous, or slanderous, or impertinent, to be punished, iv. 518 

Biils and beaks sometimes cast i. 504 

Bingley, Sir John, his answer in the star-chamber • • vi. 245 
Bingley turns pirate, and his ship is taken in Ireland • iii. 337 
Bion, his reproof to an envious man, ii. 418, esteemed an atheist, 
ii. 437, reprimands the dissolute mariners in a tempest ii. 448 
Birds, why their feathers have more orient colours than the hairs of 

beasts i. 247, 287 

Birds have another manner in their quickening than men or beasts, 
i. 288. Birds only imitate human voice, whence, i. 336, why 
swifter in motion than beasts, i. 474, in their kinds, why less than 
beasts or fishes, ii. 23, 24. Birds have no instruments of urine, 
i. 473, the swiftness of their motion, i. 474, have no teeth, i. 504, 
among singing birds the best, ii. 23, birds carnivorous, not eaten, 

ii. 27 
Birth of living creatures, how many ways it may be accelerated, 

i. 372 

Bishop taken armed in battle ii. 427 

Bishops, their wrong conduct often occasions controversies in the 
church, ii. 506, of England answered, ii. 507, 512, ought not 
lightly to be spoken ill of, ii. 506, 507, when any were anciently 
excommunicated, their offence was buried in oblivion, ii. 508, ill 
ones censured by the fathers, ibid, whether the present practice 
of exercising their authority alone by themselves be right, ii. 531, 
how they came by this authority, ii. 532, 533. Government of 
the church by bishops commended, ii. 531, in causes that come 
before them they should be assisted by the other clergy, ii. 533, 
should have no deputies to judge for them, ii. 534, the causes 

which they are to judge of ii. 536 

Bitumen, a mixture of fiery and watery substance, i. 519, mingled 
with lime, and put under water, will make an artificial rock, ibid- 
Black the best colour in plums i. 421 

Blackheath, battle there between Henry VII. and the Cornish re- 
bels .v. 134 

Blacks, or tawny-moors, their coloration .... i. 389 

Blackstones, Sir Thomas vi. 181 

Bladders dry, will not blow, fyc. i. 370 

Blasphemy ought to be chastised by the temporal sword ii. 260, of 

the devil ibid. 

Blear eyes infectious ii. 52 

Bleeding of the body at the approach of the murderer • ii. 65 

Blister on the tongue • ii. 379 

Blois, an experiment about improving milk there . . . i. 385 
Blood, five means of stanching it, i. 276, why it separateth when 

cold, i. 366, hath saltness i. 461 

Blood draweth salt ii. 71 

Blood of the cuttle-fish, why black, i. 502, one who hath had his 
hands in blood, fit only for a desperate undertaking • ii. 349 
Blood-stone, said to prevent bleeding at the nose • • ii. 68 
VOL. vi. 2 F 


Blossoms plucked off, makes the fruit fairer . • • • i. 403 
Blows and bruises induce swelling, the cause • • • ii. 28 

Blundell, Sir Francis vi - 214, 251 

Blunt, the effect of what passed at his arraignment, iii. 179, Sfc. his 
confession relating to Essex's treason, iii. 144, 195, a second con- 
fession, iii. 19G, another made at the bar, iii. 204, his speech at 

his death iii- 206 

Blushing, how caused ii. 32, i. 493 

Blushing causeth redness in the ears, not in the eyes, as anger doth, 

ii. 32, the cause of each ibid. 

Bodley, Sir Thomas, some account of him .... v. 287 
Body, doctrine of the human, i. 116, how divided • • i. 117 
Body brittle, strucken, i. 248. Bodies natural, most of them have 
an appetite of admitting other bodies into them, i. 350, 351, dis- 
solution of them by desiccalion and putrefaction, i. 367. Bodies 
imperfectly mixt, ii. 13. Bodies in nature that give no sounds, 
and that give sounds, i. 299, et seq. Bodies solid are all cleav- 
ing more or less, i. 351, all bodies have pneumatical and tangi- 
ble parts, ii. 17. Bodies to which wine is hurtful, and to which 
good, i. 496. Bodies conserved a long time, i. 513, 514, the 
several properties, of bodies, ii. 15. Body, natural and politic of 
the king, their mutual influence upon each other • • iv. 349 

Bohemia iii. 500 

Bohemia, queen of, her cause recommended by lord Bacon vi. 367 
Boiling, no water in that state so clear as when cold, i. 474, bottom 
of a vessel of boiling water, not much heated i. 475 

Boiling causeth grains to swell in different proportion ii. 25, 26 
Boldness, ii. 278, the child of ignorance and baseness, ii. 279, ope- 
rates better with private persons than public bodies • • ibid. 
Boldness and industry, the nower of them in civil business, ii. 57, 
in civil business like pronunciation in the orator, ii. 278, ill in 

counsel, good in execution ii. 280 

Boletus, an excrescence on the roots of oaks i. 159 

Boloign invested by Henry VII. v. 89 

Bolus Armenus, coldest of medicinal earths ••••}. 486 

Bones, i. 476, 477, the most sensible of cold, i. 476, why brittle in 

sharp colds, i. 477, in what fishes none, i. 504, one in the heart 

of a stag i. 505 

Bonham, his case vi. 400, 405 

Books proper to assist students in reading the common law, much 

wanted, iv. 372, a way proposed for supplying them iv. 373 

Boring a hole through a tree helpeth its fruitfulness • i. 399 

Borough, John vi. 301, note (e) 

Bottles under water preserve fruit a long time i. 456 

Boughs low, enlarge the fruit i. 400 

Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury, entertains Henry VII. 

v. 12 
Bourchier, Sir John, one of the hostages left at Paris, by Henry 

VII. v. 16 

Bow, Turkish i. 487 

Bowling, good for the stone and reins ... . . ii. 374 


Bracelets worn, which comfort the spirits, ii. 66, their three several 

operations ibid. 

Brackenbury, lieutenant of the Tower, refuses to murder Edward V. 

and hrs brother v. 99, 100 

Brackley, viscount, created earl of Bridgewater • vi. 144, 145 
Brain, its over-moisture obstructs the sight, i. 478. Brains of beasts 
that are fearful said to strengthen the memory, ii. 69. Brain in- 
creased in the full moon ii. 39 

Brass much heavier than iron ii. 189 

Brass, sanative of wounds i. 520 

Brass-plates assuage swelling ii. 28 

Brass ordnance, the advantage of them, ii. 188. Brass plates less 

resplendent than steel ibid. 

Bravery stands upon comparisons ii. 379, 380 

Bray, Sir Reginald, clamoured against, v. 130, noted to have the 
greatest freedom with king Henry VII. v. 166, his death ibid. 

Breath held, helpeth hearing, why i. 347 

Bremingham, his relation of what Tyrone said to him about con- 
quering England iii. 146 

Bresquet, jester to Francis I. ii. 430 

Brewing neglected in many countries ...... i. 488 

Bribery, our author is apprehensive of being charged therewith, iv. 
527, his requests to the lords thereupon, iv. 529, promises a fair 
answer relating thereto, v. 549, his submission, iv. 538, his supr 

plication for favour iv. 547 

Brier i. 434 

Brimstone, useful in melting of steel ii. 188 

Bringing forth many at a birth, and but one, i. 509, the reasons as- 
signed ibid. 

Britain, of the true greatness of the kingdom of Britain, iii. 410, 

Britainy, the steps taken to re-annex it to the crown of France, v. 37 

Britten, Sir Henry vi. 233 

Brittle bodies, why they shiver at a distance from the pressure, 

i. 248 
Brograve and Branthwayt, recommended by lord keeper Puck- 
ering vi. 5 

Bromley, Edward, baron of the exchequer vi. 133 
Brooke, Robert, lord, sent at the head of 8000 men in aid of Bri- 
tainy v. 53 

Brooke, Fulk Grevile, lord, looks over the manuscript of lord Ba- 
con's history of the reign of king Henry VII. • • vi. 303 
Brother, fyc. of the half-blood shall not inherit to his brother, Sfc. 
but only as a child to his parents ...••• iv. 99 
Broughton, Sir Thomas, a powerful man in Lancashire, v. 18, 27, 
slain in the battle near Newark, fighting against Henry VII. 

v. 32, 33 

Browu, Dr., character of him • ii. 431 

Brownists, some account of their opinions .... iii. 60 

Bruges v. 65, 82, 83 

Brutus, his power with Caesar ii. 316 

Bubbles rise swift in water from the pressure or percussion of the 

2 F 2 


water, i. 253. Bubbles and white circles froth on the sea, ii. 6, 

meet on the top of water v. 141 

Buchanan, his history of Scotland v. 295 

Bucket, its increase of sound in the bottom of a well • • i. 311 
Buckhurst, lord, is concerned in Essex's trial, hi. 168, his character 

from Naunton v. 289 

Buckingham, George, earl, fyc. of. See Villiers. 

Buckingham, Mary, countess of, letter to her from lord Bacon, vi. 

328, memorandums for his lordship's conference with her, vi. 336 

Building, ii. 359, variety of circumstances to be considered in the 

situation of it, ii. 359, 360, of the Vatican and Escurial without 

a good room ii. 360 

Bullet, its motion i. 302 

Bulls from the pope are forbid in England .... iii. 73 
Burgess, Dr., is restored to preach, and made rector of Sutton- 

Colefield v. 435 

Burgh, English, a custom in Boroughs so called • • iv. 100 
Burleigh, lord, counsellor to queen Elizabeth, commended, iii. 43, 
is censured in a libel, ibid, farther attempts to make him suspected 
to the queen and nation, iii. 46, some account of him, with re- 
marks upon his actions, iii. 92, was much respected by queen 
Mary, iii. 96, some false reflections concerning him, ibid. fyc. is 
accused of designing a match between his grand-child William 
Cecil, and the lady Arabella, iii. 99, several letters to the English 
and Scotch lord Burleigh: For which see Letter. 
Burghley, lord treasurer, his kind letter to Mr. Bacon • vi. 5 

Burning-glasses, their operations i. 302 

Burning some vegetables upon the ground enricheth it • i. 447 

Burnt wine, why more astringent ii. 40 

Burrage-leaf, infused, represses melancholy, and removes madness, 

i. 251 
Burying hard and soft bodies in earth, its effects • • i. 382 
Busbechius, his account of a Christian gagging a fowl in Constan- 
tinople ii. 280 

Business compared to the roads, ii. 433, how best forwarded, ii. 303, 

304, directions about doing business ii. 369, 370 

By-laws restrained, being fraternities in evil ... v. 171 

CABINET counsels, their introduction ii. 301 

Cadiz taken by Robert, earl of Essex iii. 523 

Caesar besieged in Alexandria, how he preserved the wells, i. 245, 
wrote a collection of apophthegms, ii.400, married his daughter 
to Pompey, ii. 433, how he appeased sedition in his army, ii. 434, 
435, his character of Sylla, ibid, reprimands a coward, ii. 438, 
attempts the title of king, ii. 443, represses Metellus, ii. 445, his 

Anticato, ii. 452 Vide ii. 289 

Csesar, a saying of Seneca's about his resigning his power, iv. 378, 
was a famous lawgiver, ibid, a saying to him • • . Hi. 251 

Caesar Borgia, his perfidy ii. 435 

Caesar, Sir Julius • " vi. 189, 195, 245 


Cairo afflicted with plagues on the rise of the river Nile i. 603 

Caius Marius ii. 445 

Cake growing on the side of a dead tree .... i. 432 
Calais, possessed by the Spaniards, iii. 237, restitution thereof 

demanded iii. 84 

Calaminar stone ii. 189 

Calamitas, when the corn could not rise in the straw • i. 469 

Calcination, how performed ii. 204 

Callisthenes, in his two orations, commends and discommends the 
Macedonians, iv. 364. Alexander's saying to him thereupon, ibid. 

Callisthenes, bis hatred of Alexander ii. 414 

Calpurnia, her dream • ii. 316 

Calvert, Sir George, secretary of state, vi. 225, appointed to speak 
with the countess of Exeter, vi. 233, letter to him from the lord 

chancellor vi. 239 

Cambridge, a letter to the university, professing great respect and 

services due from our author v. 464 

Camden, his annals of queen Elizabeth commended • v. 294 
Candles of several mixtures, i. 379, of several wicks, i. 380, laid in 
bran, for lasting, i. 381. Candles of salamander's wool i. 515 
Candle-light, colours appearing best by it .... ii. 346 
Cannibals, or eaters of man's flesh, said to be the original of the 
French disease, i. 254, three reasons why man's flesh is not to be 

eaten ii. 27 

Canon law, a design of purging it in Henry VlII's time, iv. 368, 379 

Cantharides wheresoever applied affect the bladder, i. 288, ii. 71, the 

flies cantharides, i. 497, of what substance they are bred, and 

their qualities, ibid, operate upon urine and hydropical water, ii. 71 

Capel, Sir William, alderman of London, an instance of the king's 

extortion v. 112 

Capital to conspire the death of a lord, or any of the king's council, 

v. 55 

Capite, lands held in capite in knight's service, in what manner and 

parcels they may be devised • iv. 241, 242, 243, 244, 245 

Capon drink for a consumption i. 266, 267 

Caracalla ii. 296 

Cardinal, whence so called ii. 533 

Cardinals of Rome, their affected wisdom ••••«. 379 
Carew, Sir George, some account of him .... v. 306 

Carrying of foreign roots with safety i. 454 

Carvajal ii. 429 

Cary, Mr. Henry, his letter to lord Falkland • vi. 316 

Carv, under keeper of the Tower displaced, and is succeeded by 

Weston, in order to effect the poisoning of Overbury • iv. 480 

Casaubon, Isaac, letter to him from Sir Frauds Bacon • vi. 51 

Case of Marwood, Sauders, Foster, and Spencer, relating to property 

in timber-trees, iv. 222, of Sir Moyle Finch, of the statute of 

Marlbridge, Littleton and Culpeper on the same, iv. 229, 230, 

of Carr, relating to tenures in capite, iv. 241, etc. of the bishop 

of Salisbury upon the same, iv. 244, 245, of Fitz-Williams, 

iv. 248, of Colthurst about the sense of si and ita quod, iv. 250, 

of Diggs on the same, ibid, of Jermin and Askew about the inter- 


pretation of some words in devising of lands, iv. 254, of Corbet 
about uses, iv. 166, of Delamer on the same, iv. 170, of Cal- 
vin about his freedom in England, iv. 320, of 8th of Henry VI. 
iv. 343, of Sir Hugh Cholmley and Houlford, that the law does 
not respect remote possibilities, iv. 343, of Lord Berkley, brought 
to prove that the body natural and politic of the king are not to 
be confounded, iv. 350, of Wharton, concerning challenges to 
duelling, iv. 409, of Saunders upon poisoning • • iv. 448 
Cassia, an odd account of it from one of the ancients • i. 455 
Cassius in the defeat of Crassus by the Parthians • • ii. 451 

Cassytas, a superplant of Syria i. 466 

Castello, Adrian de, pope's legate v. 59 

Castile, Philip king of, driven on the English shore v. 177, 180 
Casting of the skin or shell, i. 498, the creatures that cast either, 

Casting down of the eyes proceedeth of reverence • • i. 493 
Catalonia, a name compounded of Goth and Aland • iii. 308 
Cataracts of the eye, i. 344, of Nile, said to strike men deaf, i. 345, 

remedy for those of the eyes « i. 460 

Caterpillars, their produce and growth, i. 497, several kinds of 

them ibid. 

Catharine. See Katharine. 

Cato Major compares the Romans to sheep, ii. 437, his reason to his 
son for bringing in a step-mother, ii. 441, says, wise men profit 
more by fools, than fools by wise men, ii. 451, his character, 

ii. 350 

Catullus, his sarcasm upon Clodius ii. 436 

Causes dismissed in chancery, after full hearing, are not to be re- 
tained again iv. 511 

Cecil, Sir Robert, some account of him, iii. 100, v. 288, letters to 
him from Sir Francis Bacon, vi. 43, 46, 47, character of him by 
the same, vi. 48, 49, 55, his letter to Mr. Francis Bacon, vi. 5, 

his answer to Mr. Bacon's letter vi. 13 

Cecile, duchess of York, mother of Edward IV. her death v. 115 

Celsus, his great precept of health ii. 332 

Cements that grow hard, ii. 21. Cement as hard as stone i. 519 

Cephalus, an Athenian, a saying of his upon himself - iii. 94 

Ceremonies and respects, ii. 376, their slight use and great abuse, 

ii. 377, often raise envy, and obstruct business • • ibid. 

Certainty, there be three degrees of it; first, of presence, which the 

law holds of greatest dignity ; secondly, of name, which is the 

second degree; thirdly, of demonstration, or reference, which is 

the lowest degree, iv. 73. There is a certainty of representation 

also, cases of which see, iv. 73, 74, what the greatest kind in the 

naming of lands, iv. 76, what sort is greatest in demonstrations 

of persons, ibid, of reference, two difficult questions relating 

thereto answered iv. 77 

Cestui/ que use, cases relating thereto, iv. 161, 167, had no remedy 

till Augustus's time, if the heir did not perform as he ought, iv. 

172, cases concerning him in statute of uses, iv. 189, 193, 198, 

what person may be so, iv. 202. See Use. 

Chaeronea, battle of, won by Philip of Macedon • • ii. 443 


Chalcites, or vitriol i. 482 

Chalk, a good compost, i. 445, good for pasture as well as for 

arable • • ibid. 

Challenges to duelling punishable, (hough never acted, iv. 408, 409 
Chaloner, Sir Thomas, some account of him ... v. 274 
Chamberlain, John, esq. a correspondent of Sir Dudley Carleton, 

vi. 41 

Chambletted paper i- 502 

Chameleons their description, i. 375, their nourishment of flies as 
well as air, ibid, their raising a tempest if burnt, a fond tradi- 
tion i. 376 

Chancery, one formerly in all counties palatine, iv. 274, rules proper 
to be observed for the direction of that court, iv. 488, its excess, 
in what particulars to be amended, iv. 495, some disagreement 
between that court and king's-bench, v. 374, letter upon the 
same to Sir George Villiers, v. 376, the ground of their dis- 
agreement, v. 375, our author's advice relating thereto, v. 381, 
Eiore proceedings between them ...... v. 415 

Chandos of Britain made earl of Bath v. 16 

Change in medicines and aliments, why good, i. 277, vide ii. 331, 


Chanteries, statute of, explained iv. 47 

Chaplains to noblemen's families, should have no other benefice, 

ii. 546 
Charcoal vapour, in a close room, often mortal ii. 51 

Chaworth, Sir George vi. 185 

Charge against lord Sanquhar, iv. 395, against duels, iv. 399, 
against Priest and Wright concerning duels, iv. 411, against 
Talbot, iv. 420, against Oliver St. John for traducing the letters 
touching the benevolence, with the sum of his offence, iv. 429, 
439, against Owen for high treason, iv. 440, against several 
persons for traducing the king's justice in the proceedings 
against Weston for poisoning Overbury, 447, with an enumera- 
tion of their particular offences, iv. 452, 456, against the 
countess of Somerset for poisoning Overbury, iv. 457, against 

the earl of Somerset for the same iv. 472 

Charges warily to be entered upon ii. 322 

Charities, why not to be deferred till death ii. 341 

Charlemaign ii. 391, 392 

Charles, duke of Burgundy, slain at the battle of Granson ii. 72 
Charles, king of Sweden, a great enemy to the Jesuits, ii. 424, hang- 
ing the old ones, and sending the young to the mines ibid. 
Charles V. emperor, passes unarmed through France, ii. 430, has 
the fate of great conquerors to grow superstitious and melancholy, 
ii. 296, married the second daughter of Henry VII. v. 181. 

See iii. 507 

Charles, prince of Wales, our author's dedication to him, v. 4, 
another, iii. 499, a Charles who brought the empire first into 

France and Spain ibid. 

Charles VIII. of France, marries Anne, inheritress of Britainy, 
v. 10, fortunate in his two predecessors, v. 36, his character and 
conduct in re-annexini; Britainy, 37, treats with great art and 


dissimulation, v. 40, 41, 42, 43, v. 69, resolved upon the war of 
Naples and a holy war, how, v. 72, marries the heir of Britainy, 
though both parties were contracted to others, v. 69, v. 77, restores 
Russignon and Perpignan to Ferdinando, v. 89, besides present 
money grants an annual pension or tribute to Henry VII. for a 
peace, ibid, dispatches Lucas and Frion in embassy to Perkin, 
v. 96, to invite him into France, ibid, conquers and loses Naples, 

v. 114, his ill conduct recapitulated ibid. 

Charles IX. advice given him by Jasper Coligni, to discharge the 
ill humours of his state in a foreign war .... iii. 508 

Charms ii. 59, 60,61, 62, 63 

Charter-house, what sort of persons most proper to be relieved by 
that foundation, iii. 391, no grammar school to be there, but 
readers in the arts and sciences, iii. 392, 393, should be a college 
for controversies, iii. 394, a receptacle for converts to the re- 
formed religion, ibid. See Sutton. 

Cheap fuel i. 516 

Chearfulness, a preservative of health ii. 331 

Cheshire, exempted from the jurisdiction of the court of marches, 

iv. 270 
Childless men authors of the noblest works and foundations, ii. 266 
Children, a foolish pride in having none, from covetousness and a 

fondness to be thought rich ii. 267 

Children born in the seventh month, vital; in the eighth not, why, 
i. 372, overmuch nourishment ill for children, ibid, what nou- 
rishment hurtful, ibid, what nourishment good for them, i. 373, 
sitting much, why hurtful for them, ibid, coid things, why hurtful, 
ibid, long sucking, why hurtful, ibid, sweeten labours, imbitter 

misfortunes ii. 266 

Chilon, ii. 434, his saying of men and gold • • • • ii. 447 

Chineses commended for attempting to make silver, rather than 

gold, i. 362, paint their cheeks scarlet, i. 501, eat horse flesh, 

ii. 27, had ordnance two thousand years ago ii. 392 

Choleric creatures, why not edible ii. 27 

Christ Jesus, sent by God according to promise, ii. 485, his incarna- 
tion, ibid, is God and man, ibid, his sufferings are satisfactory 
for sin, ibid, to what persons they are applicable, ibid, the time 

of his birth and suffering ii. 486 

Christendom, its disturbances what owing to • • • v. 70 
Christian priest, a description of a §ood one ii. 87 

Christianity, how commended by JEueas Sylvius • • ii. 433 

Chronicles i. 81 

Church of England, the eye of England, ii. 462, confusions pre- 
tended to be therein, iii. 76, concerning the controversies on foot 
therein, iii. 77, the disputes about the policy, government, and 
ceremonies of it carried very high, ii.509, considerations touching 
its pacification, ii. 531, the faults of those who have attempted to 
reform its abuses, ii. 525, is commended, ii. 527, yet wants re- 
formation in some things, ii. 529, that there should be only one 
form of discipline alike in all, an erroneous conceit, ibid, in what 
things it may be changed, and in what not, ii. 530, want of patri- 
mony therein, ii. 548, methods of supplying its decayed maiute- 


nance, ii. 548, 549, parliaments are obliged in conscience to 

enlarge its patrimony, ii. 549, its affectation of imitating foreign 

churches condemned as a cause of schism and heresy, ii. 511 

Church, catholic, that there is one, ii. 487, that there is a visible one, 

Church of Rome, the ill effects of our condemning every thing 

alike therein ii. 511 

Church-livings, caution necessary in presenting persons to them, 

iii. 436 
Cicero, ii. 400, 433, gives in evidence upon oath against Clodius, 
ii. 436, what he observes of the bribery of the provinces, ii. 446, 
his character of Piso, ii. 31 3, his letter to Atticus about Pompey's 
preparations at sea, ii. 329, his condemnation of Rabirius Posthu- 
mus, ii. 338, his observation upon Caesar ii. 244 

Cider ripeneth under the line ii. 40 

Cineas, how he checked Pyrrhus's ambition ••••». 416 

Cion overruleth the stock, i. 397, 404, 410, must be superior to it, 

i.407, regrafting often the same cions may enlarge the fruit, i. 405, 

grafted the small end downwards ii. 24 

Cinnamon dry, properties of that tree i. 455 

Circuit, counties divided into six of them, iv. 91, times appointed 

for the judges to go to them • ibid. 

Circuits of judges, how rendered more serviceable to crown and 

country iii. 439 

Citron grafted on a quince i. 424 

Civil history i. 80 

Civil law prevails in Gascoigne, Languedoc, &c. • • iii. 312 

Civil war like the heat of a fever ii. 328 

Clammy bodies i. 351 

Clarence, duke of, his death contrived by his brother Richard, v. 5 
Clarificalion of liquors, by adhesion, i. 247, i. 355, three causes 
thereof, ibid, several instances of clarification, i. 355, 356. Cla- 
rification, i. 512, of the Nile water • ibid. 

Claudius, a conspiracy against him ii. 450 

Clausula derogatoria, called also clausula non obstante, is of two 
sorts, iv, 61, &c. its force explained by several instances ibid. 

Clay grounds produce moss in trees i. 430 

Cleon's dream • ii. 343 

Cleopatra, her death i. 461 

Clergy, benefit thereof, its first rise, iv. 94, 95, was allowed in all 
cases except treason and robbing of churches; but is now much 
limited, ibid, to what cases now confined, ibid, their maintenance 
is jure divino, ii. 548, equality in their order condemned, ibid, 
an assembly of them much commended ii- 543 

Clergy pared by Henry VII. v. 56 

Clerk and inferior ministers of justice ii. 335 

Clerk of the crown, his office, iv. 316, of the peace, his office, ibid. 

is appointed by the Custos Rotulorum ibid. 

Clifford, Sir Thomas, embarks for Flanders, in favour of Perkin, 
v. 98, 99, deserts him, 101, returns and impeaches Sir William 
Stanley, lord chamberlain, who had saved the king's life, and set 


the crown upon his head, v. 106. Clifford thought to have been 

a spy from the beginning v ; 1°9 

Clifford, lady, letter to her from the lord chancellor • • vi. 216 
Clifford, Nicholas, queen Elizabeth much displeased at him, vi. 10 
Clifton, lord, how to be proceeded against, v. 498, to be punished 

for speaking against the chancellor v. 502 

Climates ii. 234 

Clocks : |i. 119 

Clodius acquitted by a corrupted jury ii. 436 

Clothing business at a stay, v. 447, a remedy hereof proposed, 
v. 448, some farther thoughts upon the same, v. 449, the new 
company not to be encouraged in the clothing trade • v. 450 

Cloves attractive of water i. 280 

Coasting of plants i. 408 

Cocks may be made capons, but capons never cocks, applied to the 

epicureans ii. 447 

Coffee, its virtues i. 500 

Cogitata et visa, Bodley's opinion of that book • v. 311 

Coke, Sir Edward, ii. 421, 424, an account of his errors in law, 
t. 405, 406, 407, 408, his Reports much commended, iv. 367, 
v.473, arethought to contain matters against the prerogative, ibid. 
Coke, when attorney-general, insults Mr. Francis Bacon, vi. 46, 
knighted, ibid, note (b), and made lord chief justice of the com- 
mon pleas, ibid, called the Huddler by Mr. Bacon, vi. 8, innova- 
tions introduced by him into the laws and government, vi. 84, 
fills part of the charge against the earl of Somerset with many 
frivolous things, vi. 99, answers for the earl's jewels, vi. 103, active 
in examining into the poisoning Sir Thomas Overbury, vi. 109, 
cited before the council, vi. 121, and forbid to sit at Westminster, 
vi. 123, letter of lord viscount Villiers concerning him, vi. 123, 
129, remembrances of the king's declaration against him, vi.127, 
his letter to the king concerning the case of murder or felony 
committed by one Englishman upon another in a foreign kingdom, 
vi. 136, exasperates the earl of Buckingham against the lord 
keeper Bacon, vi. 166, 168, his Reports examined by the judges, 
vi. 173, he attends the council, but is in a bad state of health, 
vi. 230, the marquis of Buckingham has no power with him, 

vi. 275 

Colchester oysters, how improved i. 487 

Cold contracts the skin, and causes defluxions, i. 264, how it relax- 
eth, ibid, stanches blood, i. 276, heat and cold nature's two hands, 
i. 277, intense cold sometimes causeth mortification, i. 366, 520. 
Cold in the feet, why it hindereth sleep, i. 503. Cold the great- 
est enemy to putrefaction ii. 13 

Cold, the production of it a noble work, i. 277, seven means to pro- 
duce it, i. 278, 279, the earth primum frigidum, i. 278, transitive 
into bodies adjacent as well as heat, ibid, all tangible bodies of 
themselves cold, ibid, density cause of cold, ibid, quick spirit in 
a cold body increaseth cold, i. 278,279, chasing away the warm 
spirit increaseth cold, ibid, exhaling the warm spirit doth the same, 
ibid. Cold causeth induration, i. 284, and quickens liquors, 


i. 359, hinders putrefaction, i. 367, irritateth flame, i. 382. Cold 
sweats often mortal, i. 489, how to help a mortification arising 
from cold, i. 520, Coleworts furthered in their growth by sea- 
weed, i. 403, by being watered with salt-water, i. 406, apple 
grafted on them in the Low-countries, i. 404, 405, hurt neigh- 
bouring plants, i. 412, apples grafted on them produce fruit 

without core ii. 24 

Colic cured by application of wolf's guts ii. 69 

Coligni, Jasper, admiral of France, his advice • • • iii. 508 

College for controversies proposed iii. 394 

Colles, Mr., recommended by lord viscount St. Alban to Edward 

earl of Dorset vi. 380 

Colliquation, whence it proceedeth i. 364 

Coloquintida, being stamped, purges by vapour • • ii. 51 
Colouration of flowers, i. 420, 421, 422, different colours of flowers 
from the same seed, whence, i. 422. Colours of herbs, i. 421. 
Colours vanish not by degrees as sounds do, i. 328, the causes 
thereof, ibid, mixture of many colours disagreeable to the eye, 
ii. 11. Colour of the sea and other water, ii. 32, light and co- 
lours, ii. 117, which shew best by candle-light • • ii. 346 
Colours in birds and beasts, i. 246, the nature of colours, i. 287. 

Colours orient in dissolved metals i. 350 

Colours of good and evil ii. 231, Sfc. 

Colthurst's case iv. 250 

Columbus, Christopher, his discovery of America • • v. 149 
Columbus's offer to Henry VII. relating to the Indies • iv. 340 
Combats of two sorts seem to have been looked upon as autho- 
rised, iv. 406, by way of judicial trial of right, by whom intro- 
duced ibid. 

Comets rather gazed upon than wisely observed • • ii. 389 
Comforting the spirits of men by several things i. 500 

Commendums, vi. 173, letter to the king about them, v. 412, some 
proceedings therein give offence to the king, v. 417, king denied 
to have a power of granting them, v. 422, judges proceed therein 
without the king's leave, v. 424, 425, the king writes to them 
upon it, v. 426, he charges them with several faults therein, 
v. 428, the judges submit, v. 430, and commendams are allowed 

to be in the king's power v. 433, 434 

Commineus, Philip, his observation of Charles the hardy ii. 72 
Commissioners for plantation of Ireland how to act, iii. 223, fyc. 

See Ireland. 
Commissions for examinations of witnesses, iv. 519, for charitable 
uses, iv. 524, suits thereupon how to proceed, ibid, of sewers, 

ibid, of delegates, when to be awarded ibid. 

Committees for ripening of business in affairs of state • ii. 304 

Common law, what method to be observed in the digesting of it, 

iv. 370, what points chiefly to be minded in the reduction of it, 

iv. 370, 371 

Common people, state of them in queen Elizabeth's time iii. 69 

Common pleas, court of, erected in Henry III.'s time, iv. 91, 92, 

its institution and design, ibid, its jurisdiction • • iv. 507 

Common voucher, who he is, and in what cases made use of, iv. 118 


Comparison between Philip of Macedon, and the king of Spain,, 

iii, 76 
Compositio et mistio, the difference naturalists make between them, 

iii. 261 

Composts to enrich ground, i. 445, the ordering of them for several 

grounds, ibid, et seq. six kinds of them, ibid. Vide ii. Ill, 114 

Compound fruits, how they may be made i. 410 

Compression in solid bodies, cause of all violent motion, i. 248, 
not hitherto inquired, ibid, worketh first in round, then in pro- 
gress, ibid, easily discernible in liquors, in solid bodies not, ibid. 
Compression in a brittle body, i. 248, in powder, in shot, ibid. 

Compression of liquors ii. 29 

Compton, Spencer, lord vi. 213 

Concoction, what, ii. 14, not the work of heat alone, ibid, its pe- 
riods ibid 

Concords in music i. 296 

Concord final upon any writ of covenant iv. 143 

Concretion of bodies dissolved by the contrary ii. 17 

Condensing medicines to relieve the spirits i. 500 

Condensing of air into weight i. 502, 503 

Condition, its significancy in statute of uses iv. 194 

Confederates, thefr great importance to any state • iii. 531, 532 

Confederation, tacit iii. 490, 491 

Conference between the lords and commons upon petitioning the 
king to treat of a composition for wards and tenures iii. 359 

Confession of faith ii. 481 

Confirmation, whether we are not in our church mistaken about it, 

in the time of using it ii. 539 

Confusion makes things appear greater ii. 237 

Congealing of air of great consequence i. 377 

Conjuration, how to be punished iv. 386 

Conquerors grow superstitious and melancholy, when • ii. 296 

Conquest, distinction between conquest and descent in the case of 

naturalization confuted, iv. 340, subjects gained thereby are 

esteemed naturalized - • • iv. 341 

Conquest, the inconveniences of that claim in the person of Henry 

VII. v. 8 

Consalvo, ii. 429, his saying of honour • • • ii. 387, iv. 408 
Conscience, how persons are to be treated in religious matters upon 

pretence thereof iii. 72 

Conservation of bodies long time, i. 513, the causes and helps 

thereof i. 514 

Conservation of bodies in quicksilver • • • • i. 524 
Conservators of the peace, their origin, office, and continuance 
thereof, iv. 88, who are such by office, ibid, were succeeded by- 
justices of the peace ibid. 

Conservatory of snow and ice, i. 278, great uses to be made thereof 
in philosophy, ibid, and likewise iu profit ••••[. 283 

Consiliarii nati, who iii. 445 

Consistencies of bodies how divers ii. 15 

Consistory at Rome, whereof it consists, ii. 533, performs all eccle- 
siastical jurisdiction ibid. 


Conspiracies against princes, the peculiar heinousness of them, ir. 
442, are condemned by the law of nations • • . iii. 40 
Constable, his office, iv. 84, was settled by William the Conqueror, 
iv. 83, two high constables appointed for every hundred by the 
sheriff, iv. 84, a petty one appointed for every village, ibid, the 
original of their authority very dark, iv. 309, original of their 
office still more obscure, ibid, whether the high constable was ab 
origine, ibid, by whom elected, and where, iv. 310, of what con- 
dition they ought to be in estate, iv. 311, their office, ibid, their 
authority, iv. 312, et seq. their original power reducible to three 
heads, iv. 312, by whom they are punishable, iv. 312, their oath, 

iv. 314, their office summed up iv. 315 

Constantine the Great, what he said of Trajan, ii. 428, iv. 376', what 
Pope Pius II. observed of his pretended grant of St. Peter's pa- 
trimony, ii. 432, what fatal to him • ii. 298 

Constantinople i. 488, ii. 280 

Constable, Sir John vi. 243 

Consumptions, i. 266, 274, in what airs recovered • • ii. 54 
Contempt causes and gives an edge to anger ii. 387 

Contempts of our church and service, how punishable • iv. 385 
Contiguous things, or such once, their operation • • ii. 49 
Continuity, solution of it, causes putrefaction i. 365 

Contract, the difference of dissolving a contract, and making a lease 

of the thing contracted for iv. 65 

Contraction of bodies in bulk, by mixing solids and fluids, i. 261, 

of the eye ii. 31 

Controversies are no ill sign in a church, ii. 500, college for contro- 
versies proposed, iii. 394, are to be expected, ii. 500, those of the 
church of England not about great matters, ii. 501, by what 
means they are easily prevented, ibid, are carried on amongst us 
with great indecency, ii. 505, five points wherein botli the contro- 
verting parties are to blame in these matters, ii. 506, the occa- 
sions of them, ibid, their progress, ii. 613, they grow about the 
form of church government, ibid, unbrotherly proceedings on 
both sides in these controversies, ii. 516, should not be discussed 
before the people, ii. 521, few are qualified enough to judge of 

them impartially ii. 525, 526 

Conversation, some observations relating thereto • • ii. 472 
Converts to the reformed religion, a proposal for making a recep- 
tacle to encourage them iii. 394 

Conveyance, property of land gained thereby in estates in fee, in 
tail, for life, for years, iv. Ill, 112, of lands is made six ways; 
by feoffment, by fine, by recovery, by use, by covenant, by will, 
iv. 117, these ways are all explained, ibid, Sfc. by way of use, 

ought to be construed favourably iv. 252 

Conway, secretary, letter to him from lord viscount St. Alban, vi. 
341, kind to lord viscount St. Alban, vi. 345, letter to him from 

that lord, ibid, wishes that lord well vi. 371 

Copies in chancery, how to be regulated iv. 519 

Copper-mines, case relating to them determined by records and 

precedents iv. 505 

Coppice-woods hastened in their growth i. 398 


Copy-holders, their original, with several other things relating to 

them iv. 107 

Coral participates of the nature of plants and metals, i. 450. Coral 
much found on the south-west of Sicily, i. 517, its description, 
518. Coral said to wax pale when the party wearing it is ill, ii. 66 

Coranus • ii. 430 

Cordes, lord, would lie in hell seven years to win Calais from the 
English, v. 67, appointed to manage the treaty • v. 89 

Cordials ii. 217, 218 

Core in fruits, want of it how obtained i. 424 

Corn changed by sowing often in the same ground, i. 425, changed 
into a baser kind by the sterility of the year, ibid, the diseases 
thereof, i. 469, 470, their remedy, 470, choice of the best corn, 

Corns, why most painful towards rain or frost ii. 8 

Cornish insurrection v. 130 

Coronation of our kings, where to be held after the union of Eng- 
land and Scotland iii. 274 

Coroners, their office, iv. 318, how they came to be called so, ibid. 

by whom they are chosen ibid. 

Corporations excluded from trust by statute of uses, iv. 189, 190, 

of the crown differ from all others iv. 348 

Corruption and generation, nature's two boundaries • • i. 364 
Corruption to be avoided in suitors as well as ministers • ii. 277 

Cosmetics i. 118 

Cosmography i. 108 

Cosmus, duke of Florence, says, we no where read that we are to 

forgive our friends, ii. 26L, 262, temperate in youth • ii. 355 

Cottington, Sir Francis, letters to him from lord viscount St. Alban, 

vi. 339, 348 

Cotton, Sir John vi. 188, 190, 192 

Cotton, Sir Robert, backward in furnishing lord Bacon with mate- 
rials for his life of king Henry VIII vi. 353 

Cotton, Sir Rowland • vi. 197, and note (#) 

Cotton, Mr., imprisoned on suspicion of being author of a libel 

against king James I. vi. 73, note (a) 

Covenant, a manner of conveyance, iv. 120, how it is effected, ibid. 
Coventry, Sir Thomas, his character by Sir Francis Bacon, vi. 131, 
did his part well in the prosecution of' the earl of Suffolk, vi. 227, 
ordered to come well prepared for the king, vi. 255, ordered to 
prepare a book for the king's signature, vi. 269, made attorney- 
general, vi. 270, his letter to the lord viscouut St. Alban just be- 
fore he was made lord keeper of the great seal • • vi. 381 

Covin, how made and discharged iv. 168 

Councils of state, how to be ordered after the union of England and 

Scotland, iii. 279, one to be erected at Carlisle or Berwick, upon 

the union, with the extent of its jurisdiction, iii. 270, 271, in 

Ireland, whether they should be reduced or not • • v. 440 

Counsel, to give it, is the greatest trust between man and man, 

ii. 300 
Counsel to be asked of both times, ancient and present, ii. 276, 



Counsel, ii. 300, for the persons and the matter, ii. 301, inconve- 
niences attending it, ibid. Counsel of manners and business, 
ii. 319, scattered counsels distract and mislead, ibid. Vide ii. 322 
Countenance greatly to be guarded in secrecy •••!!. 265 
Counties, the division of England into them, iv. 85, lords set over 
each, and their authority, ibid, this authority given afterwards to 
the sheriff, iv. 80. County-court held by the sheriff monthly, ibid, 
this dealt only in crown matters, iv. 91, its jurisdiction 93 

Court-barons, their original and use iv. 108 

Court-rolls, their examination to be referred to two masters in 

chancery iv. 517 

Court of Vulcan, near Puteoli, i. 519. Courts obnoxious, ii. 385 
Courts of justice how to be ordered after the union of England and 

Scotland iii. 282, 283 

Courts of justice, an account of them v. 54 

Courtney, Edward, made earl of Devon, at the coronation of 

Henry VII. v. 12 

Courtney, William, earl of Devon, married to Catharine, daughter 
of Edward IV. v. 169, attached by the king his brother-in-law, 


Cox, Sir Richard vi. 77, and note (a) 

Crafty cowards like the arrow flying in the dark ii. 261 

Cramp, its cause and cure ii. 67 

Cranheld, Sir Lionel, some account of him, v. 488, vi. 175, 179,180, 

made lord treasurer vi. 314 

Crassus wept for the death of a fish, ii. 441, defeats the fugitives, 

ii. 445, defeated by the Parthians ii. 451 

Creatures said to be bred of putrefaction, i. 365, i. 426, 480. Crea- 
tures moving after the severing of the head, the causes thereof, 
i. 389, 390, 483. Creatures that sleep much eat little, i. 482. Crea- 
tures that generate at certain seasons, i. 507, that renew their 

youth, or cast their spoils ii. 68 

Crew, Sir Randolph vi. 97, 223 

Croesus's gold liable to be rifled by any man who had better iron, 

ii. 324, 443 

Crollius, his dispensatory ii. 76 

Cromwell, lord, his examination relating to lord Essex's treason, 

iii. 203 

Crook, Sir John, some account of him v. 340 

Crowd is not company ii. 814 

Crown, the title to it descanted upon v. 7 

Crown of England, goes by descent, iv. 349, ceremonial of it, how 
to be framed after the union of England and Scotland iii. 274 

Crudity explained ii. 14 

Crystal in caves, i. 377, designation of a trial for making of it out of 
congealed water, ibid, how made use of in Paris-work, ii. 66, 

formed out of water ii. 207 

Cucumbers made to grow sooner, i. 403, to bear two years, ibid, 
by steeping their seeds in milk prove more dainty, i. 406, made 
more delicate by throwing in chaff when they are set, ibid, they 
exceedingly affect moisture, ibid, will grow towards a pot of water, 
ibid, may be as long as a cane, or moulded into any figure i. 419 


Cuffe, Henry, his remark on lord Bacon's Novum Organum v. 253 
Cuffe is employed by lord Essex in his treasons, and in what man- 
ner, iii. 152, 153, his character, ibid, the effect of what passed 

at his arraignment ... in. 179 

Culture, plants for want of it degenerate .... i. 424 
Cunninc, ii. 305, 306, 307, difference between a cunning and wise 

man in honesty and ability ii. 305 

Cure by custom, i. 273, caution to be used in diseases counted in- 
curable, ibid. Cure by excess, i. 274, its cause, ibid. Cure by 
motion of consent, ibid, physicians how to make use of this 

motion ibid. 

Curiality, the king master of this as master of his family iii. 462 

Curiosities touching plants i. 419. et seq. 

Curled leaves in plants, whence i. 463 

Curson, Sir Robert, governor of the castle of Hammes v. 169, flies 
from his charge in order to betray or get into the secrets of 
the mal. contents, ibid, occasions the spilling of much blood, and 
the confinement of many, ibid, but is cursed by the pope's bull 
at Paul's cross, in order to deceive the more effectually v. 170 
Custom familiarizes poisons, infections, tortures, and excesses, 
i. 273. Custom no small matter, ii. 443. Custom subdues nature, 
ii. 347. Custom and education, ii. 348. Custom in its exaltation, 

ii. 350 

Customs of towns are by our laws to be construed strictly, with 

the reasons of this, iv. 345, they are the laws in Tourain, Anjou, 

fyc. iii. 312 

Cutting trees often causeth their long lasting, i. 441. Cutting of 

vines burnt make lands fruitful i. 468 

Cuttle's blood, the colour from its high concoction, i. 502, as we 

see by boiling of blood, which turns it black .... ibid. 

Cyprus, a kind of iron said to grow there .... j. 524 

Cyrus the younger ii. 449 


DAISY-ROOTS boiled in milk said to make dogs little i. 372 

Dallington, Robert vi. 248 

Dam, how surprised by the duke of Saxony ... v. 83 

Damages, an argument of property, iv. 219, in what cases they are 

to be recovered by a lessee iv. 218 

Damask roses when they first came into England • . i. 466 
Damps in mines and minerals, kill by suffocation, or the poisonous 

mineral ii. 51 

Dancing to song ii. 345 

Dangers not light, if they seem so, ii. 305, whether they justify 

war • • . . . \ . • . . . . . . in. 500 

D'Aquila the Spaniard, his indignation against the Irish iii. 507 
Darcy, lord, of the North, his cause in the star-chamber against 

Gervase Markham, esq. T i7 132 

Darcy's case vi. 399, 400, 402 


Daubeney, or D'aubigney, Sir Giles, created lord, v. 16, deputy of 
Calais, raises the siege of Dixmude, v. 66, appointed to treat 
with lord Cordes about peace, v. 89, made lord chamberlain in 
the room of Sir William Stanley, v. 109, commands the king's forces 
against the Cornish men, v. 131, 135, taken, but rescued, v. 135 

Daubigny, Bernard v. 43 

Daubigny, William, beheaded in Perkins's affair • • v. 105 
Davers, the effect of what passed at his arraignment, iii. 179, his 
confessions relating to lord Essex's treason • • • iii. 193 
David, how he propounded to make choice of his courtiers, iii. 463 
Davis, the effect of what passed at his arraignment, iii. 179, his 
confession relating to lord Essex's treason • • • iii. 193 
Davies, chief justice of the king's bench • • . v. 278, vi. 226 
Day showers not so good for fruits as night showers • i. 467 

Dead sea abounds with bitumen i. 515 

Deans and chapters, what authority they once had, and how it 

came to be lost ii. 532 

Death without pain, i. 461, the pomp of it more terrible than the 
thing itself, ii. 255, opens the gate to fame, ii. 256, in causes of 
life and death, judges ought to remember mercy, ii. 384. Dead 

authors sometimes best iii. 466 

Death, an essay thereon, ii. 473, ought to be esteemed the least of 
all evils, ibid, most people dread it, ii. 474, is desirable, ibid, 
is most disagreeable to aldermen and citizens, ii. 476, dreadful 
to usurers, ii. 477, to whom it is welcome, ibid, we generally 
dally with ourselves too much about it, ibid, is made easy by 
the thoughts of leaving a good name behind us, ii. 478, desirable 

before old age comes upon us ibid. 

Debts, what sort of them must be first discharged by executors, 

iv. 129 

Decemvirs, an account of their laws iv. 377 

Declarations, the opinion of the law about them, iv. 53, of the lord 
keeper and earl of Worcester, &c. relating to lord Essex's treason, 

iii. 197 

Decoction takes away the virtue and flatulency of medicines, i. 251, 

264. Decoction maketh liquors clearer, infusion thicker, why, 

i. 357 
Decrees, none are to be reversed or explained but upon a bill of 
review, except in case of miscasting, iv. 509, none are to be 
made against an express act of parliament, iv. 510, a person is 
to suffer close imprisonment for the breach of one, or for con- 
tempt of it, ibid, cases wherein they are binding, or not so, 
iv. 511, after judgment in chancery, their effect • • iv. 514 
Deer, in them the young horn putteth off the old, i. 499. Deer, 

their generating at certain seasons i. 507 

Defendant, not to be examined upon interrogatories, unless in some 

cases iv. 520 

Deformed persons generally even with nature, ii. 358, mostly bold 

and industrious ibid. 

Degenerating of plants, its causes i. 424, 425 

Delays to be avoided, ii. 277. Delays ii. 304 

Delays of the Spaniards, what owing to iii. 335 

Delegates to be named by the chancellor himself • • iv. 524 


Delicate persons often angry, as anger proceeds from a sense of 

hurt ii. 387 

Dernades, the orator "• 44 " 

Demetrius, king of Macedon »• 451 

Democritus, his motus plagce, i. 253, 290, 291, the relation how he 

keut himself alive bv smelling at new bread, ii. 54, his school, 

v " ii. 290 

Demosthenes, his reply when reproached for flying from the battle, 

ii. 415, his reply to iEschines, ii. 440. Vide ii. 452. 
Demosthenes, his advice to the Athenians in giving their votes, 

iii. 290 
Demosthenes, his chief part of an orator, ii. 278, how he repre- 
hends the Athenians, ii. 243, reprehends the people for listening 
to the unequal conditions of Philip, ii. 246, exposes to scorn 

wars which are not preventive iii- 506 

Demosthenes, his violent death iii- 468 

Demurrers, what is their proper matter iv. 518 

Denham, Sir John, commended, iv. 504, is made baron of the ex- 
chequer, ibid, advice to him thereupon, ibid, one of the lords 

justices in Ireland .... vi. 143 

Denizen, what this word properly signifies, iv. 327, is often con- 
founded with natural-born subject, ibid, who is so, and how he 
is considered by our laws, iv. 328, is made by the king's charter, 

iv. 329 

Dennis, Gabriel vi. 218 

Denmark, its state considered iii. 56 

Density of the body, one cause of cold i. 278 

Deodand, what it is, iv. 83, to whom disposed of by the king, ibid. 
Depositions taken in any other court, are not to be read in chancery, 

but by special order iv. 520 

Deputies, in what sort of cases never allowed • • ii- 533, 534 

Descent, property of lands gained thereby, iv. 99, three rules to 

be observed therein, ibid, is restrained bv certain customs, 

iv. 100, this concerns fee-simple estates only • • • ibid. 

Desiccation • • i. 367 

Desmond, countess of, who lived till she was seven score, said to 

have new teeth i. 506 

Dew upon hills better that upon vallies, i. 518, Dew of the rain- 
bow ii. 9 

Diamond, Cornish i. 246 

Diana, how patiently the boys of Sparta suffered on her altar, ii. 349 

Diapason the sweetest of sounds, i. 295, the Diapason, or number 

of eight, rather a thing received than a true computation, ibid. 

half notes of necessity, the unison and the Diapason i. 296 

Diet-drinks, most troublesome at first i. 277 

Diet of a woman with child affects the infant, ii. 69, what Diet is 

good ii. 225 

Differences of plants, i. 443. Differences of several passions in 

matter ii. 18, 19, 20 

Digby, Sir John, lieutenant of the Tower .... v. 153 

Digby, Sir John, vi. 89, 90, 118, additional instructions to him, 

vi. 138, appointed to speak with the countess of Exeter, vi. 233, 

letter to him from lord viscount St. Alban • • • vi. 296 


Digby, Thomas vi. 225 

Digest of the laws of England, proposed to king James I. iv. 375 

Digestions, three, ii. 11, extended to liquors and fruits, as well as 

living creatures, ii. 14, four digestions enumerated • • ibid. 

Digging of the earth healthful ii. 52 

Diggs's case iv. 250 

Dilatation and extension of bodies ii. 17 

Dilatation in boiling, ii. 25. Dilatation and contraction in excess 

hurts the eye ii. 31 

Dioclesian ii. 296 

Diogenes, ii. 435, why he would be buried with his face downwards, 
ii. 437, Plato's reason why he came into the market-place naked 
on a cold morning, ii. 438, his pride chastised by Plato, ii. 440. 

Vide ii. 452 

Dionysius, his rebuke to his son, ii. 414, being deposed, he kept a 

school at Corinth ii. 438 

Discipline of our church iii. 435 

Discipline, the opinion that there should be but one form thereof in 
the church, censured, ii. 529, this hinders reformation in religion, 

ii. 530 

Discontents, their cause and cure ii. 286 

Discontinuance, how avoided in fluids i. 253 

Discords in music, i. 296. Discord of the base, most disturbeth the 

music ibid. 

Discovery of persons, how made ii. 370 

Discourse, whether wit or judgment the greater ornament of it, 

ii. 333, of a man's self should be seldom and well chosen ii. 334 

Diseases contrary to predisposition, whether more difficult to be 

cured than concurrent, i. 275, what the physician is to do in such 

cases, ibid. Diseases infectious, i. 352. Diseases epidemical, their 

causes i. 384 

Dismissions from chancery, how to be regularly obtained iv. 511 

Dispatch, ii. 311, affected dispatch like hasty digestion, ibid, order 

and distribution the life of it, ii. 312. Dispatch in business, 

iii. 433, 434 
Displacing courtiers should always proceed from manifest cause, 

iii. 463 

Displeasures and pleasures of the senses i. 484 

Displeasure slight, its effects i. 492 

Dispossessed, whether he may make a war for recovery iii. 501 
Disseisin, how inheritance is gained thereby • • • • iv. 98 
Dissenters, how used by the clergy, ii. 510, their conduct condemned 
in several particulars, ii. 520, their preaching, with several of 
their opinions censured, ii.521,a saying upon them • ii. 530 
Dissimulation, ii. 263. Vide Simulation. 
Dissolution of bodies from desiccation and putrefaction, i. 364, 365 

Dissolution of metals ii. 205 

Distilled waters last longer than raw i. 369 

Distilled water from salt, wormwood, lose their saltness and bitter, 

&c. ii. 35 

Distribution and order the life of business and dispatch • ii. 312 
Distringas, a writ so called, in what cases to be executed iv. 96 
Divination natural ii. 1 


Dixmude v. 66 

Dodderidge, Sir John, some account of him • . v. 339, vi. 189 
Doc- how made little, i. 372, 373, biting in anger a stone thrown 

at i,im, communicates a choleric quality to the powder of it, n. 

69. Do»s know the dog-killer, though they never saw him before, 
° ii. 71 

Dolabella }}• 433 

Dominion, how founded , • iii. 485 

Domitian the younger son of Vespasian, ii. 433, tyrannical, ii. 442, 

what he excelled in ii. 296 

Domitian, a dream of his just before his death • • • iv. 375 

Domitius ii. 441 

Dorset, marquis, hostage for Henry VII. v. 16, committed to the 

Tower, v. 30, released v. 35 

Double flowers, how to produce them i. 423 

Doubts about our laws, a good rule in any such cases • iv. 366 
Dower, tenant in dower, how much favoured by our laws iv. 186 

Douglas, Sir Robert vi. 248 

Down upon the leaves of plants, i. 435, the virtue of those leaves, 


D'Oyley, Robert vi. 246 

Draining salt water by descent doth not make it fresh, i. 245, of 
lands under water would make excellent pasture • iii. 454 
Drake, Sir Francis, his prosperous expeditions into the West In- 
dies, iii. 516, burns, sinks, and carries off ten thousand ton of 

their great shipping, iii. 517, his death iii. 527 

Dramatical poetry i. 91 

Dreams pleasant and prophetical, procured by some smells, ii. 54, 
several remarkable dreams • • • • ii. 34], 342, 343 
Drinks, the maturation of them how wrought, i. 358, wherein it 
differs from clarification, i. 355, degrees of maturation by inforc- 
ing the motion of the spirits, i. 358, quickening of drink that is 
dead or palled, i. 357, ripened by being immerged in the sea i. 473 
Drowning of metals, the baser in the more precious, i. 525, the me- 
thods to perform the operation ii. 190, 191 

Drums, cause of sound in them i. 309 

Drunken men, their sperm unfruitful, i. 495, they are unapt for 
voluntary motion, ibid, imagine false things as to the eye, ibid, 
men sooner drunk with small draughts than with great i. 496 

Drunkenness i. 495 

Drying the adventitious moisture prohibiteth putrefaction, i. 369, 

mixture of dry things prohibit it i. 370 

Dryness turneth hair and feathers gray and white • ii. 22 

Ductile bodies ii. 18 

Dudley, v. 166, made speaker of the house of commons, v. 170. 

See Empson. 
Duels, a charge concerning them, iv. 399, how t'ey affront our 
laws, 401, the danger and mischief of them, iv. 400, causes of 
this evil, and how it is nourished, iv. 401, 402, some remedies 
proposed of this mischief, iv. 402, 403, 40!, edict of Charles IX. 
of France concerning them ; with the strict proceedings in 
France against them, iv. 403, 404, our laws thought erroneous, 
in two points relating to them, ibid, are condemned in all civilized 


states, iv. 405, never practised by the Romans, ibid, are con- 
demned by the Turks, iv. 406, in what cases our author is re- 
solved to prosecute offences herein, iv. 409, decree of the star- 
chamber relating to them, iv. 411, are contrary to the oath of 
every subject to the king, iv. 417, a letter against them v. 459 
Dulcoration of metals, i. 374, of several things, as malt, &c. i. 462, 
463, of fruits several ways, ii. 26, the causes thereof, ibid. Dul- 
coration of salt-water ii. 35 

Dunging of grounds, the properest time for it • i. 445 

Dungs of beasts to enrich grounds, i. 445, which of them the best, 


Duration of plants i. 440, 441 

Dust maketh trees fruitful, as vines, &c. .... i. 468 

Dutch, proposal of hindering their going out of the kingdom, ii. 

463, account of their proceedings against them • • v. 519 

Dutch, not to be abandoned for our safety, nor kept for our profit, 

ii. 463 
Dutch merchants prosecuted for exporting gold and silver coin, 

vi. 214, 226, 230, 239, 240 

Dutchman, his project for making gold i. 362 

Dutchy of Lancaster iii. 441 

Duty of a privy-counsellor iii. 445, 446 

Dwarfing of trees, i. 428, dwarf-trees proceed from slips i. 429 

Dwarf-oak, or holy-oak, in Cephalonia ii. 37 

Dwarf-pine good for the jaundice i. 478 

Dyer, Sir Edward ii. 431, vi. 178 

Dyers, some proposals relating to the new company of them, v. 363, 
letter to king James against this company, v. 369, advice to the 
king about them v. 383 


EAR erected to hear attentively, i. 342. Ear dangerous to be 

picked in yawning i. 475 

Ears wax red in blushing • ii. 32 

Early flowers and plants i. 483 

Earth and sand differ, i. 245. Earth primum frigidum, i. 278, in- 
fusions in earth, the effects thereof, i. 382, cautions to be used 
therein, ibid, several instances thereof, i. 382, 383. Earth taken 
out of the vaults will put forth herbs, i. 435, the nature of those 
herbs, i. 436, what earth taken out of shady and watery woods 
will put forth, i. 436. Earth upon earth a good compost, i. 445. 
Earths, good and bad, i. 467, 468, large clods, and putting forth 
moss, bad, ibid. Earths medicinal, i. 486. Earth taken ne?:r *he 
river Nilus, said to increase in weight till the river comes io .is 
height, i. 502, 503, new turned up hath a sweet scent, ii. 10, 
pure, the healthfullest smell of all, ii. 52, fruitful • ii. 112 
Ebbing and flowing of the sea, the cause of it, according to Gali- 
lzeus, i. 522,by Apollonius called the respiration of the world ii. 43 
Echoes, a repercussion only, i. 304. Echo of an echo, i. 337, artifi- 


cial echoes not known, ibid, natural echoes, where found, ibid, 
the differences between (he concurrent echo and iterant, ibid, no 
echo from a trunk stopped at one end, why, i. 337, 338. Echo 
from within a well, ibid, whether echoes move in the same angle 
with the original sounds, ibid, plurality of echoes in one place, 
ibid, back echoes, ibid. Echoes returning many words, i. 339. 
Echo upon echo, ibid. Echo will not return the letter S, when 
it begins a word, why, i. 340, difference of echoes, ibid, mixture 
of echoes, ibid, resemble the ear, i. 342, and have a resemblance 
of hearing, i. 347, super-reflection of echoes • • i. 523 

Edgar made a collection of the laws of England • • iv. 378 

Edgecomb, Sir Richard, comptroller of the king's house, sent into 

Scotland . • v. 36 

Edible flesh, and not edible, ii. 26, the causes of each • ii. 27 
Edmoudes, Sir Thomas, recommended by the lord keeper Bacon to 

his niece for a husband vi. 147 

Edmund, earl of Richmond, father of Henry VII. • • v. 192 
Edward I. commended for his excellent laws, iv. 6, his design of 
conquering Scotland, iii. 299, is wounded by a votary of a Sa- 
racen prince treacherously, iv. 445, his answer to the commons 
petitioning him for a redress from the subjects of Flanders, iii. 

341, his reign accounted prosperous iii. 48 

Edward II. is murdered in Berkeley-castle by rebels, iii. 175, his 
deposition and murder owing to his queen ... ii. 298 
Edward III. his answers to the commons relating to matters of peace 
and war, iii. 341, he rejects the petition of the commons to make 
the Black Prince prince of Wales, and afterwards makes him so of 
his own mere motion, iii. 346, the troubles of his reign iii. 49 
Edward IV. ii. 357, the trains and mines laid for him by the duke 
of Gloucester, v. 6, his interview and treaty of peace with Lewis 
XI. v. 6, touched with remorse for the death of his brother, the 
duke of Clarence, v. 21, first devised the tax called benevolence, 

v. 81 
Effiat, Monsieur d', letter to him from the lord viscount St. Alban, 

vi. 384 

Egerton, master of the rolls and lord keeper • • • ii. 426 

Eggs, the yolks of them great nourishers, i. 268, how to be used, 

i. 269, yolk conduceth more to the nourishment, white to the 

generation, of the bird, i. 288, hatched in an oven, ii. 25. Egg 

petrified, ii. 207, white of an egg long lying in the sun said to turn 

to stone ibid. 

Egremond, made leader of the Yorkshire riot against the subsidy, 

v. 57, flies to lady Margaret into Flanders • v. 58 

Egerton, Sir Thomas, lord keeper of the great seal, letter to him 

from Mr. Francis Bacon, vi. 41, twice lord high steward, vi. 105, 

employed in the inquiry into the death of Sir Thomas Overbury, 

iv. 109 
Egerton, Sir Rowland, and Mr. Edward, their cause in chancery, 

vi. 173, 186 
Eight, the sweetest concord in music, i. 295, though it is a received 

rather than a true computation • ibid. 

Elder-flowers good for the stone i. 478 


Elder-slick put to consume taketh away warts •••!!. 75 
Elections for parliaments, advice to the subjects thereupon, v. 540 

Electre of silver ii. 196 

Electric bodies ii. 47 

Electrum, ancient, its proportion of silver and gold • • i. 525 

Elegant sentences of our author i. 465 

Elements and their conjugations ruinous to knowledge • ii. 12 

Elision of the air a term of ignorance i. 303 

Elizabeth, eldest sister to Edward IV. v. 27, 161, married for her 
second husband John de la Pool, duke of Suffolk • • v. 161 
Elizabeth, queen dowager of Edward IV. v. 9, cloistered in the nun- 
nery of Bermondsey, v. 22, forfeits all her lands and goods, v. 24, 
her great variety of fortune, v. 25, 26, dies in the cloister, v. 26, 
has burial with her husband at Windsor, ibid, founds Queen's 

College in Cambridge ibid. 

Elizabeth, lady, v. 9, not mentioned in the claim of Henry VII. ibid, 
repairs to London, by direction, to the queen dowager her mo- 
ther, ibid, married to Henry VII. v. 25, crowned at Westminster 
to give contentment to the people, v. 35, in the third year of the 
king's reign, ibid, dies in childbed at the Tower • • v. 166 
Elizabeth, queen, her life attempted by several votaries of the Romish 
church, iv. 422, her conduct commended, iii. 234, 235, her fair 
treatment of the king of Spain, iii. 41, is conspired against and 
libelled by the Spanish direction, iii. 41, 42, the prosperous con- 
dition of England under her reign, iii. 47, her reign compared 
with other princes, iii. 48, 49, the remarkable length of her reign, 
iii. 50, the nation had great health and plenty in her time, iii. 
50, 52, reformation of religion was settled by her, iii. 53, 54, she 
is excommunicated by the pope, iii. 73, an account of the just- 
ness of her procedings with Spain, upon the defection of the Low 
Countries, iii. 84, refuses the inheritance of the United Provinces, 
iii. 85, 87, a treaty of marriage between her and the duke of Anjou, 
very forward, iii. 90, is charged with setting up her image at Lud- 
gate to be worshipped, iii. 101, 102, is accused of a design of 
making illegitimate offspring of her own king, ibid, a design of poi- 
soning her by Lopez, iii. 105, the reasons given for the poisoning 
of her, iii. 107, 110, allots stipends for preachers in Lancashire, 
ii. 548, the design of poisoning her discovered, iii. 116, she seems 
inclined to receive lord Essex again into favour • • iii. 227 
Elizabeth, queen, a discourse in her praise, iii. 22, petitioned tore- 
lease the four evangelists, being prisoners, ii. 401, her speech 
about the archduke's raising the siege of Grave, ii. 403, said, she 
had rather be dead than put in custody, ii. 404, her remarks upon 
sales, and instructions to great officers, ii. 405, retorted upon, 
that a man thinks of nothing when he thinks of a woman's pro- 
mise, ii. 460, has great regard to personage, ibid, a princess of 
extreme caution, v. 198, yet loved admiration above safety, ibid, 
carried a hand restrained in gifts, but strained in prerogative, 
v. 199, had not a numerous but wise council • • • • iii. 445 
Elizabeth, princess, eldest daughter of king James, some account of 

her v. 587 

Ellesmere, lord chancellor ii. 462 


Ellesmere, lord chancellor, his relation lo the king about Coke's re- 
ports, v. 473, joint letter of him and Sir Francis Bacon concern- 
ing the lord chief justice Coke, vi. 124, 127, his exceptions to Sir 
Edward Coke's reports, and Sir Edward's answers, vi. 397, his 
letter to king James about that matter, ibid, dies, vi. 135, note(g-) 

Elm grafted >• 405 

Ely, isle of, questions to the chief justice of the king's bench about 

it, vi. 399, answers to these questions vi. 400 

Embalming of dead bodies i. 369 

Embassies, how managed by queen Elizabeth • • iii. 447, 449 

Ember-weeks, how observed formerly ii. 544 

Emissions of several kinds ii. 46, 49 

Emmanuel Comnenus poisoned the water when the Christians were 
to pass through his country to the holy land • • • ii. 50 

Empedocles the Sicilian ii. 314 

Empire, its true temper, ii. 296, 297, states liberal of naturaliza- 
tion tit for empire, ii. 326, what most imporleth empire, ii. 327, 


Employments, how a union in them desirable in kingdoms, iii. 265 

Empson, the son of a sieve-maker, v. 166, his method of extortion 

in conjunction with Dudley, v. 166, 167, 168, his book of accounts 

signed by the king v. 168, 169 

Empty coffers in a prince make the people forget their duty. iii. 464 
Enclosures, when frequent, and how guarded against • v. 61 

Enemies, common enemies of mankind iii. 491 

Enforcing a thought upon another, ii. 58, instance thereof in a jug- 
gler's tricks, ii. 59, three means by which it must be wrought, 

ii. 60 

Enginery ii. 108 

England, arguments to prove that it is not well enough peopled, 
iii. 295, was it never severed after it was united, iii. 304, its safety 
and greatness if united with Scotland, iii. 307, the external points 
wherein it stands separated and united with Scotland, iii. 274, 
the internal points, &c. iii. 277, what its name is to be after the 
union with Scotland, iii. 275, in great danger from Spain, iii. 
237, &c. an inquiry into its condition under queen Elizabeth, iii. 
47, &c. the state of it compared with others abroad, iii. 55, con- 
cerning its foreign enemies, iii. 61, its proceedings towards the 
neighbouring states censured, with an account of those proceed- 
ings, iii. 77, 79, accused as the author of troubles in Scotland 
and France, iii, 81, account of its proceedings with Spain, iii. 84, 
solicits a renewal of treaties with Spain upon queen Mary's death, 
with their answer, iii. 84, is ill used by the Spaniards, iii. 86, idly 
accused of confederating with the Turk, iii. 98, reasons to fear it 

might become subject to France iv. 334 

England compared to France, though less in territory, ii. 325, 
compared to Spain, iii. 528, compared to other state sabroad, 

iii. 55, 56, 57 

English valour remarkable iii. 522, 527 

Englishman hurt in the leg hard to cure • • • . . i. 519 

Englefield, Sir Francis, his letter to the lord keeper Bacon, vi. 176 

hned for charging the lord keeper Williams with bribery, ibid. 


note (a), his cause in chancery recommended by the marquis of 

Buckingham vi. 204, 213 

Entails of lands, how created, iv. 113, were so strengthened by a 
statute of Edward I. as not to be forfeited by attainder, iv. 114, 
the great inconvenience of this statute to the crown, ibid, these 
mischiefs prevented by later acts of parliament, iv. 114, some 
privileges still remaining to estates in tail • iv. 115 

Entry, a particular case how a property in lands may be gained by 

it iv. 100 

Envious and froward men not like dogs, licking the sores, but like 

flies and vermin ii. 281 

Envy, how most forcible in an oblique cast, ii. 57. Envy most pre- 
dominant in a man that hath no virtue, ii. 269, who are most ex- 
posed to this infirmity, ii. 270, public not so pernicious as private 
envy, ii. 272, contracted by great men's followers, ii. 370, 371, 

the canker of honour ii. 381 

Epaminondas grants that to a whore which he refused his friend, 
ii. 416, 417, a long invective against him by the Lacedaemonians, 

ii. 444, his fortune ii. 351 

Epictetus, ii. 452, his state of man ii. 243 

Epidemical diseases i. 384 

Epimenides, the Candian ii. 314 

Episcopacy commended ■ [;, • ii- 531 

Errhines draw phlegm and water from the head i. 263 

Error in law, and error in fact, what matters they constantly 

concern ..... iv. 58 

Escape of any person for treason is itself treason • • iv. 389 

Escheat, property in lands gained thereby two ways — by bastardy, 

and by attainder of felony or treason, iv. 102, two things to be 

noted in escheats — first, the tenure of the lands ; secondly, the 

manner of such attainder as draweth with it the escheat ibid. 

Escheator, his office, and whence so called • iv. 317 

Escuage, what it means, iv. 104, is due to the king from tenants in 

knight's service ibid. 

Esculent plants, i. 456, not esculent at all ibid. 

Essays, civil and moral, ii. 253. See v. 324 

Essex, earl of, said to have but one enemy and one friend, ii. 405, 
made twenty-four knights at the succour of Roan, ii. 407, his 
famous expedition to Cadiz, iii. 523, his treaty with the Irish 

rebels iii. 526 

Essex, earl of, his kindness to Sir Francis Bacon, iii. 214, &c. gives 
Bacon an estate, ibid. Sir Francis Bacon's advice to him about 
the queen, iii. 215, is dissuaded from going to Ireland, iii. 217. 
Mr. Bacon advises the queen to send for him from Ireland, iii. 
218. Bacon speaks very favourably for him to the queen, iii. 219, 
224, the queen resolves to proceed against him in the star-cham- 
ber, iii. 224, the queen seems again well disposed towards him, 
iii. 227. Bacon solicits for his being restored to his fortunes, 
ibid, papers relating to his examination, &c. at that time were 
suppressed by the queen's order, iii. 227, queen grows incensed 
against him, iii. 230. Bacon's advice to him about his conduct, 
v. 227, 233. Bacon advises him to take upon him the causes of 


Ireland, v. 224, concerning his treaty with Tyrone, about the 
Irish affairs, v. 246, advice to him about the Irish, and how he 
ought to treat them, v. 248, a declaration of his treasons, iii. 136, 
&c. highly favoured by the queen, iii. 138, his vast ambition, 
ibid, desirous of the government of Ireland, iii. 140, his method 
to persuade the queen to increase the army, ibid, makes wrong 
proposals to the queen about methods of proceeding with the re- 
bels, iii. 142, will have the power in himself of pardoning all trea- 
sons, iii. 141, 142, will not be bound by the council of Ireland, 
iii. 142, makes a fruitless journey to Munster, ibid, is for making 
a peace with the rebels, iii. 143, secret correspondence between 
him and Tyrone, ibid, several confessions against him, iii. 144, 
his design of landing an Irish army at Milford-haven, iii. 148, 
comes into England contrary to the queen's orders, iii. 150, pro- 
mises Tyrone a restitution of all their lands to the rebels, iii. 150, 
the queen's tender proceedings against him, iii. 121, 151, his de- 
sign of seizing the queen's person, and the manner how, iii. 150, 
156, 157, confers with several about the method of compassing 
his designs at Drury-house, iii. 154, what his designs were, ibid, 
is summoned to appear before the council, iii. 159, he has a de- 
sign of attempting the city, iii. 160, suspects his treasons to be 
discovered, ibid", pretends an ambuscade laid for him by Cob- 
ham and Raleigh, iii. 160, draws together a tumultuous assembly 
at Essex-house, ibid, four persons are sent to him, from the 
queen, with offers of justice, who are confined and rudely treated 
by him, iii. 161, 162, goes into the city, but nobody there joins 
with him, iii. 164, is declared a traitor in the city, iii. 165, he pre- 
tends the kingdom was to be sold to the Infanta, ibid, the reason 
of his saying so, with the foundation of this report, iii. 165, 174, 
he is blocked up by several persons in his own house, upon which 
he surrenders himself, iii. 166, 167, makes three petitions to the 
lord-lieutenant, and then surrendering, is conveyed to the Tower, 
iii. 167, the effect of what passed at his trial, iii. 168, &c. the 
charge against him, iii. 169, his defence, iii. 170, 171, the re- 
ply to his defence, iii. 171, &c. is found guilty of treason, and 
receives judgment, iii. 176, accuses Sir Henry Nevil, iii. 178, 
his execution and behaviour at it, iii. 178, 179, abstract of his 
confession, under his own hand, iii. 209, his confession to some 
clergymen, concerning the heinousness of his offence, iii. 210 
Essex, earl of, his device exhibited before queen Elizabeth, vi. 22, 
substance of a letter written to the queen for him by Mr. Francis 
Bacon, vi. 43, his letter to Mr. Bacon, vi. 4, his letter to him 
about speaking to queen Elizabeth in bis behalf, vi. 9, his two 
letters to Mr. Bacon, vi. 13, 14, his letter about a meeting with 
him, vi. 17, his letter to him before his expedition to Cadiz, 

vi. 39 
Essex, earl of, Bacon's apology in relation to him, iii. 211, v. 257 
Estates for years, how made, iv. 112. See Leases 
Estates in tail, how created, iv. 112, were not forfeitable by any at- 
tainder, 114, impediments in a man's disposing of them, iv. 182 
Eternity divided into three portions of time ii. 488 

Ethelwold, bishop of Winchester, his charity in the time of famine, 

ii, 429 


Ethics i. 131. 163 

Ethics, not to give way to politics iii. 508 

Ever-srreens, their cause i. 443 

Evil, in it the best condition not to will, the next not to can, ii. 276 
Eunuchs, dim-sighted, why, i. 478. Eunuchs envious • ii. 358 

Euphrates, the philosopher ii. 449 

Euripides, his saying of beautiful persons .... ii. 415 

Europe, state of, in 1580 iii. 3 

Exactions, some complaints concerning them removed ■ iii. 70 

Examinations in chancery not to be made by interrogations, except 

in special cases, iv. 519, 520, other cases relating to examination 

of witnesses iv. 528 

Example gives a quicker impression than argument • • iii. 467 
Excess in clothes and diet to be restrained .... iii. 4G1 

Exchequer, how to be managed iv. 504, 505 

Excommunication by the pope, not lawful to kill princes there- 
upon, iv. 443, the greatest judgment on earth, ii. 545, never to 
be used but in weighty matters, ii. 546, to be decreed by none 
but the bishop in person, assisted by other clergy, ibid, what to 

be used ordinarily instead of it ibid. 

Excrements are putrefactions of nourishment, i. 480. Excrements 
of living creatures smell ill, why, ii, 11, 12, of the three digestions, 
ibid, why some smell well, ii. 11, most odious to a creature of the 
same kind, ii. 11. 71, but less pernicious than the corruption of it, 

ii. 71 

Excrescences of plants, i. 429, et seq. two trials for excrescences, 

i. 434. Excrescences joined with putrefaction, as oak apples, 

&c. i. 435. Excrescences of roots i. 459 

Execution, the life of the laws iii. 438 

Executorship, how a property in goods is gained thereby, iv. 128, 
of what extent it is, ibid, the office of an executor, ibid, &c. his 
power before and after the probate of a will, ibid, how he may 
refuse, 129, what debts he is to pay, and in what order, iv. 129, 

any single one may execute alone iv. 130 

Exemplifications not to be made in many cases • • • iv. 525 
Exercise, i. 353, in what bodies hurtful, ibid, much not to be used 
with a spare diet, ibid, benefits of exercise, ibid, evils of exercise, 
ibid. Exercise hindercth putrefaction, i. 368, that exercise best 
where the limbs move more than the stomach or belly, i. 499. 
Exercise impinguates not so much as frictions, why, ii. 33, 34, 
no body, natural or politic, healthful without it, ii. 328, manly 

exercises commended to the court iii- 464 

Exercise, a good sort of one recommended to divines in the country, 

and in the universities ii. 542, &c. 

Exeter besieged by Perkin, prepares for a good defence v. 143 
Exeter, countess of, falsely accused by lady Lake and lady Roos, 
vi. 223, note (b), her cause in the star-chamber vi. 232, 233 
Exigent, a writ so called, what punishment follows it, iv. 108, &c. 
Exile, cases relating thereto, with the proceedings in them, iv. 300 
Exossation of fruits ii. 24 


Expect, blessings not expected increase the price and pleasure, 

r b ii. 245 

Expence, ii. 321, rules for the regulation of it • • • ibid. 

Experiments for profit } l - -12 

Extortions, how to be punished • iv. 392 

Eye of the understanding like the eye of the sense, i. 286. Eye 
thrust out of the head hanging only by the visual nerve, recovered 
si»ht, i. 390. Eyes, why both move one way, ii. 30, sight, why 
better one eye shut, ibid, some see one thing double, why, ibid, 
pore-blind men see best near hand, why, ii. 30, 31, old men at 
some distance, ii. 31. Eyes are offended by over great lights, 
ibid, by interchange of light and darkness on the sudden, ibid, 
by small print, ibid, wax red in anger, in blushing not, why, 
ii. 32, the use of fixing them in business ii. 369 


FABIUS MAXIMUS, ii. 444, was feared by Hannibal ii. 445 

Fable of Hercules and Hylas, i. 312, of the fly, ii. 379, of the 

frogs in drought ii. 236 

Facility in ministers, worse than bribery, ii. 277, to be guarded 

against ii. 376 

Factions, those who are good in them mean men, ii. 375, to govern 

by them low policy, ibid, when one is extinguished, the others 

subdivide ibid. 

Factions ought to be depressed soon, iv. 500, a remedy proposed 

by Cicero for preventing factious persons • • • ibid. 

Faith, the absurdity of an implicit one .... iv. 427, 428 
Faithful men should be rewarded as well as regarded • iii. 453 

Falkland, lord vi. 297, 317, 319 

Falling sickness, its cause and cure ii. 67 

Fame, like fire, easy to preserve, but difficult to re-kindle, ii. 460, 

like a river bearing up light things and sinking weighty ii. 472 
Fame made a monster by the poets, ii. 395, on what occasion said 

to be daughter of the earth, ii. 396, how to discern between true 

and false fames, ibid, increases virtue, as heat is redoubled by 

reflexion ii. 235 

Family of love, a heresy which came from the Dutch • iii. 60 
Fanatics, their preaching condemned, ii. 519, 520, their manner of 

handling the Scriptures, censured ii. 520 

Fascination, the opinion of it ancient, and ever by the eye, ii. 57, 

ever by love or envy ii. 269 

Fat, extracted out of flesh i. 473 

Father, his prerogative is before the king's, in the custody of his 

children iii. 362 

Favour, how to be dispensed ii. 371 

Favourites, judges should have none, ii. 384, kings and great 

princes, even the wisest, have had their favourites, iii. 430, to 

ripen their judgments and ease their cares, ibid, or to screen them- 


selves from envy, ibid, are the eyes, ears, and hands of princes, 
iii. 432, should never interpose in courts of justice, iii. 438 

Fealty was sworn to the king by every tenant in knight's service, 

iv. 104 

Fear, how it loosens the belly, and causes trembling, &c. i. 264. 
Fear, the impressions thereof, i. 490, 491, ii. 57, paleness, 
trembling, standing up of the hair, screeching, i. 490, 491. 
Fearful natures suspicious, ii. 332, just fear sufficient ground of 
war, iii. 504. Fears in dimmer lights than facts • iii. 509 

Feathers of birds, why of such fine colours, i. 246, 247, how the 
colour of them may be changed, i. 287,288, age changeth them, 
i. 287. Feathers burnt suppress the mother ii. 54 

Features and proportions improved, or altered for the worse, i. 256 

Fee-farms, what iv. 132 

Fee-simple, estates so held, iv. 116, their advantages • ibid. 

Felo de se, how to be punished, iv. 83, several cases relating thereto, 

iv. 298 

Felons, if penitent, recommended to expiate their offences in the 
mines, ii. 208. Vide ii. 335. 

Felony, if committed by a mad-man, why excuseable, but not so 
if by a man drunk, iv. 36, cases in the statute relating thereto 
explained in many instances, iv. 51, by mischance, how to be 
punished, iv. 83, other cases of felony, ibid, flying for it makes 
a forfeiture of the goods, iv. 109, several cases in which a man 
becomes guilty of it, iv. 294, 295, 296, the method of punish- 
ment, and other proceedings relating to it, iv. 296, punishment 
of it is hanging, and it is a question whether the king has power 
to change it to beheading, ibid, accessaries therein, when 
punishable or not, iv. 297, a farther account of the trial, punish- 
ment and other proceedings in it iv. 298 

Female and male in plants, i. 451, the differences of female and 
male in several living creatures, ii. 22, the causes thereof, ii. 23 

De Feodis, all laws about them are but additionals to the ancient 
civil law iii. 361 

Feoffees, cases concerning them in the statute of uses, iv. 189, 

194, &c. 

Feoffment, cases relating thereto, iv. 186, 187, 188, more cases, 
iv. 67, 69, conveyance by it in what manner performed, iv. 117 

Ferdinando, king of Naples, a bastard-slip of Arragon, v. 72, how 
he was supported by Henry VII. v. 91, his league • iii. 507 

Ferdinand, duke of Florence, his character .... v. 320 

Ferdinando, of Spain, his conjunction with Maximilian, v. 80, sends 
to Henry VII. the account of the final conquest of Granada, 
v. 85, recovers Russignion and Perpignan from the French, 
v. 89, sends Hialas, by some called Elias, into England, v. 138, 
to treat of a marriage between Arthur and Catherine ibid. 

Ferrera, plots with Lopez to poison queen Elizabeth" iii. 113, is 
discovered and committed to prison iii. 116 

Fetid smells ii. 11 

Fibrous bodies ii. 19 

Ficinus, his fond imagination of sucking blood for prolonging life, 

ii. 27 


Fig-tree improved by cutting off the top • • i. 405 

Figs in the spring, i. 402. Indian fig taketh root from its branches, 
i. 452, hath large leaves, and fruit no bigger than beans, ibid. 
Fiourable and not figurabie, plebeian notions • • • ii- 19 
Figures of plants ..•»»•••••• i. 442 

Figures or tropes in music, have an agreement with the figures of 

rhetoric i. 297, 298 

Filum Medicinah i. 272 

Finances, how to be ordered after the union of England and 

Scotland ill- 283 

Finch, Sir Henry, some account of him v. 497 

Fine, what it is, iv. 117, how conveyances are made this way, 
ibid, claim must be made in five years after proclamations issued 
in the common-pleas, or else any one loses his right herein for 
ever, ibid, some exceptions to this, ibid, is a feoffment of record, 

iv. 118 
Fines for alienations of the greatest antiquity, iv. 136, of several 

kinds ibid. 

Fir and pine-trees, why they mount i. 429 

Fire and time work the same effects, i. 351, preserve bodies, i. 369. 

fire tanneth not as the sun doth, i. 389. Fire and hot water 

heat differently, i. 474. Fires subterrany, eruptions of them 

out of plains, i. 376. Fire and air foreshew winds • ii. 6 

Fire of diseases how to be put out, ii. 68, to be extinguished as the 

Fire of a house ibid. 

Firmarius, the derivation and force of this word • • iv. 217 
Fish of the sea put into fresh water, i. 486. Fishes foreshew rain, 
ii. 8. Fishes greater than any beasts, the cause, ii. 23, 24. Shell- 
fish, some have male and female, some not ... ii. 33 

Fishery, no mineral like it iii. 455, 462 

Fitz-Gerard, Thomas, earl of Kildare, and deputy of Ireland, pro- 
claims Simnel the counterfeit Plantagenet, v. 23, 24, invades 
England in conjunction with the earl of Lincoln and lord Lovel, 

v. 30, slain in battle near Newark v. 33 

Fitz-Herbert, what, he says of fines iv. 136, 137 

Fitz-Walter, lord, supports Perkin, v. 98, John Ratcliffe, lord 
Fitz-Walter apprehended, v. 105, convicted and conveyed to 
Calais in hope, ibid, beheaded for dealing with his keeper to 

escape ibid. 

Fitz-William's case iv. 248 

Fixation of bodies i. 525 

Flame of powder, how it dilateth and moveth, i. 248. Flame and 
air mix not, i. 258, except in the spirits of vegetables, ibid, and 
of living creatures, ibid, their wonderful effects mixed, ibid, form 
of flame would be globular, and not pyramidal, i. 259, would be 
a lasting body, if not extinguished by air, ibid, mixeth not with 
air, ibid, burnetii stronger on the sides than in the midst, i. 260, 
is irritated by the air ambient, ibid, opinion of the peripatetics of 
the element of fire, ibid, preyeth upon oil, as air upon water, 
i. 286, experiments about its duration, i. 378, et seq. taketh in no 
other body into it, but converteth it, i. 527, more easy to move 
than air, ii. 6. Flame causeth water to rise, ii. 37. Flame, the 


continuance of it according to several bodies, i. 378, observation 
about going out of flame, i. 378, 379, lasting thereof in candles of 
several mixtures, i. 379, of several wicks, i. 380, in candles laid 
in bran, ibid, in lamps, ibid, where it draweth the nourishment 
far, i. 381, in a turretted lamp, ibid, where it is kept close from 
air, ibid, according to the temper of the air, i. 382, irritated by 

cold, ibid, experiment about flame ii. 37, 38 

Flammock, the lawyer, Thomas, incites the Cornish men to rebel 

against the subsidy, v. 130, is taken and executed • v. 135 

Flatterer, his words make against the man in whose behalf they are 

spoken, ii. 395, no such flatterer as a man's self, ii. 318, several 

sorts and ranks of them, ii. 378. Flattery of princes as criminal 

as drawing the sword against them iii. 432 

Fleming, Sir Thomas, lord chief justice of the king's bench, dies, 

vi. 70, and note («) 

Fleming, Adrian, the son of a Dutch brewer, made cardinal of 

Tortosa, v. 60, preceptor to Charles V. and pope • ibid. 

Flemings, v. 66, 71, 83, 87, 104, 127, call the treaty at Windsor, 

made between Henry VII. and Philip, king of Castile, intercursus 

malus, v. 179. England a back of steel to the Flemings, iii. 510, 

their comparative strength iii. 529 

Flesh, human, its venomous quality, i. 254. Flesh dissolved into 
fat, i. 473. Flesh edible and not edible, ii. 26, the causes of 
each, ibid, horse's flesh sometimes eaten, 27, man's flesh like- 
wise, i. 254, ii. 26, said to be eaten by witches • • ii. 27 
Flies in excess, why a sign of a pestilential year • • i. 500 

Flight of birds, why the swiftest motion i. 474 

Flint laid at the bottom of a tree, why it helpeth the growth, 

i. 397, 398 

Float and refloat of the sea ii. 47 

Flowers smell best whose leaves smell not, i. 386, how to enlarge 
flowers, and increase their odours, i. 397, et seq. Flowers 
growing amongst the corn, and no where else, i. 412, to have 
flowers open at the sun's approach very obvious, i. 414. Flow- 
ers, inscription of them on trees, i. 420, to induce colour into 
flowers, i. 421. Flowers, how made double, i. 423, to make 
them double in fruit-trees, ibid. Flowers, all exquisitely figured, 
i. 443, numbers of their leaves, ibid. Flowers in gardens, 

ii. 363 

Fly, the fable of it ii. 379 

Flying in the air of a body unequal, i. 521, of a body supported 

with feathers ii. 36 

Foliambe, Francis • vi. 206 

Folietanes, feeding on leaves, a religious order, why put down by 

the pope i. 266 

Followers and friends, ii. 370, costly ones make the train longer 
than the wings, ibid, their several denominations ii. 370, 371 

Fomentation, or bath ii. 225 

Food, the selling of that which is unwholesome, or at unreasonable 

rates, how to be punished iv. 393 

Force, all oppressions thereby how to be punished • iv. 392 
Foreign plants, i. 437, 438, how best removed i. 454 


Foresight, the wisdom of it » v. 458 

Forest and chases, much good land recoverable from them, hi. 454 
Forfeitures, how a property in goods is gained thereby ■ iv. 128 
Forfeitures, or fines, not to be anticipated or farmed out, iii. 464 
Forgiveness is natural to generous minds .... iv. 396 
Forma pauperis, when to be admitted as a proper plea iv. 525 

Forming of parts in young creatures i. 256 

Formalist worse for business than an absurd man • • ii. 314 
Fornication, the guilt and odiousness of it represented • ii. 107 
Fortescue, Sir John, under-treasurer and chancellor of the ex- 
chequer iv. 154, vi. 40 

Fortitude, the true notions of it are lost, iv. 402, distinguishes 
rightly between the grounds of quarrels .... ibid. 

Fortune, like a market ii. 304 

Fortune, ii. 350, though blind is not invisible, ibid, confidence and 

reputation the daughters of Fortune ii. 351 

Fortunes, inequality between those of England and Scotland, iii. 298 
Fossils, how they differ from plants, i. 450, their many medicinal 

uses i. 486 

Foundations and gifts ii. 340 

Fountains, with regard to the beauty and refreshment in gardens, 

ii. 366 

Fowle, Mr. vi. 200 

Fowls, water-fowls foreshew rain ....... ii. 7 

Fowlys, Sir David, some account of him • • v. 272, note (J) 
Fox, bishop of Exeter, made counsellor to Henry VII. v. 17, made 
lord privy-seal, and successively bishop of Bath and Wells, 
Durham, Winchester, ibid, sent on embassage to James III. of 
Scotland, v. 36, one of the commissioners of trade, v. 127, his 
great diligence in opposing the king of Scots, v. 137, takes a 
journey to Scotland about the breach of truce, v. 151, his cha- 
racter, v. 162, the main instrument of the marriage between the 
lady Margaret and the king of Scots, v. 165, concludes the 
match between Charles prince of Castile, and Mary second 

daughter of Henry VII. v. 184 

Fragil bodies, ii. 16. Fragility, its cause ii. 17 

France, its flourishing state, v. 36. Vide Charles VIII. 
France, the union of its duchies, &c. iii. 259,260, king of, changes 
his religion, iii. 236, its afflicted condition • • • iii. 55 
Francis, duke of Britany, loses his memory, and is under the direc- 
tion of the duke of Orleans, v. 42, his death after his army was 

beaten v. 53 

Francis I. ii. 412, his noble nature ii. 430 

Francis, Matthew, serjeant at arms, has a quarrel with Mr. 

Colles vi. 380 

Franckalmoigne, a sort of tenure, iv. 235, its origin and dignity, 


Frauds, how to be punished iv. 392 

Freedoms, of four kinds among the Romans, iii. 265, how to be 

managed after the union of England and Scotland • iii. 284 

Freeholders of some manors, do hold by suit of court • iv. 108 

French disease, its supposed original i. 254 


Frenchmen hurt in the head, hard to cure, i. 519, wiser than they 

seem ii. 313 

French king's titles, how they rival the emperor's • . . ». 239 

Friction, a furtherer of nourishment, i. 272, why it maketh the parts 

more fleshy, ii. 33, why it impinguateth more than exercise, 

ii. 34 
Friends ought not to be forgiven, according to Cosmos duke of Flo- 
rence, ii. 261, 262, the world a wilderness without Friends, ii. 315, 
the manifold fruits of Friendship, ii. 317, 318, 319, 320, a false 
friend more dangerous than an open enemy • • • iii. 431 

Friendship ii. 314 

Frier Bacon's illusion • i. 510 

Frion, Stephen, secretary in the French tongue to Henry VII. v. 95, 

gained by lady Margaret, v. 96, deserts Perkin • • v. 142 

Frogs in excess, why a sign of a pestilential year, i. 499, 500, the 

fable of the frogs in a drought ii. 236 

Fruits, causes of their maturation, i. 358, several instances thereof, 
i. 359, 360, 361, the dulcoration thereof by other means, ii. 26. 
Fruit cut or pierced, rots sooner, i. 365, inlarged, how, 397, et 
seq. Fruit pricked as it groweth, ripens sooner, i. 403, made 
fairer by plucking off some blossoms, ibid. Fruit tree grafted 
upon a wild tree, i. 404. Fruit, why dulcorated by applying of 
swine's-dung, i. 407, also by chaff and swine's-dung mingled, 
i. 408, enlarged by being covered with a pot, as it groweth, ibid. 
Fruits compound, i. 410, 411. Fruits of divers kinds upon one 
tree, i. 419. Fruits of divers shapes and figures, ibid. Fruits 
with inscriptions upon them, i. 420. Fruits that are red within, 
i. 422. Fruits coming twice a year, i. 439. Fruits made with- 
out core or stone, i. 424. Trees with and without flowers and 
fruits, i. 444, preserved, how, i. 455, 456. Fruits that have 
juices fit and unfit for drink, i. 458. Fruits ssveet before they be 
ripe, i. 461, which never sweeten, ibid. Fruit blossoming hurt 

by south winds i. 467 

Fuel consuming little i. 515 

Fuel consuming fast, i. 516. Fuel cheap ibid. 

Full of the moon, several effects of it, ii. 39, 40, trials for farther 

observations ibid. 

Fullerton, Sir James, letter to him from the lord-keeper Bacon, 

vi. 186 

Fumes taken in pipes ii. 52 

Fumitory, a preservative against the spleen i. 478 


GABATO, Sebastian, a native of Venice living at Bristol, v. 149, 
his reflections on the discoveries of Columbus, ibid, obtaining 
a ship manned of Henry VII. the course he steered • v. 150 

Gad-fly i. 481 

Gage, Mr. vi. 24J, 353, 356 

Gagvien, prior of Trinity in France, his speech to the council of 
Henry VII. v. 69, disperses a libel in Latin verse against the 

king at his going home v. 77 

vol. vi. 2 H 


Galba, ii. 434, 256, 289, was thought fit for government till he had 

power 1I - 2 7 8 

Galen, his cure for the schirrhus of the liver • • • • i. 417 

Galeot slain v. 53 

Galileeus, his opinion of the ebbing and flowing of the sea i. 522 

Galileo vi. 93, vi. 217 

Galley-slave, why generally fleshy • i. 499 

Gaol delivery, the course of executing it, iv. 93, the office of 

gaolers iv. 318 

Game, destroying of it, how to be punished • • ■ • iv. 393 

Gaping, a motion of imitation • i. 352 

Garcilazzo de Viega, descended of the race of the Incaes, 

iii. 489 
Gardens, ii. 363, for all months in the year .... ibid. 

Gardiner, bishop, ii. 425, a saying of his iv. 365 

Gardiner, Sir Robert, a commendation of him • • • iv. 50L 

Garments, of what plants they be made i. 453 

Garners, under ground, the best preservatives of corn • i. 368 

Garter, order of v. 91 

Gaston de Fois ii. 355 

Gathering of wind for freshness i. 516 

Gavelkind, a custom in Kent, iv. 100. Gavelkind land is not 

escheatable for felony iv. 110, 111 

Gaul, a nation of, made capable of bearing offices, &c. in Rome, 

iii. 263 
Gaunt, the honourable retreat there by Sir John Norris • iii. 516 

Gawen, Sir John vi. 197 

General words, that they ought not to be stretched too far in in- 
tendments, is a good rule in law iv. 22 

Generations, history of i. 77 

Generation opposed to corruption, i. 364, they are nature's two 

boundaries ibid. 

Generating of some creatures, at set times only, of some at all 

times, i. 507, the cause of each ibid. 

Genius over-mastering ii. 56 

Geometry • • i. 108 

George, order of Saint, should do more than robe and feast, iii. 473, 


Georgics of the mind i. 164 

Gerrard, Sir Thomas, vi. 177, recommended by the marquis of 

Buckingham to the lord chancellor vi. 254 

German mines having vegetables in the bottom . . . j, 437 

Germany, its state considered iii. 56 

Germination of plants accelerated by several means, i. 391, 392, 
393, 394, retarded by several means, '••■{. 365, 396 

Giddiness why, after long sitting i. 499 

Gift, property gained thereby, when valid, and when void, 

iv. 125 
Glass, why pressure upon the lip of it makes the water frisk, 

i. 247, 248 

Glass, the materials thereof in Venice, i, 513. Glass out of the 

sand, i. 517. Glass whether remolten it keepeth weight i. 526 


Glass, bow to be improved i. 517 

Globes at a distance appearing flat ii. 34 

Glocester, statute of, relating to wastes of timber-trees, and pro- 
perty in them explained iv. 216, 224 

Glow-worms shine longer than they live, i. 370. Glow-worm, its 
nature and properties, i. 490. Glow-worms put in glasses under 

the water, their use i. 509 

God, how many ways he is dishonoured in his church, iv. 384, 
385, he only is eternal, ii. 481, is Father, Son, and Spirit, ibid, 
his design of uniting his Son to man, and the wonderfulness of 
that dispensation, ii. 482, resolved to create the world, ibid, cre- 
ated all things good at first, ibid, governs all things by his pro- 
vidence, ii. 483, revealed his will, in different degrees and man- 
ners, at different times ii. 484 

Godfrey, bishop of Luca vi. 81 

Godfrey's case vi. 400, 404 

Gold, the making of it, i. 361, a work if possible, yet not rightly 
pursued, ibid, discourse of a stranger touching the making of it, 
i. 362, directions for the making of it. i. 363, directions of a trial, 
i. 363, 364, several properties of Gold, ibid. Gold hath in it 
the least volatile of any metal, i. 525, the making Gold scarcely 
possible, ii. 191, will incorporate with quicksilver, lead, copper, 

brass, iron ii. 197 

Gondomar, count de, his resentment against Sir Walter Raleigh, 
vi. 202, insulted by the apprentices of London, ibid, and note (a) 
sends his compliments to the lord chancellor, vi. 243, writes a 
letter to his lordship, vi. 287, letters to him from lord St. Alban, 
vi. 287, 344, 347, a great friend of his lordship, in no credit 
with the prince of Wales or duke of Buckingham • • vi. 354 
Gondomar, his tale when our author was advanced to the great seal, 
ii. 422, 423. Vide ii. 461, 462. 

Gonsalvo, his character of a soldier ii. 416 

Goodere, Sir Henry vi. 91, 117 

Goodness of nature, ii. 280, has no excess but error, ibid, the seve- 
ral signs or symptoms of it • ii. 281, 282 
Goods stolen, if forfeited to the crown by felony, &c. cannot be 

recovered by the owner iv. 126 

Gordon, Catherine, married to Perkin, v. 122, her commendations, 
v. 146, taken and sent to the queen, and had an honourable al- 
lowance ibid. 

Gorge, his confession relating to lord Essex's treason, iii. 188, 189, 

another confession 190 

Gorgias - • ii. 56 

Goths, &c. their descent upon Rome iii. 308 

Government, its four pillars, ii. 285. Vide ii. 375, its charter of 
foundation, iii. 485, they who cannot govern themselves not fit 
to govern others ...•...-••»• iii. 453 
Government, four original causes thereof, iv. 323, &c. heredetary, 
iv. 325, good ones compared to fair crystals, iv. 499, that ob- 
servable in the great universe, a proper pattern for government 

in state, iii 259. all kinds of it lawful ii. 529 

2 h2 


Gout, order in curing it in twenty-four hours, i. 272, 273. Vide 
ii. 225, mineral bath prescribed for its cure . • • i. 521 
Grafting of roses, i. 396, 397, a late coming fruit upon an early 
fruit tree, i. 395, 396, 397. Grafts in great plenty • ■ i. 400 
Grafting, whence it meliorateth the fruit, i. 404, some trees come 
better from the kernel than the Graft, ibid. Grafting of trees 
that bear no fruit, enlargeth the leaves, i. 409. Grafting of se- 
veral kinds maketh not compound fruits, i. 410, doubleth flowers, 
but maketh not a new kind, ibid. Grafting vine upon vine, 

i. 468, 4G9 

Grains of youth n- 217 

Grammar-schools, the inconveniences of a great number of them, 

iii. 392 
Granada, almost recovered from the Moors, v. 73, the final con- 
quest of it. v. 85, had been in possession of the Moors 700 years, 

v. 86 

Grandison, viscount v |- 363 

Granicum, battle of h. 440 

Grants of the king are not to be construed, and taken to a special 
intent, iv. 47, of a common person, how far to be extended, ibid. 
A distinction made between them and declarations, iv. 53, does 
not prove the lessee's property in timber-trees, iv. 47, several 
cases relating to them, iv. 441, 442, some rules concerning the 
staying them, as proper or not so iv. 489, 490 

Grapes, how they may be kept long i. 456, 464 

Graziers, why they remove their cattle from mean to better pas- 
tures i. 401 

Gravity, its increase and decrease, i. 260, 261, motion of gravity 
within or at distance from the earth, i. 261. Vide i. 510, opinion 

of moving to the centre, a vanity i. 261 

Gray, lord, takes the Spaniard's fort in Ireland • • • iii. 515 
Great Britain, the beginning of a history thereof • v. 196 

Great offices and officers iii. 445 

Greatness of kingdoms, i. 322, how advanced • • • ii. 328 
Greatness, comparative of living creatures • • • n. 23, 24 

Greece a valiant and free nation vi. 405 

Green, the general colour of plants i. 422 

Greencloth, court of, ordained for the provision of the king's house- 
hold iii. 252, 4G2 

Greenness in some plants all winter, whence ••••!. 443 
Grenvil, Sir Richard, his memorable action in the Revenge, against 

the Spanish fleet iii. 522, 523 

Gregory the Great, why traduced by Machiavel • • • ii. 389 
Greville, Sir Fulke, fin account o f him, v. 361, chancellor of the 
exchequer, vi. 23>». See Brooke. 

Grief and pain, the impressions thereof i. 491 

Grindal, his ce^nre cf physicians • .... -ii. 431, 432 
Groves of bays hinder pestilent airs, ii. 54, the cause of the whole- 
some air of Antiochia . . * ibid. 

Growing of certain fruits and herbs after they are gathered, whence, 
i- "2o7, trial whether they increase in weight, ibid. Growing cr 
multiplying of metals i. 524 


Growth of hair, nails, hedges, and herbs, in the moon's increase, 

ii. 39 

Guiney-pepper causeth sneezing ii. 51 

Guise, Henrv, duke of, in what sense the greatest usurer in France, 

ii. 435 

Guise, family of, many troubles in England and Scotland owing to 

them, iii. 81, &c. England assists France several times against 

the faction of this house, iii. 82, 83, duke of, is beheaded by 

Henry III. of France, iii. 83, a saying concerning the duke of 

Guise's liberality iii. 214 

Gum of trees, the cause of its shining .... i. 246 

Gum dissolves both by fire and water ii. 16 

Gum-dragon i. 519 

Gun-powder, the cause of the great noise ityieldeth, i. 258, white, 
whether it giveth no sound i. 301, 302 


HACKET, a fanatical disturber of the church, iii. 61, his execu- 
tion • ibid. 

Hair coloured black by the Turks, i. 501. Hairs of beasts not so 
fresh colours as birds' feathers, i. 246. How the colour of them 
may be changed, i. 287. Hair on the head of children new* 
born, whence, i. 473, standing erect in a fright, whence, i. 490. 
Hair changing colour, ii. 22. Hair of the party beloved worn, 

exciteth love • ii. 74 

Hanaper of the chancery, what it included .... iv. 133 
Hands have a sympathy with the head and other parts • i. 289 
Hannibal's character of Fabius and Marcellus • • ii. 444, 445 

Hanno and Hannibal ii. 445 

Hansbeys, their cause in chancery • • • vi. 198, and note (c) 

Hard substances in the bodies of living creatures, most about the 

head, i. 504, some of them stand at a stay, some continually 

grow, i. 504, all of them without sense but the teeth • ibid. 

Hard bodies, their cause ii. 18 

Harper, Sir John vi. 177 

Hatching of eggs i. 508 

Hatton, lady, removes her daughter, to prevent her being married 

to Sir John Villiers vi. 161 (note a) 

Haughton, Sir Richard vi. 178 

Hawkins, Sir John, his unfortunate death by sickness in the West 

Indies iii. 527 

Haws and hips in store, portend cold winters • • • • i. 500 
Hay, Sir Alexander, his queries about the office of constables, with 

answers iv. 309 

Hay ward, Dr. committed to the Tower, for the history of the depo- 
sition of king Richard II. ii. 405, stolen from Cornelius Tacitus, 

ii. 406 
Head, its sympathy with the feet, i. 288, 289, local motion conti- 
nued after the head struck off, whence i. 389, 390 
Health, regimen of it, ii. 330, interrupted by sudden change of 
diet, ii. 331, cheerfulness a great preservative of it, ibid, how 
consulted by the situation of buildings .... jj. 337 


Health of the nation remarkable in queen Elizabeth's time ill. 50 

Healthful airs oft-times without scent n. 46 

Hearing hath more immediate operation upon the manners and spi- 
rits of men than the other senses, whence, i. 298, its hindrances 
and helps,!. 347, why hindered by yawning, ibid, helped by 
holding the breath, ibid, instruments to help hearing, ibid. Hear- 
ing causeth horror, i. 484. Hearing more offended by some ob- 
jects, than the eye by ungrateful sights i. 344, 345 
Heart of an ape worn, increaseth audacity, as reported, &c. ii. 70 

Heat and cold • ... ii. 177 

Heat and cold, nature's two hands, i. 277. Heat the chiefest 
power in nature, i. 291, how to make trial of the highest operation 
of it, ibid. Heat and time work the like effects, i. 292, 351, 
their different operations in many things, i. 351, 474, 475. Heat 
more tolerable under the line than on the skirts of the torrid zone, 
i. 388. Heat, being qualified by moisture, the effect, i. 475. Heat 
causeth the differences of male and female, ii. 23, other differences 
thereupon, ib. tempered with moisture, ib. the several effects of 
heat in the sun, fire, and living creatures, ii. 25. Heat and cold 
have a virtual transition without communication of substance, 
ii. 29. Heat within the earth, ii. 36, greater in winter than sum- 
mer, ibid, trial of drawing it forth by the moon-beams, ii. 38. 
Heats under the equinoctial, less than under the torrid zones, three 

causes thereof • i. 388, 389 

Heath, Robert, made solicitor-general • • • • vi. 271, 297 
Heathen opinion, touching generation of creatures perfect by con- 
cretion, refelled ii. 42 

Heavenly bodies, their influences ii. 38, 48 

Hebrews ii. 99 

Hector, Dr., his prescription to the dames of London • ii. 246 

Hedgehog's flesh, its virtue ii. 70 

Heirs are bound, by the acts of their ancestors, if named, iv. 100, 
charged for false plea, iv. 101, the great favour of our law to- 
wards them iv. 183 

Helena, her lover quitted Juno and Pallas .... ii. 274 
Heliotropia, the causes of its opening and shutting, or bending to- 
wards the sun i. 414 

Helwise, Sir Gervase, his declaration concerning Mr. Overbury's 
death, iv. 460, lieutenant of the Tower, vi. 107, note (e), disco- 
vered to be concerned in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, 

vi. 107, 108 

Hemlock causeth easy death i. 461 

Hemp and flax, the great use of planting them • • • iii. 455 

Henry II. of England ii. 299 

Henry III. of France, is stabbed before the walls of Paris, by a jaco- 
bin friar, iv. 422, is murdered, ibid, the revenge of his death, 

ii. 262 

Henry IV. of France, his question to the count of Soissons, ii. 404, 

is called the king of faith, ii. 405, the best commander of his 

time, iii. 518, much praised, iv. 422, is murdered • • • ibid. 

Henry II. and m. of England, some troubles of their reign men- 

u tloned Tr iii. 48, 49 

Henry IV. of England, extolled by the prior of Trinity, v. 72. 


Story of the first year of his reign published, and dedicated to 
lord Essex, which offends the queen, iii. 221, is deposed and 

murdered .... ijj. 175 

Henry V. of England, his remarkable success • • • iii. 49 
Henry VI. of England, slain by the hands of Richard III. v. 5 
Henry VII. of England, his history,». 299, in his greatest business 
imparted to few, ii. 302, his device to improve England, ii. 325, 
stout and suspicious to a great degree, ii. 332, what Henry VI. 
said of him, ii. 342, styled earl of Richmond before his accession 
to the crown, v. 5, caused Te Deum to be sung on the place of 
his victory, ibid, his three titles to the crown, v. 7, depresses the 
title of the house of York, v. 9, disperses the fears of the people 
by his peaceable march to London, v. 10, sparing of creations 
when crowned, v. 12, institutes yeomen of his guard, ibid, sum- 
mons a parliament, v. 13, his attainder how mentioned by the 
judges, y. 14, his marriage more solemnized than bis entry or 
coronation, v. 17, successful and secure, ibid, punishes the rebels 
by fines and ransoms, v. 34, obtains from the pope the qualifying 
of sanctuaries, v. 35, 36, his conduct in the affair of Britainy, 
v. 37, his schemes therein too fine to be fortunate, v. 37, 
38, great affairs being too stubborn to be wrought upon by points 
of wit, v. 45, calls a parliament, 40, recommends laws against 
riots, v. 50, and to encourage trade and manufactures, ibid, passes 
several good laws, v. 55, 56, retrenches the privileges of the 
clergy, v. 56, serves himself by intimacy with Adrian de Castello, the 
pope's legate, v. 59, barters laws for treasure, being one of the 
best lawgivers, v. 60, improves the military force, v. 63, de- 
mands the title and tribute from France, v. 76, his speech to his 
parliament, v. 78, proposes to try his right for the crown of 
France, ibid, receives from the king and queen of Spain letters, 
containing particulars of the final conquest at Granada, v. 85, 
draws together a puissant army, and lands at Calais, v. 87, 88, 
invests Boloign and makes peace, v. 89, notifies his gainful peace 
to the mayor and aldermen of London, v. 90, general clamour 
against the king, v. 98, his diligence in tracing Perkin's history, 
v. 100, has his own spies cursed publicly at St. Paul's, v. 101, 
the probable reasons of his distaste against Sir William Stanley, 
v. 109, the king pestered with swarms of libels, the females of se- 
dition, v. 110, crushes money from his subjects by his penal laws, 
v. Ill, enters into a league in defence of Italy, v. 114, a reward 
promised for killing or taking the king by Perkin's proclamation, 
r. 125, the king's wars were always a mine of treasure to him, 
v. 128, creates bannerets after the victory at Blackheath, v. 135, 
demands of the Scots to have Perkin delivered, v. 139, con- 
stantly named in the Italian league before Ferdinando, v. 115, ex- 
erts his utmost force to secure Perkin, when we had got him on 
English ground, v. 144, enters the city of Exeter joyfully, and 
gave ihem his sword, v. 146, takes Perkin out of sanctuary, on 
promise of life, v. 147, rebuilds the palace of Shene, v. 149, as- 
signs a ship manned to Gabato, to discover unknown parts, ibid, 
how the king missed the first discovery, v. 150, makes peace 
with the king of Scots, v. 152, has a third son born, named Ed- 


mund, who soon died, ibid, passes over to Calais, and has an in- 
terview with the archduke, v. 157, summoned by the pope to the 
holy war, v. 159, creates Henry prince of Wales, v. 164, his bar- 
barous usa<*e of the earl of Oxford, one of his principal servants in 
war and peace, v. 168, had scarce any parliament without an act 
against riots and retainers, v. 172, subsidy and benevolence in 
one year without war or fear of any, ibid, his treatment of the 
king of Castile, forced to put in at Weymouth, v. 177, 178, 179, 
solicitous to have Henry VI. canonized, v. 181, marries his se- 
cond daughter, Mary, to Charles prince of Castile, afterward em- 
peror, ibid, his death, v. 184, his character and benefactions, 
v. 185, laws and justice prevailed in his time, except where he 
was party, v. 186, 187, his reputation abroad greater than at 
home, v. 188, born at Pembroke castle .... v. 193 

Henry VIII. of England, his birth, v. 77, receives the pension or 
tribute from France, v. 89, his eminent distinguishing qualities, v. 
194, learned, but short of his brother Arthur, ibid, his felicity 
upon his succession, v. 194, 195, his confederacy with Francis I. 
and Charles V. iii. 507 

Henry, prince, insolence of Sir Thomas Overbury to him, vi. 98, 
his death imputed to the earl of Somerset, vi. 99, Mr. Bacon's 
Latin eulogium on him, and its translation vi. 58, 61, 

Henry II. last king of France of value, except Henry IV. vi. 362 

Heraclitus, ii. 417, styled the obscure, ii. 446, a dark saying of his, 

ii. 318, v. 320 

Herbs made tenderer, i. 406, removed from beds into pots prosper 
better, ibid, grow sweeter by cutting off the first sprout, whence, 
i. 407, inquiry whether they can be made medicinable, and how, 
i. 417, four designations of it, i. 418, their ordinary colours, 
i. 420,421. Herbs growing out of the water without roots, i. 436, 
growing out of the top of the sea without roots, ibid, growing 
out of snow, ibid, growing out of stone, i. 437, growing in the 
bottoms of mines, ibid, none growing out of the sea sands, ibid. 
Herbs dying yearly, i. 440, that last many years, ibid, the largest 
last not longest, as the largest trees do, why, i. 441, fable of an 
herb in the likeness of a lamb, i. 452. Herbs which shew the 
nature of the ground, i. 466. Herbs which like to be watered 
with salt-water, i. 471. Herbs that foreshew rain • • ii. 8 

Hercules, i. 312, unbinds Prometheus ii. 262 

Heresy, cases relating thereto, and the punishment of it, iv. 301, 
one great occasion of it ii. 510 

Herlackendeti's case, relating to the inheritance of timber trees, 

iv. 219, &c. 

Hermogenes, the rhetorician, an instance of an early ripeness and 
hasty fading ii. 356 

Herons' high flights foreshew wind ii. 7 

Hetherington's declaration concerning lord Essex's treason, iii. 187 

Hialas, Peter, a Spaniard, occasions the marriage between the two 
crowns .... v. 138 

Hiccup, why removed by sneezing, i. 746, means to cease it, ibid. 

Hiero visited by Pythagoras, ii. 446, his question to Simonides, 

ii. 447 


High-constable. See Constable. 

Highways presentable • • iv. 393 

Hills with night-caps on in Wales ii. 6 

Hill's and Graunger's case iv. 248 

Hippocrates, his rule about the garment worn next the flesh, i. 270, 
his aphorism touching diseases contrary to complexion, age, &c. 
i. 275, his prognostics upon the seasons of the year, i. 384, says, 
Athens is mad, and Democritus only sober • • • iii. 480 

Hippocrates's sleeve i. 247 

Hippophagi, the Scythians so called ii. 27 

History, general division of, i. 76. Natural history, i. 77. Civil 

history, i. 80. Appendices to history i. 88 

History of England, observation on the defects, &c. thereof, v. 294, 

of Henry VII. commended ibid. 

Hobart, Sir Henry, vi. 70, and note (b), vi. 83, 189, 226, likely 

to die vi. 269 

Holland cheese ii. 39 

Homage, vowed to the king by every tenant by knight's service, 
iv. 104, how performed, ibid, importeth continuance in the blood, 

iv. 218 
Homicide, how many ways it may be committed, iv. 294, thought 
justifiable only in one case by the Romans, iv. 405, how distin- 
guished by the law of God, ibid, law about it • • v. 55,56 
Honesty of life, breaches of it how presentable, and of what kind, 

iv. 391 

Honey, i. 453, 455, ii. 20, several ways how it is used, ii. 20, a 

wine of honey, ii. 21. Honey of the box-tree • • ii. 20 

Honey-dews upon certain leaves and flowers • • i. 416, 453 

Honour, the place of virtue ii. 278 

Honour and reputation, ii. 381. Honour hath three advantages, ii. 
345, the degrees of sovereign honour, ii. 381, of honour in sub- 
jects, ii. 382, the spur to virtue, ii. 246. Honour of the judge 

is the king's honour iii. 438, 439 

Honour, Consalvo's saying upon it iv. 408 

Hops, broom, poculent herbs i. 457 

Horns, i. 504. Horned beasts have no upper teeth • • i. 505 
Horse, every tenant by knight's service is obliged to keep one for 

the king's use iv. 103 

Horses, English, excel in strength and swiftness • • iii. 455 

Horses' flesh eaten, ii. 27. Horses' tooth hath the mark of their 

age, i. 506. Sea-horse tooth ring good for the cramp ii. 67 

Hornsby, Francis vi. 206 

Hortensius, his character to the life ii. 356 

Hospitals, how frequently they are abused to ill purposes, iii. 388, 
ill effects of very large ones, iii. 390, are best managed in Lon- 
don, and why they are so, ibid, the good effects of them in pre- 
venting beggars, iii. 391, are not an adequate remedy for sup- 
porting the poor v. 506 

Hostility, how many ways hindered from being put in execution, 

when it is between nations iii. 230 

Hot bread, its odour nourishing ii. 54 

Houghton, Sir Robert, some account of him • • v. 340, 341 


Houghton, Sir Gilbert, his patent stayed at the seal • • vi. 81 
Household expenses, king James's way of retrenching them, v. 489, 
letter of kin« James relating to them, ibid, a draught of the sub- 
commission relating thereto • • v. 492 

House of peers a court of judicature, iii. 443, of commons cannot 

administer an oath iii. 444 

Howard, Henry, earl of Northampton, lord privy seal, &c. ii. 408, 

409, his answer to the Dutch minister ii. 426 

Howard, earl of Nottingham, some account of him • v. 4(57, 468 

Huddy, John and Richard vi. 192 

Hukeley, Thomas, his cause recommended by the earl of Bucking- 
ham to the lord keeper Bacon vi. 179 

Humours, ill lodged, very dangerous i. 276 

Hundred, division of the counties into them, and the occasion 
thereof, iv. 85, 86. Hundred courts, to whom granted at the 
first, iv. 87, lord of the hundred is to appoint two high-consta- 
bles and a petty one ibid. 

Hundson, John, baron of vi. 83 

Hunt. John vi. 192 

Huntingdon, earl of vi. 177 

Husbands affected by their wives breeding, ii. 72, who made good 

ones • ii. 268 

Husbandry in many particulars iii. 454, 455 

Hutton, is made judge of the common pleas • • iv. 507, vi. 189 
Huttou, Luke, personated by lady R.oos .... vi. 241 

Hydraulics i. 294 

Hvlas, Hercules's page, the fable of him i. 312 

Hypocrites, the greatest atheists ii. 291 

I— J. 

JAMES I. compares his speech to a mirror, ii. 401, 402, com- 
pares himself and parliament to husband and wife, where jealousy 
is pernicious, ii. 402, desires the country gentlemen should not 
livelong in London, ii. 461, is calumniated by Mr. Oliver St. 
John, in some papers, iv. 434, 438, a short character of him, iv. 
435,436, his great clemency, iv. 441, his book to his son, touch- 
ing the office of a king, commended, iv. 498, his book very sea- 
sonably wrote, v. 200, 280, commendation of his reign in seve- 
ral instances, iii. 405, a farther account of the king, v. 284, 
erects a monument to queen Elizabeth, v. 293, farther commenda- 
tion of his reign, 513, he moderates in the dispute between the 
bishops and dissenters, at Hampton-court, v. 295, he keeps the 
fifth of August as a holy-day, on account of his delivery from Gow- 
ry's conspiracy, v. 505, is censured by Le Clerc for neglecting to 
take care of Lord Bacon, while he preferred other worthless per- 
sons, v. 570, 571, apprehensive of being taxed by the earl of 
Somerset on his trial, vi. 96, and note (a), his apostilles on the 
heads of the charge against the earl of Somerset, vi. 97, 99, in- 
quires into the poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury, vi. 108, goes 
to Scotland, vi. 137, note (a), holds a parliament in Scotland, vi. 


151, his answer to a letter of the lordkeeper, vi. 161, angry with 
his lordship and the attorney-general, vi. 166, 167, 169, 171 
promises to forgive his lordship, vi. 172, his remark on lord Ba- 
con's Novum Organum, vi. 253, note (c), looks over the manu- 
script of his lordship's history of the reign of king Henry VII. vi. 
303, memorial of lord Bacon's access to his majesty, vi. 329, 
letters to him from lord viscount St. Alban, vi. 387, 388, his let- 
ter to the judges of England about Sir Edward Coke's reports in 

prejudice of his prerogative vi. 409 

James III. of Scotland, slain at Baunocksbourn ... v. 59 

James IV. wholly at the devotion of France, v. 80, married to 

Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry VII. . v. 165 

Jason of Thessaly • • ii. 451 

Jasper earl of Pembroke, uncle to Henry VII. v. 12, made duke 
of Bedford at the coronation, ibid, commands the army against 
the lord Lovel, v. 18, made general again, v. 30, 31, for the 

French expedition v. 88 

Jaundice, whence the difficulty of curing it proceeds • ii. 77 

Jail, a most pernicious smell, and next to the plague, ii. 49, 50, 

judges and others died by that pernicious infection • ibid. 

Idolatry, degrees of it, iii. 477, doth not dissolve government, 

iii. 486 

Idols, four sorts of ii. 154 

Jest, what matters ought to be privileged from it • ii. 333, 334 
Jest, goods taken in jest, and sold in a market, may give a pro- 
perty iv. 126 

Jesuit's precept ii. 306 

Jewel, bishop of Salisbury, his death, with an idle report relating 

to his last words iii. 102 

Jews-ear, its strange property and use, i. 433, a putrefaction i. 478 
Ignorant man, or coward, ought not to be a judge • • ii. 386 
Image, whether it might be seen without seeing the glass, i. 509, 


Image of God iii. 485 

Imagination the force of it, i. 523. Imagination exalted, ii. 44, 
force of it upon the body of the imagination, by inspiring industry, 
ii. 45, three cautions about the same, ii. 46, 47, worketh most 
upon weak persons, ii. 44. Imagination, the kinds of it, ii. 58, 
the force of it upon another body, ibid, several instances of it, 
ii. 59, et in seq. an instance thereof by a pair of cards, ii. 59, 
three means to impose a thought, ii. 60, 61, designations for trial 
of the operations in this kind, ii. 62, to work by one that hath a 
good opinion of you, ii. 63, to work by many, ibid, means to 
preserve imagination in the strength, ibid, it worketh more at 
some times than others, ibid, it hath most force upon the lightest 
motions, ii. 64, 73, effect of the senses, i. 523. Imagination 

imitating the imitations of nature i. 245 

Imbezzling of the king's plate, &c. strictly to be punished, iv. 391 

Imitation in men and other creatures, a thing to be wondered at, 

i. 335, several motions in men of imitation, i. 352. Imitation a 

globe of precepts ii. 276 

Impeachment must be upon oath and presentment • • iv. 382 


Impetitio, what is meant by it, iv. 226, is distinguished from impe- 

dimentum 1 lv> 22 ^ 

Impostors and pirates not to be protected . . • • v. 104 
Imposture by counterfeiting the distance of voices • • 1.337 
Impotency of men towards their wives procured in Zant and Gas- 
cony ii. 37, 65 

Impressible and not impressible ii. 18, 19 

Impression, doctrine of • i. 116 

Imprisonment upon contempt of orders in chancery, when to be 

discharged iv. 521 

Impropriations should be returned to the church, ii. 549, the im- 
possibility of it, ibid, should contribute largely to the relief of 
the clergy, ii. 548, the value of them in the nation is above ten 

subsidies ii. 549 

Improvement, reasons why men do not improve more in many 

things v. 331 

Impulsion and percussion of bodies, i. 510. Impulsion of a body 

unequal i. 521 

Inanimate and animate, wherein they differ i. 449 

Incense thought to dispose to devotion by the operation of the 

smell ii. 53, 54 

Inceptions • ii. 246, 247 

Incorporating or drowning of metals i. 525, 526 

Incorporating of iron and stone, ii. 187, of brass and iron, ii. 188, 

of silver and tin ii. 190 

Incubus, its cause and cure ii. 67 

Indian earth, brought over, hath produced Indian plants, i. 437, 438 

Indian fig, its surprising way of growing, i. 452, its leaves of great 

dimensions without stalks, i. 452, 453, the Indian custom of 

quietly burning themselves, ii. 349, had something like ordnance 

in the time of Alexander ii. 392 

Indictment, ancient forms thereof not to be altered • • ii. 392 
Induration, or lapidification of bodies, i. 282, by cold, i. 282, 283, 
by heat, i. 282, 284, by assimilation, i. 285, 286, by snow or 
ice, i. 283, by metalline water, ibid, in some natural spring- 
waters, i. 284, of metals, by heating and quenching, ibid, by 
fire, ibid, by decoctions within water, the water not touching, 

i. 284, 285. Induration by sympathy ii. 20 

Industry, what we reap from it makes the fruition more pleasant, 

ii. 244, 245 
Infant in the womb subject to the mother's imagination, ii. 58, suf- 
fering from the mother's diet • • • • • • • ii. 69 

Infantry the principal strength of an army • • • v. 63 

Infectious diseases, i. 352, less generally precede the greater, ii. 3, 

received many ways ii. 44 

Influences of the moon ii. 38, et seq. 

Influences of the heavenly bodies ii. 12, 48 

Informers jjj 359 

Infusions in liquors, i. 250, a short stay best, ibid. Infusions to 
be iterated, ibid, useful for medicinal operations, i. 252, trial, 
vvhich parts issue soonest, which slowest, ibid, evaporations of 
the finer spirits sometimes useful ibid. 


Infusion maketh liquors thicker, but decoction clearer, whence, 

i. 356, 357 

Infusions in air, i. 252, the several odours issue at several times, 


Infusions in earth, the effects of it, i. 382, cautions to be used in it 
ibid, several instances thereof i. 382, 383 

Ingram, Sir Arthur vi. 297, 314, 317, 318, 333 

Inheritance, by fee-simple binds the heir with all binding acts of his 
ancestors, iv. 100, the nature of one opened and explained, iv. 
213, 214. Inheritance moveable, iv. 214, perpetuity is of the es- 
sence of inheritance, ibid, what things belong to the owner of 
inheritance, and what to any particular talent, in letting estates, 
iv. 215, what things are not inheritance as soon as severed, ibid, 
is well distinguished by particular estates by our laws • ibid. 

Injury, several degress thereof, as held by our laws • iv. 408 

Injunctions for staying of suits, in what cases to be granted, iv. 512, 
513, 514, are to be inrolled, iv. 523, some rules in granting 
them iv. 489, 490 

Innocent VIII. pope v. 12, 85 

Innovations, ii. 310, what sort are to be condemned, iii. 435, 436, 
iv. 367, faulty to condemn all sorts in church matters, ii. 526, 
528, objection that there would be no end, when once they were 
begun, answered ii. 526 

Inns, letter to lord Villiers about them v. 451 

Inquination, or inconcoction ii. 13 

Inquisition touching the compounding of metals, ii. 187, touching 
the separation of metals and minerals ii. 200 

Inrolment of apprentices, a certificate relating to them • v. 487 

Inscriptions upon fruits i. 420 

Insecta, i. 480, held by physicians to clarify the blood, i. 481, the 
name communicated to all creatures bred of puterfactiou, i. 480, 
the difference of them, according to the several matters they are 
bred of, i. 480, 481, the enumeration of many of them, ii. 481, 
482, several properties in them, i. 482, 483, they have voluntary 
motion, i. 483, other senses beside taste ibid. 

Instructions to great officers, like garments, grow loose in the wear- 
ing ii. 405 

Intellectual powers, a discourse concerning the helps which might 
be given them, v. 329, some farther indigested collections relat- 
ing thereto v. 332 

Intestate, how his goods were formerly disposed of who died, iv. 

128, 129 

Intrails of beasts, whether more nourishing than the outward flesh, 

i. 266 

Invasion, procured by any from foreign enemies, how to be punished, 

iv. 388 

Invasive war, not made by the first blow, bit by the first provoca- 
tion v. 38 

Invectives designed often against the prince, though pretended only 
against his ministers, iii. 92, instance of this in queen Elizabeth 
and lord Burleigh ibid. 

Invention, art of i. 132 


Inventors, a catalogue of them • • ii. 121 

Invincible armada, a minute account of it, iii. 517, 518, 519, 520, 

Invisibles in bodies ought to be better inquired, because they go- 
vern nature principally • • l. 289 

Joan, queen of Castile, distracted on the death of Philip herhusbaud, 

v. 180 
Job's afflictions more laboured in description than Solomon's felici- 
ties ii. 263 

John, earl of Lincoln, v. 27. See Lincoln 

John of Austria, buries his reputation iii. 514 

Johnson, Dr., his three material things in sickness • • ii. 432 

Joints in some plants, i. 442, their cause ibid. 

Jones, Dr. Thomas, archbishop of Dublin ; letter to him from the 

lord chancellor Bacon vi. 196 

Jones, Sir William, made lord chief justice of Ireland, iv. 501, vi. 
196, speech to him thereupon, iv. 501, four examples proposed to 
his imitation, ibid, directions what he is chiefly to regard in the 
affairs of that nation, iv. 502, 503, letter to him from the lord 

chancellor Bacon vi. 196 

Joseph, Michael, the Cornish blacksmith, v. 129, executed, v. 135 

Jovinianus, empefor, his death ii. 51 

Journals i. 85 

Joy gives vigour in the eyes, and sometimes tears, i. 491, sudden 

joy, the impressions thereof have caused present death, i. 492 

Iphicrates, the Athenian, ii. 415, says there is no sure league but 

incapacity to hurt iii. 62, 507 

Ippocras, clarified with milk i. 247, 358 

Ireland affected the house of York, v. 23, proclaims Lambert Simnel, 
v. 24, how they receive Perkin from Portugal, v. 95, twice at- 
tacked by the Spaniards, iii. 510, 515. D'Aquila says, the 
devil reserved this kingdom for himself, when he proffered Christ 

all the world iii. 527 

Ireland not well with England, iii. 237, account of it in the begin- 
ning of its reduction, iv. 502, directions to Sir William Jones in 
the managing that work, iv. 502, 503, rebellion there caused by 
the king of Spain, iii. 89, considerations proposed to king James 
I. about the plantation of it, iii. 317, the great excellency, in seve- 
ral instances, of such a work, iii. 319, 320, 321, plantation of it 
would prevent seditions here, by employing a vast surcharge of 
people therein, iii. 319, and would discharge all hostile attempts 
upon the place, iii. 320, it would bring great profit and strength 
to the crown of England, ibid, a short character of it and the in- 
habitants, iii. 321, concerning the means of accomplishing the 
plantation of it, ibid, this work to be urged on from parliament 
and pulpit, iii. 322, men of estate the fittest persons to be en- 
gaged in this work, ibid, they are to be spurred on by pleasure, 
honour, and profit, iii. 322, 323, the charge of it must not lie 
wholly on the undertakers, iii. 324, a commission necessary for it, 
iii. 325, their buildings to be in towns, and not scattered up and 
down upon each portion, with reasons for it, iii. 327, undertakers 
hereof to be restrained alienating or demising any part, iii. 328, 


charges of this plantation should be considered first by experi- 
enced men, ibid, considerations touching the reducing thereof to 
peace and government, v. 264, all relics of the war there to be 
extinguished, ibid, the hearts of the people to be won over, and 
by what methods, v. 266, occasions of new troubles to be re- 
moved, v. 268, 269, farther considerations touching the manage- 
ment of the plantations and buildings there, v. 269, 270, safety 

of it recommended vi. 362, 363 

Irish rebel, his petition to be hanged in a with • ii. 349 

Iron, hot, sounds less than cold, i. 313. Iron sharpens iron, how 

applied ii. 380 

Iron instruments hurtful for wounds, i. 520, whether it can be in- 
corporated with flint, ii. 187, may be dissolved by common wa- 
ter, if calcified with sulphur ii. 205 

Isabella, queen, what she said of good forms, ii. 377, see v. 85, an 
honour of her sex and times, dies, v. 173. See Ferdinando. 

Islanders bodies i. 384 

Isocrates long-lived ii. 56 

Israel and Judah united under David, iii. 266, they again separate, 

and so continue ibid. 

Italy, the state of affairs there considered iii. 56 

Judges of assize, their origin, iv. 91, they succeed the ancient 

judges in eyre ibid. 

Judges of the circuits sit by five commissions, which are reckoned 

up, with the authority they each give iv. 92 

Judges of gaol delivery, their manner of proceeding, iv. 93, several 
excellent rules relating to the duty of judges, iv. 507, 508, some 
directions to them in their circuits, iv. 497, &c. the portraiture 
and duty of a good judge, iv. 507, 508, the nature of their au- 
thority iv. 305 

Judges to interpret, not make or give law, ii. 382, should be more 
learned than witty, ii. 383, their office extends to their parties, 
advocates, clerks, and sovereign, ibid, four branches of their of- 
fice, ii. 384, essential qualifications of judges • ii. 382, 383 
Judgment of the last day, ii. 488, no change of things after that, 


Judicature, ii. 382, sour and bitter ii. 383 

Jugglers, i. 415, their binding in the imagination, and inforcing a 

thought ii. 59 

Juices of fruit, fit for drinks, i. 458, unfit for them, ibid, the cause 

of each ibid. 

Julius III. ii. 425 

Julius II. summons Henry VII. to the holy war ... v. 159 
Jura, how many kinds thereof among the Romans • • iii. 265 

Jurisdictions of courts without jarring iii. 441 

Juris placita, et juris regulee, their difference, iv. 50, the Juris regu- 
leeare neverto be violated, ibid, the placita are to be often, ibid. 
Jury, may supply the defect of evidence out of their own know- 
ledge, but are not compellable thereto, iv. 31, 32, the care of our 
laws about them, iv. 184, of the verge, their duty • • iv. 382 
Jus in re, etjus in rem, the difference between them stated, iv. 161 


Jus connubii, civitatis, suffragii, et petitionis, how these corre- 
spond to our freedoms • • • • • " ' *. ' "'" 

Justice, king James's administration of it commended, iv. 435 em- 
ploys the three other cardinal virtues in her service, iv. 447, in 
chancery to be administered speedily, the corruption of it com- 
plained of, iii. 70, lord Bacon's saying upon the perverting of it, 

v. 409 

Justices of assize, their authority lessened by the court of common 
pleas "... iv. 91, 92 

Justices in eyre, dealt in private masters only, iv. 91, their autho- 
rity translated to justices of assize ibid. 

Justices of the peace, their origin, iv. 88, they succeed the conser- 
vators, and are delegated to the chancellor, ibid, their authority, 
iv. 89, are to attend the judges in their county, iv. 97, their of- 
fice farther declared, iv. 316, itinerants in Wales, their jurisdic- 
tion, iv. 315, of the quorum, who are so, iv. 316, how called so, 
ibid, are appointed by the lord keeper ibid. 

Justinian, by commissioners forms the civil la»v, iv. 368, his saying 
upon that work W" 378 

Justs and tourneys • »■ 347 

Ivy growing out of a stag's horn, scarce credible • i. 432 


KATHARINE, daughter of Edward IV. married to William 

Courtney, earl of Devonshire v. 169 

Katharine of Spain, her marriage to prince Arthur, v. 156, made in 
blood, ibid, fourth daughter of Ferdinando, king of Spain, v. 162 

Kelly, the alchemist ii. 431 

Kemp, Mr. Robert, a letter from Mr. Bacon to him • vi. 7 

Kendal, prior of St. John's v. 127 

Kermes ii. 67 

Kernels of grapes applied to the roots of vines, make them more 
early and prosperous, i. 261. Kernels put into a squill come up 
earlier, i. 402, 403, some fruits come up more happily from the 
kernel than the graft, i. 404. Kernels of apples will produce 

coleworts i. 404, 405 

Kildare, deputy of Ireland, v. Ill, seized, acquitted, and replaced, 


Killigrew, Sir Robert vi. 235 

Killigrew, Sir Henry vi. 19 

Kirkham, Mr. vi. 238 

Killing of others, the several degrees and manners of it, with the 

punishment due to each iv. 414 

King a descriot'oi of one ii. 97, 98, iii. 486 

King, an ^: ^y of one, ii. 393, 394, 395. God doth most for kings, 
and they least for him, ii. 393, the fountain of honour, which 
should not run with a waste pipe, ii. 394, a prodigal one next a 
tyrant, ibid, ought to have five things under his special care, ii. 


395, have few things to desire, and many to fear, ii. 296, with 
whom they have to deal, ii. 297, the value they set upon friend- 
ship, ii. 315, should not side with factions, ii. 376, his proper 
title in our laws, iv. 326, ought to be called natural liege sove- 
reign, in opposition to rightful or lawful sovereign, ibid, his natu- 
ral politic capacity should not be confounded, iv. 348, his natural 
person different from those of his subjects, iv. 349, privileges be- 
longing to his person and crown, ibid, offences committed against 
his person, how punishable, iv. 388, 389. King takes to him 
and his heirs, and not to his successors, iv. 350, his natural per- 
son operates not only on his wife, &c. but also on his subjects, 
ibid, five acts of parliament explained, relating to a distinction 
that homage followeth the crown, rather than the person of the 
king, iv. 351, perilous consequences of this distinction, ibid, pre- 
cedents examined relating to the same, iv. 354, how often he has 
other dominions united by descent of blood, ibid, when he ob- 
tains a country by war, to which he hatb right by birth, he holdeth 
it by this latter, iv. 356, his person represented in three things, 
iv. 388, the great heinousness of conspiring against their lives, 
iv. 442, his sovereignty to be held sacred, iii. 371. James I. the 
sum of his charge to Sir Francis Bacon, upon delivery of the 
great seal to him, iv. 486, enumeration of those kings whose 
reigns have been most happy, iii. 48, 49, why they administer by 
their judges, when they themselves are supreme judges, ii. 534. 
Kings are distinguished in hell, by Menippus in Lucian, only by 
their louder cries, &c. ii. 474, there are four ways by which the 
death of the king is said to be compassed .... v. 346 
Kingdoms, the foundations of them are of two sorts • • iii. 317 
King's-bench, first instituted by William the Conqueror, iv. 84, 91, 
its jurisdiction, ibid, dealt formerly only in crown matters, 

iv. 91 

Kinsale taken by the English iii. 525, 526 

Knighthood, a new order to be erected upon the union of England 
and Scotland, iii. 277, to be conferred with some difference and 
precedence upon the planting of Ireland .... iii. 323 

Knights of the Bath v. 105, 106 

Knight's-service in capite first instituted, what reservations the con- 
queror kept to himself in the institution of this tenure, iv. 102, 
tenants by this service vowed homage and fealty to the king, iv. 
104, every heir succeeding his ancestors, paid one year's profit 
of the land to the king, ibid, it is a tenure, depersona regis, ibid, 
tenures held this way cannot be alienated by the tenant without 
licence of the king, iv. 105, a tenant to a lord by it, why first 
instituted, iv. 106, a tenant to a lord by this service is not such 
of the person of the lord, but of his manor • • • ibid. 
Knights of the shire were required to be milites gladio cincti, iv. 236 
Knowd, his confession relating to Essex's treason iii. 143, 146 

Knowledge, its limits and ends, ii. 127, impediments • • ii. 135 
Knowledge, when indigested, ii. 15, discourse in praise of it, ii. 123 
Knowledge ought to be purged of two things • • • v. 207 
VOL. VI. 2 I 



LACEDAEMONIANS, ii. 436, besieged by the Athenians, ibid. 

causes of their wars »• 328 

Laces iii. 455 

Lake Sir Thomas, some account of him, v. 361, secretary of state, 
vi. 92, 118, sworn of the council of Scotland • vi. 155, 233 

Lake, lady, her submission yi. 232 

Lamia, the courtezan ii. 416 

Lambert Simnel, the impostor. See Simnel. 

Lamps of sundry sorts, i. 379, 381, burn a long time in tombs, i. 382 

Land, the value of it sunk by usury ii. 352 

Lands, all in England were in the hands of the conqueror, except 
religious and church lands, and what belonged to the men of Kent, 
iv. 97, left by the sea are the king's, iv. 98, are all holden of the 
crown, iv. 102, in what cases only a man is attainted to lose them, 
iv. 108, that are entailed, escheat to the king by treason, iv. 110, 
when forfeited to the lord, and when to the crown, ibid, not 
passed from one to another upon payment of money, unless there 
be a deed indented and inrolled, iv. 120, how many ways con- 
veyed, iv. 117, settle according to the intent of the parties upon 
fines, feoffments, recoveries, ibid, held in cctpite or socage, can 
be devised only two parts of the whole, iv. 123, the rest descends 
to the heir, and for what uses, ibid, the whole may be conveyed 
by act, executed in the life-time of the party, iv. 124, entailed, 
are reckoned part of the third, ibid, how a supply is to be made, 
when the heir has not the full thirds, ibid, the power of the tes- 
tator in this case, iv. 124, 125, no lands are charged by way of 
tribute, but all by way of tenure, iv. 234, were by the common 

law formerly not devisable iv. 173 

Language, the being of one language a mark of union • iii. 490 
Lanthony, prior of, made chancellor of Ireland • • v. 110, 111 

Lard put to waste taketh away warts ii. 75 

Larrey, Monsieur de, his history commended .... v. 294 
Lassitude, why remedied by anointing and warm water • i. 498 
Lasting trees and herbs, i. 440, designation to make plants more 

lasting than ordinary i. 441 

Late flowers and plants i. 438 

Latimer, bishop, his way to enrich the king • ii. 448 

Latimer, notes on his case vi. 286 

Laud, Dr., his saying of hypocrites ii. 419 

Laudanum, its nature i. 454 

Laughing, a continued expulsion of the breath, i. 493, is always 
preceded by a conceit of something ridiculous, i. 494, whence 

its several effects proceed ibid. 

Laws like cob-webs, ii. 454, tortured, the worst of tortures, ii. 383, 
of Henry VII. v. 54, 60, breaches of the law of nature and 
nations, iii. 485, 486, of England, second to none in the Christian 
world iii. 43S 


Laws penal, Sir Stephen Proctorls project relating to them, 

iii. 348, et seq. 
Lawgivers much commended, iv. 375, 379, were long after kings, 

iv. 326 
Laws of England, a proposal for amending them, iv. 363, com- 
mended, iv. 366, are made up of customs of several nations, iv. 

365, are not to be altered as to the matter, so much as the manner 
of them, iv. 365, the dignity of such a performance, iv. 364, and 
the convenience of it, ibid, the inconveniences of our laws, iv. 

366, what sort of them want most amending, ibid, a good direc- 
tion concerning any doubts that happen in the law, ibid, whether 
the form of statute or common law be best, iv. 369, the advan- 
tage of good laws, iv. 375, ours commended as to the matter of 
them, iv. 379, the civilians' saying, that law intends no wrong, iv. 
26, whether a man may not control the intendment of the law 
by particular express words, iv. 67, the use of law, which con- 
sists in three things chiefly — to secure men's persons from death 
and violence, to dispose the property of their goods and lands, 
and for the preservation of their good names from shame and in- 
famy, iv. 82, very much favour life, liberty, and dower, iv. 186, 
345, what effects they have upon the king, iv. 325, they operate 
in foreign parts, iv. 331, are not superinduced upon any country 
by conquest, iv. 340, all national ones that abridge the law of na- 
ture, are to be construed strictly, iv. 345, of England and Scot- 
land are diverse and several, this is urged as an objection against 
the naturalization of the Scots, and answered, iv. 339, 344, are 
ratherjfigura reipublicce than forma, iii. 298, our common laws are 
not in force in Guernsey and Jersey, ibid, statute ones are not in 
force in Ireland, ibid, do not alter the nature of climates, iii. 299, 
the wisdom of them in the distribution of benefits and protections 
suitable to the conditions of persons, iii. 300, &c. a review of our 
laws much recommended, 311, those of Scotland have the same 
ground as of England, iii. 310, in general, may be divided into 
three kinds, iii. 265, how they are to be ordered upon the union of 
England and Scotland, iii. 280, 281, are divided into criminal 
and civil, iii. 281, criminal ones are divided into capital and pe- 
nal, ibid, were well maintained by king James, iv. 436, the rigour 
of them complained of by foreigners, relating to traffic, iii. 338, 
of nations, not to be violated by wars, iii. 40, of God, obscurely 
known by the light of nature, but more fully discovered by re- 
velation, ii. 484. See Case. 

Law-suits, most frequent in times of peace, with the reason of it, 

iv. 7 

Lawyers and popes, ii. 432, the study of lawyers' cases recommend- 
ed, ii. 375. Lawyers and clergymen more obsequious to their 
prince in employments, v. 189, civil lawyers should not be dis- 
countenanced iii. 444 

Lead will multiply and grow, i. 524, an observation on mixing it 
with silver i. 525, ii. 197 

Leagues within the state pernicious to monarchies, ii. 376. League 
with the Hollanders for mutual strength .... iii. 452 

Leaning long upon any part, why it causeth numbness • i. 499 

2 i 2 


Leaping helped by weights in the hands i. 484 

Learning, objections against it considered, i. 4, 20, its diseases, i. 28, 
the dignity of learning, i. 40, public obstacles to it, i. 69, 70, 71, 

72, 73, 74 
Learning, concerning the advancement thereof in the universities, 

iii. 392, &c. 

Leases for years, how made, iv. 112, they go to the executors, ibid. 

are forfeited by attainder, in treason, felony, prcemunire, killing 

himself, for flying, for standing out against being tried by the 

country, by conviction of felony, petty larceny, going beyond sea 

without licence ibid. &c. 

Leases for lives, how made, iv. 113, in what cases forfeitable, and 

to whom they are so ibid. 

Leaves nourish not, i. 266, 407, 457, how enlarged, i. 409, the 

cause why they nourish not i. 457, 458 

Leaves three cubits long and two broad, i. 452, plants without leaves, 

i. 512 

Lectures for philosophy, two erected in perpetuum of two hundred 

pounds per annum, by our author, at the universities • v. 585 

Lee, employed between Essex and Tyrone, iii. 144, his confession 

relating to Essex's treason iii. 147 

Lee, notes on his case vi. 285 

Leet, court-leet, its institution was for three ends, iv. 310, the 

power of this court iv. 310, 311 

Leets, stewards of leets and law-days, their authority • • iv. 87 
Left side and right, senses alike strong on each side, limbs strongest 

on the right, ii. 33, the cause of each ibid. 

Legacy, how property may be gained thereby, iv. 130, 131, what 
debts must first be discharged before they are to be paid, iv. 131, 
may be sold to pay debts upon any deficiency • • • ibid. 
Leges, how far a union in them is desirable .... iii. 265 
Legier ambassadors, what, iii. 448, their care and duty • ibid. 
Leicester, ii. 407, earl of, had the lease of the alienation office, 

iv. 151 

Leigh, Barnaby vi. 178 

Lemnos of old, dedicated to Vulcan i. 486* 

Lenox, duke of, lord steward of the king's household, employed in 
the inquiry into the poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury, vi. 109, 
sent to the lord chancellor, vi. 227, his letter to lord St. Alban, 

vi. 305 
Lepanto, victory of, iii. 474, put a hook into the nostrils of the 

Mahometans ibid. 

Lerma, duke of vi. 241 

Lessee, cases wherein he has discovered damages in trees being cut 
down, and yet no property is from thence proved to be in him. 

iv. 213 

Letters, an appendix of history i. 88, 89 

Letters, when best for persons in business, ii. 369. Letters of fa- 
vour, so much out of the writer's reputation • • • ii. 373 
Letter relating to the poisoning of queen Elizabeth, &c. taken and 

deciphered iii. 116 

Letters in the reign of queen Elizabeth. To a noble lord, v. 203, 


to the queen, with a new year's gift, ibid, another on the same, 
v. 204, to the same, concerning a star-chamber cause, ibid, to the 
same with a present, v. 205, to the same, in excuse of his absenting 
from court, ibid, to lord treasurer Burghley, upon determining his 
course of life, v. 206, to the same, thanking him for a promise 
obtained from the queen, v. 208, another on the same, v. 210, to 
the same, offering service, v. 211, to the same, in excuse of his 
speech in parliament against the triple subsidy, v. 213, to the 
lord keeper Puckering, concerning the solicitorship, v. 214, to 
the same, from lord Essex, upon the same subject, ibid, seven 
more from Mr. Bacon, upon the same, v. 215, et seq. to the lord 
treasurer Burghley, recommending his first suit for the solicitor's 
place, v. 219, seven to the lord keeper, v. 221, et seq. to the same 
from the earl of Essex, in favour of Mr. Bacon, v. 226, to the 
earl of Essex, with advice how to behave himself towards the 
queen, v. 227, to the same, upon the queen's refusal to the au- 
thor's service, v. 233, to the same, concerning the author's mar- 
riage, v. 234, to Sir John Stanhope, complaining of his neglect 
of him, v. 235, three to the earl of Essex, v. 236, 237, from 
Essex to the queen, about her usage of him, v. 238, to Sir Robert 
Cecil, intimating suspicion of unfair practices, v. 239, to the 
same, expostulating upon his conduct towards the author, 
v. 240, to Fulke Grevil, complaining of the queen's neglect, 
v. 241, to lord Essex, desiring he would excuse to the queen his 
intention of going abroad, v. 242, two to Sir Robert Cecil in 
France, v. 242, 243, of advice to Essex, to lake upon him the 
care of Irish causes, when Mr. Secretary Cecil was in France, 
v. 244, of advice to Essex, upon the first treaty with Tyrone, 
before the earl was nominated for the charge of Ireland, v. 246, 
of advice to Essex, immediately before his going into Ireland, 
v. 248, to Essex, v. 252, to the same, offering his service when 
he was first enlarged to Essex-house, ibid, answer of Essex to 
the preceding letter of Mr. Bacon, v. 253, to Essex, upon his 
being reconciled to the queen, v. 254, to the same, ibid, to Sir 
Robert Cecil, clearing himself of aspersions in the case of the 
earl of Essex, v. 255, to the lord Henry Howard, on the same 
subject, v. 256, two letters framed, the one as from Mr. Anthony 
Bacon to the earl of. Essex, the other as the earl's answer there- 
unto, to be shewn to the queen in order to induce her to receive 
Essex again into favour, v. 257, 261, to secretary Cecil, after the 
defeating of the Spanish forces in Ireland, inciting him to embrace 
the care of reducing that kingdom to civility, v. 262, considera- 
tions touching the queen's service in Ireland, v. 264, to my lord 
of Canterbury, v. 270, to Sir Thomas Lucy, thanking him for his 
assistance to'his kinsman, ibid, to the earl' of Northumberland, a 
few days before queen Elizabeth's death, tendering service, v. 271 
Letters in the reign of king James, v. 272, to Mr. Fowlys, desiring 
his acquaintance, ibid, to the same, on the king's coming iu, v. 273, 
to Sir Thomas Chaloner, then in Scotland, before the king's en- 
trance, desiring recommendation to his ma jesty, v. 274, to the king, 
offering service upon his first coming, v. 275, to the lord Kinloss, 
upon the king's entrance, desiring recommendation to him, v. 277, 
to Dr. Morison, on the same subject, v. 278, to Mr. Davis, gone 


to meet the king, on the same subject, ibid, to Mr. Kempe, of the 
situation of affairs upon the death of the queen, v. 279, to the earl 
of Northumberland, recommending a proclamation to be made 
by the king at his entrance, v. 280, to the earl of Southampton, 
upon the king's coming in, v. 281, to Mr. Matthew, signifying 
the proceedings of king James at his first entrance, v. 282, to the 
earl of Northumberland, giving some character of the king at his 
arrival, v. 284, to Mr. Murray, of the king's bedchamber, about 
knighting a gentleman, v. 285, to Mr. Pierce, secretary to the 
lord deputy of Ireland, desiring an account of the Irish affairs, 
ibid, to the earl of Northampton, desiring him to present the 
Advancement of Learning to the king, v. 286, to Sir Thomas 
Bodley, upon sending his book of Advancement of Learning, 
v. 287, to the earl of Salisbury upon the same, v. 288, to the lord 
treasurer Buckhurst, on the same subject, v. 289, to the lord 
chancellor Egerton, on the same subject, v. 290, to Mr. Matthew, 
on the same subject, ibid, to Dr. Playfere, desiring him to trans- 
late the Advancement into Latin, v. 291, to the lord chancellor, 
touching the History of Britain, v. 293, to the king, touching the 
History of his Times, v. 296, of expostulation, to Sir Edward 
Coke, v. 297, to the earl of Salisbury, concerning the solicitor's 
place, v. 298, another to him, suing for the solicitor's place, v. 299, 
to the lord chancellor, about the same, v. 300, to my lady Pack- 
ington, in answer to a message by her sent, v. 301, to the king, 
touching the solicitor's place, v. 302, to the earl of Salisbury, 
upon a new year's tide, v. 303, to Mr. Matthew, imprisoned for 
religion, v. 304, to Mr. Matthew, with some of his writings, v. 305, 
to Sir George Carew, on sending him the treatise, In felicem 
memoriam Elizaoethce, v. 306, to the king, upon presenting the 
Discourse touching the Plantation of Ireland, v. 307, to the 
bishop of Ely, upon sending his writing entitled, Cogitata et Visa, 
v. 308, to Sir Thomas Bodley, desiring him to return the Cogitata 
et Visa, v. 310, Sir Thomas Bodley's letter to Sir Francis Bacon, 
about his Cogitata et Visa, v. 311, to Mr. Matthew, upon sending 
to him a part of Instauratio magna, v. 318, to Mr. Matthew, con- 
cerning his treatise of the felicities of queen Elizabeth, and the 
Instauratio magna, v. 319, to the same, with a memorial of queen 
Elizabeth, v. 320, to the same, upon sending his book, Desapientia 
veterum, v. 321, to the king, asking a promise to succeed to the 
attorney's place, v. 322, another on the same subject, v. 323, to 
the prince of Wales, dedicating his Essays to him, v. 324, to the 
earl of Salisbury, requesting a place, v. 325, to the lord mayor of 
London, complaining of his usage of Mr. Bernard, ibid, to Sir 
Vincent Skinner, complaining of his non-payment of some monies, 
v. 327, to Sir Henry Saville, concerning a discourse upon the intel- 
lectual powers, v. 328, to Mr. Matthew, about his writings, and the 
death of a friend, v. 335, two to the king, concerning Peacham, 
v. 338. et seq. to the king, concerning the lord chancellor's reco- 
very, v. 342, to the king, touching Peacham, &c. v. 343, to the 
king, touching my lord chancellor's amendment, &c. v. 350, to 
the king, concerning Owen's cause, &c. v. 351, to the king, with 
lord Coke's answers, concerning Peacham's case, v. 351, to the 
king, about Peacham's papers, v. 354, another on the same sub- 


ject, v. 355, to the king about his majesty's revenue, v. 360, to the 
king, with an account of Mr. St. John's trial, v. 361, to the king, 
concerning the new company, v. 363, to Sir George Villiers, about 
Roper's place, v. 366, to the king, concerning Murray, ibid, to the 
king, against the new company, v. 369, to the king, touching the 
chancellor's sickness, v. 371, to the king, relating to the chan- 
cellor's place, ibid, to the king, of the chancellor's amendment, 
and the difference begun between the chancery and king's 
bench, v. 374, to Sir George Villiers, on the same subject, v. 376, 
to Sir George Villiers, about swearing him into the privy council, 
v. 377, to the king, concerning the praemunire in the king's bench 
against the chancery, v. 378, to the king, on the breach of the 
new company, v. 383, to Sir George Villiers, soliciting to be 
sworn of the privy council, v. 387, to his majesty, about the earl 
of Somerset, ibid, to his majesty, about the chancellor's place, 
v. 389, two to Sir George Villiers, about the earl of Somerset, 
v. 391, et seq. a letter to the king, relating to Somerset's trial, 
with his majesty's observation upon it, v. 395, to Sir George 
Villiers, about the earl of Somerset, v. 398, to Sir George Villiers, 
of Somerset's arraignment, 400, to the king, about Somerset's 
examination, v. 402, an expostulation to the lord chief justice 
Coke, v. 403, to Sir George Villiers, putting him in mind of a 
former suit, v. 411, to the king, about the commendams, v. 412, 
to Sir George Villiers, upon accepting a place in council, v. 420, 
to the same, concerning the affair of the commendams, v. 421, 
two to Sir George Villiers, about restoring Dr. Burgess to preach, 
v. 435, 436, to the same, of lady Somerset's pardon, v. 437, to 
the same, recommending a gentleman to be solicitor in Ireland, 
v. 438, to the same, about Irish affairs, ibid, to the king, with the 
preface of Sir George Villiers's patent, v. 441, to Sir George 
Villiers, on sending his bill for viscount, v. 442, to the same, on 
sending his patent, v. 443, to the king, of Sir George Villiers's 
patent, v. 445, to Sir George Villiers, on sending his patent sealed, 
v. 446, to the same, acknowledging the king's favour, v. 447, 
to the king, of the clothing business, ibid, to the lord viscount 
Villiers, on the same subject, v. 448, to the lord viscount Villiers, 
concerning the patent for licensing inns, v. 451, to the same, with 
Bertram's case, v. 452, to Sir Francis Bacon, from lord Villiers, 
concerning Bertram, v. 453, to the lord viscount Villiers, of the 
improving his lands and the revenues of his places, v. 455, to the 
same about duels, v. 459, to the same, concerning the farmer's 
cause, v. 402, to the earl of Buckingham, on the author's being 
declaredlord keeper of the great seal, ibid. tothe same, concerning 
the queen's household,